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Digitized by the^lntern 

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's Geographical Series. 



>■ O F 





G R A P 



Y : 



, AND 




Author of " Physical Geography of the Sea," etc. 









For Young Learners; in wliieh the Autlioi-, in an imaginary voyage and joni-nej, takes the pnpil \vnce 
round the world, shows him various parts of it, and easily and pleasantly introduces him to the study of 


An Intermediate Geography; in which the Author has sought to present the leading facts and principles 
of Geographical Science in a familiar and attractive manner, with constant reference to the maps, and with 
carefully adapted Questions, Exercises, and Map Studies. 


A complete Treatise on Matliematical, Civil, and Physical Geogi-aphy ; presented in an attractive manner, 
with abundant helps and adaptations to awaken and sustain the interest of the pupil in intelligent study. 


In which the Natural Features of the Earth, its Atmospherical Phenomena, and its Animal and Vegetable 
Life, are fully treated, with an attractiveness of style and freshness and interest of detail that charm the j)upil 
and the general reader. Illustrated with mimcrons maps and engravings. 


With new and original features; furnishing invaluable aid in teaching Geography in classes, and comprising, I. The 
World. II. North America. III. The United States. IV. South America. V. Europe. VL Asia. VII. Africa. 
VIII. Physical and Commercial Chart of the World. 

Entered nccording to Act of Congress, in the year IS70. hv 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 
*** 32:5. 



As the matured fruit of the author's earnest and protracted labors this 
work is now sent forth, an humble contribution to the cause of geographical 

The time seems fullj' to have arrived when geography demands an hon- 
orable place among her sister sciences. Every scholar of the present da}- is 
aware of the increased and increasing need of geographical te.xt-books which, 
while within the intellectual grasp of young pupils, shall be fitted to ex- 
pand the minds of those more advanced in tlieir studies ; and to redeem the 
most delightful of subjects from tlie bondage of dry statistics, on the one 
hand, and, on the other, from the drudgery of vague generalities. 

In the preparation of this volume, as in that of its two predecessors, no 
pains have been spared to lead the young geographer by easy and gentle 
gradations to vantage-ground, from which he may overlook and survey 
-nature for himself, and where the enchantments of the prospect will con- 
strain him to pursue his geographical inquiries with zeal and enthusiasm. 

" The study of physical phenomena," to borrow tlie words of Humboldt, 
" finds its noblest and richest reward in a knowledge of the chain of con- 
nection by which all natural forces are linked together and made mutually 
dependent on each other ; and it is the perception of these relations that 
exalts our views and ennobles our enjoyments." While, therefore, the 
author has sought to reproduce in the pupil's mind the same vivid pictures 
of the various pails and places and objects of the globe which, as an eye- 
witness, he himself retains, he has constantly aimed at pointing out geo- 
graphical laws, and at giving the learner glimpses into the terrestrial machin- 
ery, and frequent foretastes of the pleasures that await his after researches. 

As regards the success which lins attended tlie author's efforts to carry 
out his views, in these pages, tiie public must now judge. 

The teacher and scholar, however, are alike requested to mark the follow- 
ing statements, which present some features of the Manual and furnish direc- 
tions for its most efiective use in the class-room. 

(1.) Map-Drawing from memory is felt to be a necessity to all who would 
know the surface of the earth as illustrated by maps. The study of geog- 
raphy without a knowledge of the map is mere groping in the dark. 

The Treatise on Map-Drawing here given is so simple in principle, and 
so easy in practice, tliut it cannot fail to commend itself to both teachers 
and pupils. Any one, however inexperienced, can use it, and pupils should 
be exercised in it from the beginning to the end of tiieir course. 

A uniform projection for maps is as desirable for schools and teachers as 
is a uniform system of weights and measures for business men — a con- 
summation for which all nations are striving. 

Universally, at sea, the Mercator Projection is used by navigators. 
That is the best for them. Likewise the Rectangular Tangential Projec- 
tion is the best for the land. It is something new, and it is here presented 
for the first lime, it is believed, in an American geography. The impor- 
tance of it must not be measured by the space allotted to it. The attention 
of teachers is earnestly invited to it. 

(2.) To avoid blurring the maps by dark shading and coloring in showing 
physical elevations, and to stimulate the pupil in getting the clearest 

ideas of the principal Mountain Chains and River Systems of the world, 
special maps have been prepared witliout regard to labor or expense. 

These designs are entirely original, new, and unique, and have already 
been greatly admired and warmly commended by old and skillful teachers. 

The various degrees of light and shade represent the elevations and de- 
pressions of the earth's surlace ; the darkest shades show the lowest lands and 
deepest valleys, and the lighter tints tlie liigher lands. To make rivers per- 
fectly distinguishable and traceable, they are marked in the darker shade by 
a white line, and in the lighter shades by a black liue. Such representations 
of- the earth's surface are indispensable in a school geography to the study of 
other maps. 

(3.) To give greater elevation and zest to the study of the text, more than 
thirty Diagrams have been introduced explanatory of the earth's rotundity, of 
its revolution in its orbit, of the Stars of tlie Northern and Southern hemi- 
spheres, Isothermal Lines, the Great Lakes, the Trade Winds, the Monsoons, 
the Snow-line, the Barometer, Tides, Whirlwinds, the Size of Waves off the 
Cape of Good Hope, the differences of Time on different meridians, also some 
specimens of animal life in the sea. 

Additional illustrations, drawn from life itself by the best artists of Europe 
and America, have been judiciously and lavishly inserted. 

(4.) The Alaps and the Map Studies are arranged to face each other, 
(o.) The Map Studies are not mere questions on the map, but are among 
the most important pages of the book, on which the utmost care has been 
bestowed. To give them greater brightness and value, much pleasiug matter, 
with occasional cuts and diagrams, have been thrown into them. 

(G.) Pronunciation of difficult names has been generally given where they 
are first met with in the text ; but there has been added at the close of the 
book a carefully compiled and judiciously selected Pronouncing Vocabulary. 
(7.) Full Tables of Statistics have been appended to this work, but a 
large number of striking statistical data have been interwoven with the text. 
The population and area of the different countries are furnished from the latest 
and best autliorilies. 

(8.) The questions are merely suggestive, but to keep the pupil wide awake 
to all he has previously learned, it has been thought not unwise to ask oc- 
casional questions, especially in the Map Studies, which require him to ex- 
amine other maps than the one just before him, and to draw upon t!ie text. 

(9.) The text has been broken up and marked by numbers and side-head- 
ings for convenience of reference. 

(10.) A valuable Trade and Voyage Chart, exhibiting the great routes of 
commerce and their distances, the Ocean-Telegraph Cables, both finished and 
contemplated, the Currents of the Ocean and the Winds of the different 
Zones, with descriptive text, will be found near the close of the book. 

(11.) Lastly, the resume of the Most Recent Geographical Events and 
Discoveries up to the present time, by which, within the last two years, a 
new complexion has been put upon the geography of some portions of the 
earth, will be found specially interesting. 

December, 1870. 



Lesson Page 









































OUR OWN COUNTRY-(Continued) 2S 












THE SOUTH JIRN STATES— (Continued) 48 

THE SOUTHERN STATES— (Continued) 51 



THE WESTERN STATES— (Continued) 59 

THE WESTERN STATES— (Continued) 62 





Lesson page 


















LVI. THE UNITED KIN(;DOM-(C(iiitimutil) 107 


LVIII. THE UNITED KINGDO.M-cC..iiliiiuea) 110 












SIAM 1.30 


TAN 134 















1. Map op Western Hemisphere 10 

2. Map op Eastern Hemisphere 11 

3. Mercator's Map op the World (Double) 20, 21 


5. Map op North America 26 

6. Orographic View op the United States .30 

7. Map op the United States (Double) 32, 33 

8. Map op the New England States 38 

9. Map op the Middle States 45 

10. Map OP THE Southern States (EaPt of Mississippi River) 55 

11. Map op the Southern States and Territories (West of Missispippi River) 57 

12. Map op the Western States and Territories 67 

13. Map op the Pacipic States and Territories 73 


14. Map OP Alaska and British America (Double) 80, 81 

15. Map op Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies 89 

16. Orographic View op the Amazon Vallbt 96 

17. Map op South America 102 

18. Map op the British Isles . . 108 

19. Orographic View op Central Europe .•. A 119 

20. Map op Europe (Double) 124, 125 

21. Orographic View op Central Asia 133 

22. Map op Asia (Double) 138. 1.39 

23. Map op Africa 144 

24. Map op Australia and Oceania (Double) 14H. 149 

25. Trade and Voyage Chart, showing Ocean Cubrents, Winds, and Tilkoraph- 

Cable Lines (Doubled 152, 153 


Manual of Geography, 



Definitions and Descriptions. 

1. Geoffraphy is divided into mathematical, political, 
and natural or physical Geography. 

2. 3Iathefnatical Geof/rap7itj treats of the shape 
and size of the earth, the determination of positions, 
and the measurements of distances and areas on its 

3. TJie liotundity of the ^ar^/i.— Philosophers 
suspected that the earth was round, because, in watch- 


ing a ship departing from the shores of any country 
whatever, they had observed it to sink gradually below 
the horizon until, tips of the masts, which "^vere the 
smallest, but the tallest parts of the ship, were all that 
could be seen. Early navigators thought the earth must 
be round, because, whenever they came in sight of land, 

they first saw the tops of trees, or the needle-like sum- 
mits of the mountains, while yet the huge dark masses 
of land beneath lay concealed from view. 

In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan, a bold sailor of Portu- 
gal, confirmed these conjectures by actually sailing round 
the world. 

Astronomers, finally, established them by remember- 
ing that the shadow cast by the earth, when it comes 
between the sun and the moon, so as to eclipse the moon, 
is as round as the shadow cast upon the wall by an 
orange ; but, though the shadow of the earth is circular, 
and its form spherical, the exact shape and size of the 
earth had to be determined by laborious calculation. 



4. Definitions. — The Circumference of the earth is 
the distance around it. 


The Diameter of a circle 
is the distance through 
its centre, from one point 
on the circumference to 
the point opposite. 

An Arc is any part of 
the circumference of a 
circle, as a rainbow. 

A Meridian circle is 
one passing around the 
earth through the two 

5. The Size and Shape of the Earth. — From meas- 
urements which several Grovernments have caused to be 
made in various parts of the world as to the length of 
certain arcs of a meridian, it has been ascertained that 
the polar diameter of the earth is 26? miles less than 
its equatorial diameter — which is 7,9251 miles long — 
and consequently that the figure of the earth is that of 
an ohlate spheroid. 

An "oblate spheroid" is flattened at the poles, some- 
what as an orange is at the stem, especially if it be 
slightly compressed between the finger and thumb. 

6. TJie 3Iean Circiifnference of the earth is ap- 
proximately and for convenience usually taken to be 
25,000 miles. 

7. Area. — Mathematical reckoning also tells us that 
the surface of a globe of such dimensions has an area 
of about 197,000,000 square miles. 

Of this area, it is estimated by Geographers that about 
145,000,000 square miles — or three-fourths of the whole 
area — are water, and the rest (52,000,000 square miles) 

Questions. — What are the three principal brandies of Geography? — 
Wliat is Mathematical Geography ? — Why did philosophers and navigators 
suspect the earth to be round ? — How did Magellan confirm its rotundity ? — 
By whom and how was this proof established ? — What is the diameter of a 
chcle ? — What is an arc of a ciicle ?— What is a Meridian ? — Which is the 
longer, the Equatorial or the Polar diameter of the earth? — What then is the 
exact shape of the earth ? — What is an oblate spheroid ? — Can you calculate 
the mean circumference of the earth ? — The diameter of a circle being multi- 
plied by 3"/7 — gives its circumference nearly — (exactly, if multiplied by 3.141o9) ; 
can you tell by your own calculation what is the circumference of the earth at 
the equator ? — How many square miles does the surface of the earth contain ? 
— How much of this is supposed to be land, and how much water? 


Diurnal and Annual Motions of the Earth. 

1, Daily Rotation. — It has been proved by obser- 
vations on the stars, that the earth has a diurnal rota- 

tion from West to East, by which it makes a complete 
revolution on its axis once in every 24 hours. This 
period of time is called a day. As the circumference 
of the earth is 25,000 miles, a man standing on or near 
the equator will be moving toward the East at the rate 
of about one thousand miles an hour. 

If an observer could watch our globe from the moon, and his eye first 
discern North and South America, these objects would, in a few hours, move 
out of sight ; the Pacific Ocean would come into view instead ; then the 
islands of Oceania, successively followed by Australia, Asia, Europe and 
Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, finally, America again. 

2, Yearly Hevolution. — In addition to this axial 
rotation, the earth has its annual revolution round 
the sun, which it accomplishes once in eveiy 365? days, 
or, more accurately, in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 
and 50 seconds. This period makes a year, though we 
call 365 days a j'ear, and correct for the fraction of a 
day (5 h., 48 m., and 50 s.) by adding another day every 
I'uurth year ; this makes leap-year, which has 366 days. 

But this allowance of i of a day, or 6 houra, for every year is too much by 
11 minutes and 10 seconds; to correct for this, so that the seasons may return 
forever at the same time of the year, it is necessary to count every !53d leap- 
year as a common year of 365 days, and, by skipping the one day, we cause 
the 21st of March and the 22d of September to be the days upon which tiie 
eciuinoxes must always occur; and so, for all time, mid-summer is made to 
fall in July, and mid-winter in January. 

^. Eartlt's Orbit. — The path of the earth in its 
annual revolution around the sun is called its Orbit. 
This orbit is not a circle, but an oblong called an 
ellipse, and the distance of the sun from it, and conse- 
(piently from us, is about 91,500,000 miles. The di- 
ameter of a circle is a little less than one-third of its 
circumference : by doubling 91,500,000 of miles j'ou 
get the diameter of the circle that the earth annually 
describes in its orbit around the sun. Now multiply 
this by 3+, then make the calculation, and you hud 
that in our annual journey around the sun, we are 
travelling at the rate of more than a thousand miles a 

The motion of the earth in its annual revolution 
causes the seasons, and its diurnal rotation on its axis 
causes day and night. 

4. Day and Night. — The sun is always shining on 
one half of the earth, and then it is day ; while the 
other half, being turned away from him, is in its own 
shadow — that makes it dark, and then it is night. When 
the sun is directly overhead, it is said to be vertical. 
The line in which an apple would fall from the top of a 
tree to the ground is called a perpendicular. 

The phenomena of the solstices, the equinoxes, and 
the seasons are also easy of explanation. You will 
learn about them in the next lesson. 


Quefstions. — How many motions has llie earth ? — What is its diurnal 
rotation V — How long does it take to make a complete rotation on its axis ? — 
Is this rotation from East to West, or in the cimtraiy direction ? — Which 
motion causes day and night ? — What is its annual motion ? — How long does 
it take the ea.-th to make a complete revolution around the sun ? — How do we 
correct lor tlie fraction of a day ? — How much is it ? — What is the orbit of 
the earth ? — What is the shape of the orbit ? (If the teacher have a globe in 
the school-room, he should use it to illustrate the motions which cause day 
and night, summer and winter, etc.) How far is the earth from the sun ? Can 
you tell how far the earth, in its orbit around the sun, travels in a minute ? 
When is the sun vertical ? — What do you understand by a perpendicular line ? 


The Axis of the Earth and the Seasons. 

1. Axis. — The earth, in its diurnal rotation, turns 
upon its polar or shorter diameter, as the spinning-top 
turns upon its own axis. This polar diameter is what 
is meant by the axis of the earth. 

A Plane, in mathematical geography, means an out- 
stretching le^l, like an immense floor or a perfectly 
flat meadow of boundless extent. 

2. The Inclination of the Earth's Axis to its 
Orbit. — The axis of the earth is inclined to the plane 
of its orbit, as the axis of a leaning top is inclined to 
the floor. 

The leaning top spins round on its axis, and travels 

round some point on the floor ; 
the floor is the plane in which the 
top revolves. In like manner, 
the earth wheels round on its 
axis in dii|rnal rotation in the 
plane of its orbit, and travels 
round the sun in that |)lane in 
annual revolution. Now there 
is this difference between the 
earth and the top : the top in- 
clines more and more as its spin- 
ning slf^cks, but the earth never 
slacks its rate, and the inclina- 
tion of its axis to this plane is 
always the same. It inclines from the perpendicular at 
the constant angle of 23° 28' ; and our north pole con- 
stantly points to the north star. 

This may not be so always. If all things continue as they now are 
12,000 years longer, a bright star called Vega, in the constellation known as 
Lyra, will be our polar star. Theie are seven stars called the " seven point- 
ers" or " the dipper," two of which point directly toward the north star. 
The first clear night look toward the north, and see if you can find " the 
dipper," and tell the north star by it. As the dipper never sets in this coun- 
try, it may be seen any clear night. 

It is by virtue of this simple contrivance of the Divine 
Architect in inclining the earth's axis, that the year is 


the inclination of the 
earth's axis. 


divided into seasons. I 
told you that the cause of 
the seasons was as simple 
in explanation as day and 
night, and here you have 
it all fully exemplified by 
the leaning top as it spins 
about the floor. 

If the earth's axis were 
perpendicular to the plane 
of its orbit, as the axis of 
the sleeping top is to the 

plane of the floor, the days and nights would be of equal 
length all the year ; neither would there be any change 
of seasons. 

Refer to the diagram. Lesson lY., or to a globe, and 
you will understand how at one season of the year the 
north pole is toward the sun, and at another season 
the south pole ; and that, therefore, the sun in his an- 
nual round appears to travel from north to south — being 
high up in the heavens at noon in summer, and low 
down in winter — whereas the sun is standing, and the 
earth is moving under him. 

3. The Troxncs and the Solstices. — It is owing to 
this apparent motion of the sun from one tropic to the 
other and back, that he is so high in the heavens at 
noon in summer, and so low in winter. When he 
reaches the highest point in summer and the lowest in 
winter, he appears to stand still, for he gets neither 
higher nor lower at noon for several days. One of 
these '' stand- stiir' places is called the summer solstice, 
and the other the winter solstice [sun-stand). 

Thus you see how the revolution of the earth around 
the sun, combined with the inclination of its axis, causes 
the seasons. 

At the summer solstice the sun at noon is directlj' 
overhead to all places in lat. 23° 28' north. Here he 
appears to stop, to turn back and begin to go south 
again. This turning place is on the Tropic of Cancer. 

Tropic is from a Greek word which signifies to turn. 

The Tropic of Cancer is a circle drawn around the 
earth parallel to the equator, and at every point exactly 
23° 28' distant from it. 

In like manner, when the sun reaches the winter 
solstice, it is vertical at noon to all places in lat. 
23° 28' south ; and a circle drawn here around the 
earth and parallel to the equator, is called the Tronic 
OF Capricorn. These two circles are 46° 56' (twice 
23° 28') from each other. 


The sun is never vertical to any place north of the 
Tropic of Cancer nor to any place south of the Tropic 
of Capricorn. 

4. OT/ie Zones or Belts of the Earth. — The belt 
of the earth between these two parallels of latitude 
is called the Torrid Zone. It embraces an area of 
about 78,000,000 sqr. miles, or two-fifths of the entire 
surface of the earth. TJiese are the Inter-tropical regions. 

The sun is vertical twice a year to all places within 
these regions, and there is no cold weather ; it is sum- 
mer all the year round and the people do not, as a rule, 
even build chimneys to their houses. 

At the same distance from each pole, viz. : 23° 28', 
there are two other circles drawn parallel to the equator. 
The one about the north pole is the Arctic Circle, and 
the one about the south pole is the Antarctic Circle. 

The area embraced between each of these circles and 
its nearest pole measures 8,000,000 sqr. miles. 

The space that lies between the Arctic Circle and the 
north pole is the North Frigid Zone. In it the sum- 
mers are short and cold, and the winters long, dreary, 
and severe, and as 5'ou approach the pole the days 
become longer and longer, till you get where they have 
but one day and one 
night during the whole 
year, each being six 
months long. 

The same is the case 
with the South Frigid 
Zone, which lies be- 
tween the Antarctic 
Circle and the south 

These two zones to- 
gether contain an area 
sqr. miles, most of which 
has never been trod by 
human foot, or seen by 
the eye of man. Con- 
sequently we do not 
know whether these 

unexplored re*gions contain most land or most water. 
But we do know that when the sun shines at one pole, 
it is night at the other. 

Questions— yVlxKi is the axis of the Earth ?— What is a Plane ?— What is 
the inclination of the earth to the plane of its orbit ?— Suppose the axis of the 
earth were perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, what effect would that have 
upon the seasons, and the length of day and night ? — How many solstices are 
tliere ? — When do they occur ?— Wliat do you mean by a solstice ?— What are 

the Tropics? — In what hemisphere is the tropic of Cancer? — How far is each 
Tropic from the Equator ? — How far from each other ? — What are the regions 
called that lie between the tropics ? — How many sqr. miles does the torrid zone 
contain ? — What portion is this of the entire surface of the earth ? — Is the cli- 
mate of the Inter-tropical regions all winter or all summer? — Describe the 
Arctic and the Antarctic Circles. Where are the Frigid Zones? — What is 
their area ? — Describe the climates there and the length of the days. 


The Equinoxes. 

1. Tlie Vernal Equinox. — Owing to the inclination 
of the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit, the sun, as 
you have been told already, appears to move up and 
down the heavens from the tropic of Capricorn to the 
tropic of Cancer, and back, once a year. (See Hemi- 
spheres, Less, v., and point out the two tropics.) 

Though this motion is only apparent, 3^et for the con- 
venience of explanation we will consider it as real. 

In consequence of this inclination, the sun, in passing 
from the tropic of Capricorn to the tropic of Cancer, 
crosses the Equator on its way to the North. This hap- 
pens on the 21st of March every year ; on that day the 
sun sets at the south pole and rises at the north pole. 



At all other places on that day it rises and sets at six 
o'clock, consequently the day and night are then equal : 
this is the Vernal Equinox. 

2. The Autnmnal Equinox. — Six months afterward 
— on the 22d Sept. — as the sun returns from the tropic 
of Cancer to the tropic of Capricorn, it again cro.sses the 
Equator, when it sets at the north, and rises at the south 


pole : day and night are again equal, and this is 
called the Autumnal Equinox. 

3. Seasons. — Thus the year is divided into 
seasons, and the seasons on the two sides of the 
Equator are opposite ; that is, when it is winter 
with us in the Northern Hemisphere, it is sum- 
mer with the people on the other side of the 
Equator, in the Southern Hemisphere. 


Hemisphere means /wZ/ sphere, and we can divide the earth 
into Northern and Southern halves, as well as into Eastern and 

As the earth's orbit is an Ellipse, the earth is not always at 
the same distance from the sun. It is about 8,000,000 of miles 
nearer the sun in winter than in summer ; but, in winter, tiie North- 
ern half of the planet leans fiirthest away from the sun, and also 
receives his rays less vertically than in summer— hence it is colder. 

4. The Teni2)erate Zones. — The region em- 
braced between the tro|)ic of Cancer and the 
Arctic Circle is called the North Temperate 
Zone. That between the tropic of Capricorn and 
the Antarctic Circle is the South Temperate 

The North Temperate Zone is the one in which 
we live. All parts of the United States, except the 
northern portion of Alaska, lie within it; and in it. as 


THE n E M I S Pn B R E S. 

you know, we have summer and winter with the pleasing 
diversity of seasons. 

102,000,000 square miles, or a little more than half 
the earth's surface, is contained in these two zones. 

,5. Uie Friffid Zones, — When the sun, in his appa- 
rent motion, goes south of the Equator after the 22d of 
September, as has been indicated, darkness settles down 
upon the North Frigid Zone, and night reigns for six 
months with uninterrupted gloom. 

At the time of the Vernal Equinox, when the season 
for his return draws near, the -cheerless inhabitants of 
these icy lands anxiously look for him, and are said to 
climb mountains to catch a glimpse of his earliest 

When he rises upon them in the spring, it is also 
for six months, during which time they have no night. 

These circumstances of day and night, occur in re- 
versed order in the South Frigid Zone. 

Questions. — When do the Equinoxes occur? — In what month is the 
Vernal and in what the Autumnal Equinox ? — How long are the days then ? 
Describe the season in the Southern hemisphere when it is winter with us. 
Where are the Temperate zones ? — IIow much of the earth's siuface do they 
contiiin? — In what zone do we live, and iu which hemisphere? — Describe 
the day and night iu the Frigid zones. 


Study of the Hemispherical Maps. 

It is impossible for a scholar to make satisfactory 
progress in Geography without constant reference to 
maps. Next to visiting all parts of the earth and seeing 
the objects themselves, the best thing is closely to in- 
spect pictures or drawings which represent them. In 
beginning our map-studies, for convenience, we divide 
our globe into two parts, called the Western and East- 
ern Hemispheres. When Columbus sailed on his voy- 
age of discovery, as you have already learned, he sailed 
to the West, and, consequently, the new country he 
found was called the Western World. 

Eastern means turned toward the point where the 
sun rises. 

Western, turned toward the point where the sun sets. 




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;{:• Arcliipelai'O Y* A " Ti r /V°'^">j''a 

° ' .' ••' Ouaraian Is. Tronirnf Pn„,.t /V-A* JVf *"/ T) iC 

Oaml>icr.'.» ir9PJf oTCapncora /4t-7T-^ F"/ K T n 

« " in . . St. Feliv T l-V- "'"'I \ /'■/ ■'' ,- — "K 

Vitcairual. j,° } H ^^ W''?^ o 

F 1 C 

f.f Latitmlc 10° 

[ I'nra q-t.,- 

Maniiilian^ — v C. St. Hoquo 


-•i o/ I'eriiainljuco 




B}' what meridian circle have we here divided the earth into hemispheres ? 
Alls. By that 20" west of Greenwich (near Loudon, Eng. ; seep. 108). — AVhat 
great land-masses do you find in the western hemisphere ? — What in the 
eastern hemisphere ? — What great body of laud lies partly in each hemisphere ? 
— The islands of the Pacific Ocean from the American coasts to the {)'Uh meri- 
dian of ea^l longitude, form Oceania. — Which is tlie largest island in Oceania? 
In which hemisphere is Greenland? — In which is Spitzbergen? — Victoria 
Land? — The Unexplored Rciiions? 

In what direction does North America lie from Europe ?— From Africa ? 
— In what direction is China ft'om the United States ? — In what is Australia ? 

What grand land-masses lie wholly north of the Equator? — What are 

divided by that geographical line into two parts ? — What immense island 
lies wholly south of the Equator ? 

What is the most northerly cape of Europe?— Which is the most .southerly 
cape of South America ? 

What grand divisions of Die earth are intersected by tlie Troi)ic of Cancer?— 
What, by tlie Tropic of Capricorn?— Wiiat, by the Arctic Circle?— AViiere does 
tills circle touch Europe ? — Are there any large bodies of land intersected by 
the Antarctic Circle ?— Through what parts of the world, both land and water 
divisions, does the 60tli meridian of west longitude pass ?— Through and near 
what parts does the loOth meridian pass ?— Through what parts does the 90lh 
meridian of east longitude pass?— Tiirough what does the meridian of Green- 

Wich i)af<a ? That of 'WashiniTton ? — Through wlial parts of the world does 
the meridian of Tenerifle, one of the Canary island^pass ?, 

IIow do the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans conipafq sts to shape ? Ayis. The 
['acific is long and wide ; the Atlantic is so very rmrrow, in proportion to its 
length, that geographers often call it the AUantic%Canal. — On what oceans 
wonld you sail in going from America, in a southe'astwardly course, to Aus- 
tralia, thence to California ? — What oceans woaW you sail on in a voyage from 
New York to California, by way of Cape Horn ?— From New York to China, 
by way of the Cape of Good Hope ?— From Cape Horn to the Cape of Good 
Hope ? 

Name the polftica) divisions here given of North America.— Name those 

of South America— Of Europe— Of Asia— Of Oceania— Of Africa— What 
l.'Uge islands lie in tlie Pacific Ocean west of the United States ? — What islands 
1U> west of the coast of Africa ? — What, northeast of tiie United States ? — 
Wliat, southeast of the United States ? — What large island lies east of Africa ? 
— What large island north of Australia? — Where is New Zealand? — Borneo? 
— Java? — Sumatra? — What islands together form a great Empire in the 
Pacific Ocean? Ans. The Japan islands. — What large islands in the Arctic 
Ocean are begirt with ice? Ans. Nova Zenibla and Spit zbergen. 

What are the most southerly capes of Africa? — What, the most easterly? 
— Wliat, the most southerly cape of India? — Where is Kerguelen's Land? 
Falkland Islands ?— Isle of France ?— Where is the Strait of Sunda? 



LEssoj^ ri. 

Latitude and Longitude. 

1. TJie Equator is a circle passing from West to 
East round the earth midway between the poles. It 
divides the earth into two equal parts, one called the 
Northern, and the other the Southern hemisphere. 

2. Any circle that divides the globe into two equal 
parts, is called a Great Circle, All meridians are 
great circles. 

3. A small circle is any circle that divides a sphere 
into two unequal parts. The tropics of Cancer and Cap- 
ricorn and all parallels of latitude are small circles. 

The position of places on the earth's surface is desig- 
nated by their latitude and longitude. Parallels arc 
parallel to the equator. 

The ancients supposed the earth was longer from East 
to West than from North to South. 

4. The Latitude of a place is its distance, expressed 
in degrees (°-'-") from ihQ Equator. If on the North 
side, the place is in North Latitude ; if on the South 
side, it is in South Latitude. 

The pole is at 90° of latitude. No place can have 
more than 90° of latitude, because no place can be 
i'arther from the Equator than the pole. Those regions 
of the earth lying within the tropics and near the 
Equator, are said to be low latitudes. High latitudes are 
those near the Arctic and Antarctic circles and the poles. 




5. Parallels of latitude are circles that pass round the 
earth, parallel to the Equator. The lines that pass from 
left to right across every map are parallels of latitude. 

Point out a parallel of latitude on the map, Less. V. 

6. A Prime Meridian is any meridian from which 
a nation may choose to reckon longitude. 

7. TJie Longitude of a place is its distance, like- 
wise in degrees, from the Prime Meridian. If the place 
be East of the prime meridian, it is in East Longitude, 
and if on the other side, it is in West Longitude. 

Places on a prime meridian have no longitude whatever. 

8. A 3IerkUan is a great circle that crosses the 
Equator at right angles and passes through the poles. 
Those lines that run from North to South on maps are 
Meridians of Longitude. 

Point out meridians of longitude on the map, Less. V. 

So you see that the lines on the map that run from 
one side to the other are Parallels of Latitude, those that 
run from top to bottom are Meridians of Longitude. 

And you see, moreover, by looking at the map, that 
all meridians cross each other at both the north and the 
south pole, each of which is 90° from the .Equator. The 
distance between the poles is therefore 180°. 

9. negrees of Longitude. — As all the meridians 
cross at the polos, and diverge or spread out thence till 
they reach the Equator, the distance between any two 
variTjs with the latitude. Therefore a dooroe of lon<n- 
tude is greater at the Equator than it is anywhere else. 

English miles to a degree of Longitude for eveiy 5th degree of Lalitnd' 
from the Ecjuator to the Poles. 











































At 90°, or the Pole, there is no such thing as Longitude. 

The sun, in its apparent motion, passes over 15° of 
longitude every hour, whether those degrees are taken 
on the Equator or near the poles. 

As all parts of the globe move together from West to 
East, toward the sun, it is plain that a short degree of 
longitude near the pole, since it moves slowly, will oc- 
cupy as much time, in passing under the sun, as a long 
degree will require for its passage. 

10. Sea Miles.— It is usual to reckon the length of a degree of lonjri- 
tude or latitude in miles of 60 to a degree at the Equator. These are called 
sea, geographical, or nautical miles. All nations use them st sea, because 
their use facilitates to the navigator his calculations. Naulical miles are 
also called knot«, because the marks on the log line, by which the speed of 
ships at sea is measured, consists of knots spliced into the line. A naulical 
or geoyraphical mile is longer than a common mile, which we call a statute i r 


an English mile ; for while there are (nearly) 69i statute miles to a degree of 
lonsitude at the Equator, there are only 60 nautical miles. 

Distances by sea and the length of telegraphic cables are usually expressed 
in nautical miles. 

11. A Marine League is three nautical miles. The 
jurisdiction of every country that fronts on the sea 
extends out to the distance of a marine league from the 
shore. Vessels of nations at war cannot join battle, or 
commit any act of hostility, within that distance of the 
shores of a neutral power. This distance was fixed 
upon, by the common consent of nations, and under the 
idea that no cannon could- ever send a ball farther than 
one marine league from the shore ; and that every 
nation has the exclusive right of jurisdiction over as 
much sea as guns on her shores could command. But 
the rifle cannon, and improved ordnance of the present 
day, can send their shot much farther . than three miles. 
All be3'ond this marine league is what iscalled the high 
seas, whidi, like the air, is free to all the world, and to 
which no nation,. however powerful, has an exclusive 
risrht, any more than the farmer has to the common 
highway which passes through his land. 

J2. Itech-oninff L'oiif/ifHde. — The Prime Meridian, 
we have seen, is any meridian from which a nation niay 
choose to reckon longitude The Germans reckon lon- 
gitude from the meridian of Ferro, the most westerly of 
the Canary group ; the French from, the meridian of the 
Paris Observatory; the English from Greenwich {Grm'- 
itch); the Spaniards from Cadiz, etc* We have two Prime 
Meridian.s — one for the land,' the other for the water. 

AVe reckon longitude at sea from the meridian of 
Greenwich ; and on land we reckon the longitude of all 
places in the United States from the meridian of Wash- 
ington. Washington is 77° west of the meridian of 

Most of the charts used by mariners at sea are constructed at the Hydro- 
gniphical Office in England, and from the meridian of Greenwich. For the 
convenience of navigation, therefore, we use the meridian of Greenwich on 
all our charts. 

Here is the convenience and advantage of u.sing lati- 
tude and longitude and maps and charts. If you were 
to say you had met a person on the railroad, no one 
could tell the place of meeting ; but if you were to say 
you met at the crossing of a certain other road, every 
one would know the exact spot. 

So it is with the geographer, he designates the posi- 
tion of places on the earth by the crossing of parallels 
of latitude and meridians of longitude with each other. 
Thus, if you were told that a' ship was spoken at sea, in 
lit. 40° north, for example, nobody could point out the 
place ; but if you were told she was spoken lat. 40° north 


and long. 30° west, you would understand that she was 
spoken at the very spot where the parallel of 40° north 
crosses the meridian of 30° west ; and you would then 
see that the ship, when spoken, was in the Atlantic 
Ocean, and near the Azores. 

Without this mode of marking positions on the chart, 
navigators would never find their way across the seas. 

13. The 3Iariner's Conijiass helps them to this. 

The card upon which the courses 
are written is attached to a magnetic 
needle below. This needle points 
toward the north and south, and if it 
varies from the true north — as it gen- 
erally does — the amount of deviation 
can always be determined, cither at 
sea or on land, by astronomical ob- 

You observe that the 
edge of this card toward 
the top of the page, is 
marked "North," that tow- 
ard the right hand of it is 

marked "East," the bottom is marked "South," and 
the left hand " West." 

These four points — N., E., S. and W. — arc called the 
Cardinal Points. 

Seamen divide the compass into 32 points, and each 
point into halves and quarters. Where nicety and 
accuracy are required, the compass card is still farther 
subdivided into degrees. But for the ordinary pur- 
poses of geography the i)oints arc sufficient. They are 
marked on the compass, and to tell them in order, begin- 
ning at the north and going around to the right ; as, N., 
NNF., NE., ENE., p]., etc., etc., and so on all the way 
round to the north again, is called boxing the compass. 

Questions. — Turn to the map (Less. V.) and point out the Equator ; the 
Tropics ; tlie Torrid Zone ; the Temperate Zones ; the Frigid Zones. Point 
out Parallels of Latitude; what are they? Meridians of Longitude; what 
are they? — What and where is the Equator? — Into what two grand divisions 
does it divide the earth? — What is a small circle? — Are all small circles 
parallels of latitude? — What small circles are parallels of latitude ?^What 
latitude has the pole ? — How do you designate the geographical position of 
places? — How do you reckon latitude? — What is a Prime Meridian? — How 
do you reckon longitude ? 

Are degrees of longitude of an invariable length?— What is the length in 
nautical miles of a degree of longitude at the Equator ? — Ditto in statute miles ? 
— Over how many degrees of longitude does the sun pass every hour ? — What 
do mariners mean by '■^ knots" wlien they say their ship is going so many 
knots an hour ? — Do they mean statute miles or sea miles ? — What is a ma- 
rine league? — How far out to sea does the jurisdiction of a nation extend 
from her shores? — Why was it limited to this distance? 

From what meridian do the French reckon longitude ? — From what the 
English ? — From what meridian do we reckon longitude ? — Why do we use 
the meridian of Greenwich for charts? — There is an island on the Equator in 
long. 120° E. : can you find it on the map, and tell what island it is ? — (Less. 
V.) — There are some islands and a sea between the parallels of 40' N. and 
the Arctic Circle, and in long. 180'— What are they?— Can you ^ot the com- 
pass? — What are the four cardinal points ? 



1. Coiitiiiout. 

2. Island. 

3. Hill. 

4. Isthmus. 

5. Cape. 

6. Promontory. 

7. Moiintaiu. 

8. Volcano. 

9. I'eiiinsula. 
JO. Shore. 

11. Ocean. 

12. Sea. 

21. Table Land. 

13. Bay. 

14. Strait. 

15. Sound. 

16. Chanuul. 

17 I ikr 


HI. Delia. 

20. Archipelago. 


Natural Geography. 

1. JV^atural Geofft^apJii/, in the sense here meant, 
treats of the surface of the earth in its natural aspects. 

^. Land and Water. — The Almighty, at the crea- 
tion, made of the earth two grand divisions — land and 
water. For convenience the geographer has subdivided 
the water into sheets of various forms and sizes, which 
he has named Oceans, Seas, Bays, Gulfs, Harbors, 
Lakes, and Rivers ; and the land into Continents, 
Islands, Peninsulas, Capes, Mountains, Valleys, Des- 
erts and Plains. 

These are all usually called natural divisions. 

3. Florqb and Fauna. — The surface of the earth is 

clothed with vegetation and animated with living crea- 
tures : these are its Flora and its Fauna. 

4. Mines. — Its crust also is stored with coal and 
marble, copper, iron, the ores of metals, gold and ])re- 
cious stones : these are called minerals. 

It belongs to natural geography to treat of all these, 
and to show the industries connected with them, as well 
as how the fauna of a country depend upon its flora. 

This dependence, you see, is obvious ; for every ani- 
mal, whether it be insect, bird, or beast, requires food 
that is suitable to it. 

Therefore, a country that produces no grass can have 
no flocks ; and lions cannot subsist unless they have 
flocks to prey upon. Hence lions are to be found only 
in grass countries. In like manner, bees, humming- 




birds, and flowers go together ; and if you take away 
the flowers, the birds and the insects disappear. 

These relations and dependencies are ver}- interest- 
ing, and it is the business of the geographer to study 
them all. 

Questions. — What are the grand natimil divisions of the eartli ? — How 
is the water divided ? — How the land ? — Can you point out on the map (Les- 
son V.) some of each of tliese natural divisions ? — What do you mean by the 
flora of a country ? — What by the feuna? — What by the minerals ? — Can you 
cite cases to illustrate .how tjie fauna of a country depend upon its flora? 

LESSOJf nil. 

Definitions in Natural Geography. 

•/. Jfercafoi'^s C7iarf.— Yon remember that the earth 
is a sphere, and you saw that the maps, Less. V., attempt 
to represent on a plane the surface of ttic earth. This 
makes the countries near the edge of the map appear, 
as compared with those near its centre, out of propor- 
tion, and it throws })laces out of their true relative po- 
sition both as to course and disftance. It Avas almost 
impossible for navigators to find by '.such a chart their 
true course and distance from i)ort to port. This being 
the case, Mercator, a native of Antwerp in Belgium, 
invented the chart that goes by his name. 


It, too, distorts the surface it represents, as every 
chart must do that attempts to represent on a plane the 
surface of a sphere ; but it distorts in such a manner as 
to make all places on it i)reserve their true course from 
(;ach other. This also makes it easy to take their true 
distance apart. 

The charts that navigators use to sail by at sea are 
all constructed upon the Mercator principle. 

2. Divisions of Water. — You observe by looking at 
this chart that all parts of the sea are really connected 
with each other ; and though the seas are all one sheet 
of water, yet they have been divided into five grand 

divisions called Oceans, viz., the Pacific, the Indian, the 
Atlantic, the Arctic, and the Southern Oceans. 

3. Old and JS^ew Worlds. — The land comprises two 
grand divisions: the "Old World" and the "New 
World." But geographers for convenience have di- 
vided the two grand masses of land into four natural 
sections, and called them Continents, viz.. North Amer- 
ica, South America, Europe and Asia, and Africa. 

4. Bays and Seas. — Some j)arts of the ocean are 
called Seas, as the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean 
Sea, the North Sea ; others, Bays : as Hudson Bay, the 
Bay of Biscay, the Bay of Bengal ; others. Gulfs : as the 
Grulf of Mexico, the Gulf of California, the Gulf of Fin- 
land. The definition that is applied to a sea is equally 
applicable to a bay and gulf, viz., it is a sheet of water 
or arm of the sea partly surrounded by land. 

5. A Strait, Pass, or JPassaf/e, is a narrow channel 
that connects two larger sheets of water, as the Strait 
of Gibraltar, the Strait of Babelmandeb, Behring's 
Strait, the Florida Pass, the Mona Passage, the Wind- 
ward Passage, etc., etc. 

6*. A Harbor is a sheltered arm of an ocean, sea, 
bay, or gulf, where ships may anchor and ride in safety. 
It is generally named after the town or city which is 
situated upon it, as Boston Harbor, Annapolis Harbor, 
the Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, the Harbor of Liverpool. 

7. A LaJce is a large inland sheet of water, either 
with or without a river running out of it, as Lake Supe- 
rior, the Great Salt Lake, the Lake of Geneva. Some- 
times the level of a lake is far above the level of the 
sea, and sometimes below it. 

Questions. — Why can you not represent without distortion the surface 
of the ear^^h on a map ? — Why do navigators prefer charts on the Mercator 
principle to charts of any other construction ? — In which respect, then, 
does the Mercator chart truly represent places? — What and how many are 
the grand divisions of the water? — Of the land? — What definitions would 
you give to a sea, bay, or a gulf? — What to a strait, pass, and passage? — 
What to a harbor ? — To a lake ? 


The Land. 

1. A Continent is a large body of land, large enough 
to contain Empires and States, and so extended that 
you cannot sail round it. 

2. An Island is land that is surrounded by water : 
as the Islands of Newfoundland, Great Britain, Nan- 
tucket. There are innumerable Islands. 

3. A Peninsula {pene, almost ; insula, island), is 



land that is almost surrounded by water. Yucatan is a 
Peninsula, Nova Scotia is a Peninsula, Portugal and 
Spain together form a Peninsula. 

4. A Cape, Point, or Headland, is the extreme 
end of any land that juts out into the sea — as Cape 
Hatteras, Cape Henry, Cape Cod, Caj)e Horn, etc. 

The Lizard, in England, is a Point, which is among 
mariners one of the most famous landmarks in the 

5. Rivers are natural gutters and drains, for carry- 
ing the water back to the sea after it has performed the 
manifold offices that Supreme wisdom and goodness have 
assigned to it. 

6. Mountains are the watersheds which the same 
Almight}^ Builder has constructed for turning the rains 
off" into their appropriate drains and channels, and so 
making the land inhabitable. 

It is interesting to know how high a mountain may 
be, as it is to know how long, deep, and wide, a river is. 

The height of mountains is always reckoned perpen- 
dicularly from the level of the sea. 

Note. — The sea is taken as the standard plane, because the elevation of tlie 
land is, in the process of ages, likely to change. We know that all of the 
Mississippi valley, and even the tops of what are now very high inouutains, 
were once at the bottom of the sea. But the mean level of the sea is always 
the same : and by measuring the height of the land above it, Ave have already 
discovered that in some parts of the world the land is now gradually rising 
up, while in other parts it is sinking down. 

7. TJie Height of Mountains is generally ascertained 
by the difference between the weight of the atmosphere 
on the sea-shore, and its weight on the mountain top. 
This difference is called the difference of barometric 

8. Hie Atmosphere has weight as water has, but 
it is not so heavy and you do not perceive it, for the same 
reason that a swimmer does not feel the weight of water 
above him when he dives — nevertheless the atmosphere 
presses with the force of nearly 15 lbs. upon every 
square inch of your body. 

Note. — The " Barometer" is an instrument for measuring the pressure of 
the atmosphere. The mean pressure or weight of the atmosphere at tlie sur- 
face of the ocean is almost 15 lbs. to the square inch ; and under thiU pressure 
the quicksilver in the tube of the Barometer stands at the height of 30 inches. 
Now as you cany the Barometer up above the sea, as in a balloon or up the 
side of a mountain, the quicksilver will fall in the tube about one-tenth of an 
inch for every 60 feet of perpendicular ascent. 

9. Deserts are wide, flat wastes of land, covered with 
sand, generally destitute of vegetation and water. 

They are perilous to the traveller ; but, as we shall 
see, when we come to study physical geography, indis- 
pensable parts of the earth's machinery. 

Natural Geography (sometimes called Physical Geog- 
raphy) treats also of the Sea, Earth, and Air, in all the 
aspects in which they present themselves to an observer 
of nature. 

In this sense Physical Geography is one of the most 
interesting, instructive, and profitable studies in the 
whole course of education. 

A separate and special treatise will be devoted to it. 
In this Avork it is treated in its. more'linjited sense as 
natural geography, which take^ cognizance, simply of 
the land and water as they are presented to the -eye by 
nature and represen-ted on the map. 

Questions. — What is a Continent — an Island — a Peninsula — a Cape ? In 
what light does the physicial geographer regard rivers — in what, mountains? 
How and from what plahe*is the height of mountains measured ? — Why do you 
measure it from tiic plane of the sea instead of from the surrounding plains ? — 
How much does the atmosi)iK're usually press upon a square inch at tlie level 
of the sea? — Dues it |)ress inon; or less than this upon the toj) of a high mouii- 
tuiu ? — What is the name of the instrument that measures this i)re8sure? — To 
what does physical geography chiefly relate ? — How is physfcal {geography 
treated here? 

3Iap I^.rerriscs, — Point otit (m the map the isLuuls and peninsulas that 
ai-e named in the lesson • also the deserts and the. mountains that are on tiie 
map. — Tell — judging by tlie map and the eye — which is the largest ocean; 
the smallest continent ; the largest island ; the largest range of mountains. — 
In what light should rivers and mountains be regarded by the physical geog- 
rapher? — Can you name any useful purpose that IheyseiTe? — }Vhy is tlie 
sea-level adopted as the standard from which the height of mountains is 
measured? — What is the mean pressure of the atm'.)s|)here when measured at 
the level of the sea by the Barometer? — What is the most common way of 
measuring the height of mountains ? 


Political- Geography and tho different kinds of 
Religion in the World. 

1. Political Geography treats of the inhabitants of 
the earth ; of their mauners and customs, their indus- 
trial pursuits, their religion, and their forms of govern- 

It treats also of the divisions which have been made 
on its surface by the various nations, as Empires, King- 
doms, and States — such for exami)le as Russia, France, 
the United States, etc. ; and of the features which have 
been, by man's agency, impressed upon it — -as canals, 
railroads, and other memorials of his handiwork — cities 
and towns, farms, mines, dwellings, edifices, manufac- 
turing and other establishments, with which his industry 
and energies have embellished the landscape. 

2. Religions. — All people have some kind of religion. 
Those who believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of (lod 
and who worship the Creator, as we are tauglit to do in 



the Bible, are called Christians. Those who do not be- 
lieve the Bible, and who worship idols, or any of the 
objects of nature — as the sun, birds, beasts, or fishes, or 
who worship spirits and imaginary beings, are called 
heathens or pagans. 

All the nations of America without exception, and all 
the nations of Europe except Turkey, profess the Chris- 
tian religion. 

3. Chfistendom. — -The Christian countries, that is, 
those lands- where (Jod- is professedly worshipped ac- 
cording to the Bible, constitute what is called Chris- 
tendom. ; 

Of the 1350 millions in the warld — its estimated 
population — Christendom contains about 360 millions. 

Many individuals among this vast multitude are 
unbelievers and atheists, so that we' may. assume that 
not one-fourth of all the people in the world acknowl- 
edge thai Je.sus- Christ is the Son ofCiod. • 

The remaining* three-fourths — 990,000,000 — are be- 
yond the pale of Christianity. They. are heathens, who 
have various creeds. and many forms of worship. 

4. Judaism. — The Jews believe in the Old Testa- 
ment, but not in the New. They worship God, but hold 
that Christ was a man, and that the Saviour is yet to 
come. It is estimated. that there are 4.000,000 J[ews 
in the world, most of whom live in Europe and America. 

a. Isldftiism. — The Mahometp-ns believe that there 
is one God, and that Mahomet is his prophet. Ma- 
homet wrote the Koran about 600 years after Christ 
and the Koran is the Bible of his followers. 

The Turks, the Arabs, the Persians, and the inhabit- 
ants generally of the dry countries of Asia and Africa, 
are followers of Mahomet. They are estimated to num- 
ber about 60,000,000. 

(i. liuddhisin. — Buddha was the founder of this 
religion. His followers do not believe in any God. 
Some of the peoples who follow him have no word in 
their language for Deity or immortality. They believe 
there is no being superior to man ; and the object of 
their religion is to show the way to Nirvana, where man 
is annihilated. According to the Buddhist, annihilation 
would be the summit of bliss. 

It is estimated that one-third of the entire human 
family profess this religion. The majority of the people 
of Burmah, many in India, China, Japan, Ceylon, Siam, 
etc., etc., are Buddhists. 

7. BrahminiHrn. — Its followers, next to the Bud- 
dhists, are the most numerous. They too are dwellers 

in Asia. The Brahmins hold sway in India. They 
have deities, some of which, according to their doctrines, 
have previously been incarnate, sometimes as men with 
man}" hands or as beasts with many heads. 

Juggernaut is one of their most famous idols. He is 
mounted on a car, and his worshippers on certain occa- 
sions fall down before it, that it ma}^ roll over and crush 
them to death as his worshippers haul him along. The 
Brahmins number about 150,000,000 souls. 

8. The Giiebt^es [Gue'herz). — These are the followers 
of Zoroaster. The sun is the object of adoration with 
them. The}' are the fire-worshippers of Persia and 
India, and they are to the heathen nations what the 
Jews are to the Christian nations — a people without a 
country, bu!- who in a manner still preserve their na- 

It should not be inferred from this sketch that there 
are no Christians except in Europe and America. 
There are many. The English and other European 
powers have established colonies and settlements in 
various parts of Asia and Africa, and among the isl- 
ands, all of which acknowledge the Christian religion. 
Moreover, the missionaries of Europe and America have 
made many converts to Christianity in most heathen 
lands. But there are among the 960,000,000 souls who 
are supposed to inhabit Asia and Africa, no nations ex- 
cept one who regard the Bible or acknowledge the reli- 
gion taught by it ; and that one is Liberia, which con- 
sists of a few thousand negroes, most of whom are 
emancipated slaves of the Southern States, sent thence 
to Liberia since 1823, by the Colonization Society of the 
United States. 

Out of every one hundred souls in the world only 
twenty-six belong to the States of Christendom. This 
includes the infidels, atheists, heathens, and unbelievers 
of all sorts that dwell in Christian lands. 

Quesfiotis. — Of wliat does Political Geography treat? — Point out on the 
map (pp. 20, 21) some of the political divisions of the earth. — Name some of 
its political features. — Wiiich two of the continents are inhabited chiefly by 
Christians ? — Name the chief Christian nations. — Who are tlie Mohammed- 
ans ? — What is the chief Mohammedan nation ? — How many inhabitants is 
the world supposed to contain ? — How many of them are Christians ? — How 
many pagans or heathens ? — What do they worship ? — What is the creed of 
the Buddhists ? — What peoples profess lljis raligion ? — What is the number 
of them V — Point out on the map tlie parts of the world inliabited by them ? — 
Who are the Mohammedans ? — Who wrote the Koran V — When was it writ- 
ten ? — Who and what are tlie Brahmins ? — Tell about .Inggernaut. — Who are 
the Fire-worshippers ? — Have they any country of their own ? — Name the 
founders of each one of these sects. — How many Jews are there supposed to 
be in the world? — Have they any country of their own? — In what parts of 
the world do most of them dwell? — Which, the people that inhabit Christian 
countries or heathen lands, are the most numerous? — Ai'e all the inhabitants 
of Christendom Christians? — Are there any Christians in heathen lands? 





1. Savaf/es. — In some parts of the world the people 
are ignorant of the proper distinction between right 
and wrong. You, who have never lived among savages, 
can have no idea how brutal and ignorant some of them 
are. When the G-eorgian Islands in the Pacific were 
first discovered, the natives did not even know the use 
of fire. 

2. Government and its End. — But all people, 
whether savage or civilized, who live together, either as 
families, tribes, or nations, require government of some 
sort; otherwise the strong will oppress the weak. 

3. Kinds of Government. — There are among civil- 
ized nations various modes of accomplishing this end. 
All of them differ more or less in detail; but civilized 
governments of the present day may be reduced to two 
kinds — the Republican and the Monarchial. 

4. Reiniblican Govern^nent, as that of the United 
States, is based upon the doctrine that all good govern- 
ment rests upon the consent of the governed. 

5. Couf/ress. — Every two years we have a new Con- 
gress, and the President is chosen for four 3'ears. 

Congress and the President make the laws, but they can onlj^ make laws 
in relation to such matters as the States have, in the Constitution, empowered 
them to legislate upon. 

(i. Monarchies. — In England, the crown is heredi- 
tary, and the government is based upon the assumption 
of the law that the "King can do no wrong." When 
there are abuses in administration the country holds the 
ministers, and not their sovereign, responsible for the 
proper administration of public affairs. 

7. Senate and House of Hejyresentatives. — With 
us Congress consists of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives. Two Senators are chosen by each State to 
serve six years at a time, and the Representatives are 
chosen by the people to serve two years, each State 
sending representatives in proportion to her population. 

8. Parliament. — In England, Parliament is the Con- 
gress. It consists of the House of Lords and the House 
of Commons. The members of the latter are chosen by 
the people for seven years, and in the former the mem- 
bers consist of certain of the nobility — the Peers of the 

9. Ttie Mnf/lish Government is what is called a 
Limited Monarchy : so are all the monarchies of Europe, 
except Russia and Turkey. 

10. Absolute 3Ionarehies. — Those are Absolute Mon- 
archies where the will of the Sovereign is the supreme 
law of the land. 

There are Empires, as Russia ; but there is no dif- 
ference between an Empire and a Kingdom, except in 

As a rule, an Empire is supposed to be larger than a Kingdom. 

11. The Xations of Euroite, including Great Britain.aro three Em- 
pires, thirteen Kingdoms, and two Republics; besides Hie pctt}' Rcpul)lics of 
San Marino and Andorra, tliere are twenty-four Duchiesj petty Principali- 
ties, and free States. 

12. The Nations of Americu. — Tliese are seventeen repuTilics, in- 
cluding Sau Domingo, and («ie empire. 

13. The Xations of Asia.— These are two empires and eight king- 
doms that are recognized by us as belonging to the family of nations. But 
besides these there are an upmost infinite number of tribes and petty jxiwers. 

14. TJie Nations of Africa. — Africa comprises one republic, sev- 
eral provincesr and a nuniber of so-called kingdoms and tribes that do. not 
attain to the dignity ol" nations. 

Qucstious.^ any people too ignorant to have sjomiG sort* of. govern- 
ment? — What is the jnain object of government? — What are the two princi- 
pal kinds of governments ? — Under what sort of government do you live? — 
Tell about Congress. — Under what sort of government do tlie English live ? 
— How many independent nations are there in Eui-ope? — Point out the em- 
pires. — IIov/ many America? — Point tlieni out on the map. — How 
mauy in Asia ? — Look at the map, and name them. 


The Industrial Pursuits of, Man, and the Geographical 
Distribution of Labor. 

1. Human Industries. — In most countries the chief 
industrial pursuits are agricultural. But agriculture is 
by no means the onl}'' branch of industr\' among nations 
and people. With some, mining ; with others, manufac- 
turing ; and with others, seafaring, is the chief branch 
of industry. 

2. Chief Branches of Industry. — The following 
are considered the chief branches of industry in a geo- 
graphical point of view : 

Agriculture, which includes tilling the earth and 
the raising of flocks and herds. 

Seafaring, which includes fishing and navigation. 

Mining, the raising of ores and minerals from the 
bowels of the earth, and refining them. 

Manufactures, the working up of all sorts of raw 
material, so as to bring them into more useful shapes. 

Commerce includes buying and selling, and the ex- 
changing of the products of one country for those of 



3, JVJij/ Industries vary. — To undei-stand the influences which 
cause people to turn their attention to this or that branch of industry is, 
practically, one of the most important and useful of the many highly instruc- 
tive branches of geography. 

In Louisiana, for example, the cultivation of the sugar-cane is an impor- 
tant branch of industry. 

In New England the cutting and gathering of ice from the ponds in 
winter, the putting of it on board ships, and the sending of it off to different 
parts of the world for a market, is an important industry. 

There are no ice-ponds in Louisiana and no cane-fields in New England, 
simply because the laws of nature, as expressed by climate, forbid. For this 
reason the rural- industries of countries diflFer. 

4. Iiidusti'ies depend on Geoffraphical Condi- 
tions. — All industries depend u{3on geographical cir- 
cumstances and upon the natural resources, situation, 
and exigencies of the country. 

As an illustration : Great Britain abounds in coal ; anl that j'ou may under- 
stand what an important part coal plays in her industries, please to remember 
that while it took one hundred thousand men, Herodotus says, twenty years to 
bu.ild the Great Pyramid of Egypt, it takes Great Britain only nine days to 
raise coal enough to make a pile just as grand. In a single year she has raised 
not less than one hundred and twelve millions of tons' of coal. Now, remem- 
ber, that a greater part of this coal is used by her people in driving machineiy 
and in manufacturing, and then reflect tliat there is in one pound of coal power 
enough to do as much work in one hour, as ten able-bodied men can do in 
a day, and you will not be surprised to hear that the Island of Great Britain, 
though not half so large as California, contains fifty times the number of 
people, who sell annually to other nations more than one thousand millions 
of dollars' worth of manufactured goods. 

Questions. — What, in a geographical point of view, are the five chief 
branches of human indiistrj' '! — Are these industries distributed about the 
world in obedience to any of the laws of nature? — Name one of 
the principal branches of- industry in Louisiana. — In Maine. — Why 
cannot the sugar-cane be cultivated in Maine? — Why will it 
not grow there? — How many .tons of coal are raised in Great Britain 


About the Influences which Regulate the Geographical 
Distribution of Labor. 

1. Horv Nfitions become Great. — We have seen 
what a great nation the English people have, by con- 
forming their industries to their geographical surround- 
ings, established on an island that is not as large as 
any one of the largest States of our Union. 

2. Climate. — This, more than any other single cause, 
influences the geographical distribution of human labor. 
Nature has prescribed for every shrub, for every tree, 
and for every animal, except man alone, its geographi- 
cal range. 

:i. The '* Geoffraphical Range" of a plant is the extent of the 
earth's surface within wliicli that plant will thrive in the open air. Each 
kind of plant, as well as each kind of animal, has its special geographical 
range. Thus the geographical range of the chinchona tree, of cochineal, of 
Uie india-rubber tree, and of the pineapple, is confined to the Torrid Zone. 

The division of the earth into zones is an artifice of man : these are not 
natural divisions, like hill and vale, land and water, anti nature doe* not re- 
cognize them. 

4. List, etc. — The following list contains the names, 
first, of the staple vegetable productions that have their 
geographical ranges confined to the zones, and, second, 
of those that overlap the dividing lines, and are found 
in more than one zone. 

1. Torrid Zone. — India-rubber, gutta-percha, spices, 
bamboo, cacao, cochineal, coffee, the plantain, bread- 
fruit, cherimoya and mangosteen — the most delightful 
of all fruits — sarsaparilla and cinchona, sago, opium, 
dye-woods, mahogany, pineapples, limes, mangoes, 
palm-oil, and the aloe. 

2. Temperate Zone. — Hemp, flax, buckwheat, naval 
stores (tar, pitch, and turpentine are called naval 
stores), maple sugar, madder, mulberries, currants, etc. 

3. Frigid Zone. — The vegetation of this zone is very 
poor, and none of the great agricultural staples, except 
perhaps barley, will grow there. 

'4. Products that Overlap the Zones. — The staple 
vegetable productions that are found both in the Torrid 
and Temperate Zones, are — sugar, tea, rice, cotton, cof- 
fee, corn, wheat, indigo, tobacco, oats, peas, beans, bar- 
ley, rye, pomegranates, melons, apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, oranges, cherries, lemons, strawberries, figs, po- 
tatoes, beets, turnips, carrots, parsnips, the vine, pump- 
kins, onions, almonds, and a great variety of other nuts, 
small fruits, flowers, and vegetables. 

It is chiefly in obedience to climate that all labor, 
except mining, is distributed over the earth. 

5. Division of Animals. — We divide animals into 
two classes, the Graminivorous and the Carnivoi'ous. 

Graminivorous means feeding on grass ; Carnivorous, feeding on flesh. 
The former, as the horse and the monkey, live upon grass and other vege- 
table food. The latter, as the dog and the lion, live upon flesh. The range 
of carnivorous animals is, in like manner, limited by the geographical 
range of the graminivorous animals which serve them for prey, aud the 
range of these last by the range of the plants upon which they feed. 

6. Han alone tvithout Geoffraphical Jtanqe. — 

All animals but man have a limited range. Man can 
live and move everywhere, in the Hot and in the Frigid 
Zone, in the desert and in the swamp, in the depth of 
the mine and on the loftiest mountain-top. 

Glaisher, the English jcronaut, ascended more than five miles over Lon- 
don ; but the highest dwelling of man is not over three miles above the sea. 

Questions. — What is it that chiefly influences the distribution of limnun 
labor on the earth ? — Give an example of how labor depends upon climate. 
— What is meant by the geographical range of a plant or animal V — What 
animal has the widest geographical range ? — Name some of IIk; plants and 
animaJs that have their geographical range confined to a particular zone. — 
Are the five zones natnnd or artificial divisions V — Name some of the plants 
that overlap these artificial divisions. — Which of the five chief branches of 
industry is least influenced by climate ?— Why V— What are Uie graminivo- 
rous and what the carnivorous animals ? — The range of man ? 

135 Kastof l.")() East of 165 Greenwich. 1»U West of llio Urouinvioli. l.,U 


P, B.J{ SIX 


"if— X.^ 



LAI., 'lA 

} C. Guardnfui 

C. Comori^ 



North East Cape 



J? G 


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E S-ji^i/-'- 


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Tropio of Cancer 

C Lad rone Is. 



•^ .1!.^! 

BrcniUli of UceaD 

0»1iroriitt W> 





Pt. Bariow 

„ C. Beecliey 



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i iau Frauci8cjJ?o ' J 






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(9 C 

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N° E 

A' ^ 


Marqi esaa 


J3onrl:)on. or I 
St: Mary 

l^opic of Capi'i ;orn 


New Caledonia 

(To rr»no#J 

Breadth of Oceal 


16000 [ 

Qj'!, '« Sir. 

^^^^ VyilOBAHT TOWN 




s^-^si^ > 

6 7s 



r7rti*-(«aftJl:rtr . . 29.00?. 


Jlliawnlniihiri . . JX.OOO. 


Jamalura . , . S.'i.-VK). 


namar .... 21.000. 


XaunaKea. . . 13 970. i 


Oi)Air .... I:i.8l2. 




Arnnraqita . . . 2.1. fU(. i 


VhimUurazo . . 21.401. 4 


Co(o;.,iJ-i . . . 1K.K76. > 

<. . . n.m. 


Sierra Nevada . 15."0.>. i 


St. IMrna . . ■ 15.700. 


Poparalapeil . . 17.80". 


BackyUU. ■ ■ 13.507. 



Mt. Blanc . . . 15.740. i 


m.-fi<Mt-^r-:~ i5.n7 i 


Mt. Ccn'in . . , H.TO.->. 


Shrrckhnrn . . UM«. < 


Sl.ncmard . . ll.oiH. 

> "• 

Simptan . . . It.ono. 

i '■ 

Mt. Etna ... 10 W.1. 

1 " 

Col de Ccrvin . . 10.50.'. 




Gerth Mt: . . . IS.n.'iO. 

m ■'■ 

Kilimandiaro . . SI. 0(10. 

™ 3. 

Atinii .vm, . . . r!..'.i». 

' 1. <■ 

TcnrrHTr. . . I2.r.H. 

iL. s. 

Lamalmon. . . Il.'-'IM 

1 »= 

150 East of IfiS Gi-eenwkh isij Wi:«i of Hi 





NoTB.-Tli>- Sniitlic.ii Occiin embraces 
the cold oceanic re;,'i(.iix ^oiiili of the Pa- 
cinc. Atl.inlic, ami Indian OceanH. The 
portion of it within llie Antarctic Circle, 
is pomelinics called the Antarctic Ocean. 


tf Eaatuf li (jciiiiumvlt 3U 





Studies on Mercator's Map of the World. 

What great land-mass occupies a central position on tliis Map?— Where 
does it approach nearest to another great body of land ?— Name the six largest 
divisions of land, including the largest island.— Which of these are partially 
represented on both the Eastern and Western sides of the Map ?— How many 
Oceans are there?— Name all the Oceans.— Where is Cape Horn?— Cape St. 
Roque ?— Cape Race ?— Strait of Belle Isle ?— Cape Farewell V— Point Bar- 
row?— Cape Prince of Wales ?— Cape Blanco?— Cape of Good Hope?— Cape 
Guardafui ?— Cape Comorin?— The Strait of Sunda ?— Tasmania ?— The Sand- 
wich Islands ?— Kamtchatka ?— Nova Zembla ?— Nortli Cape ?— Lofodeu's Is- 
lands ?— Cape St. Vincent ?— Cape Verde?— The Canary Islands?— The West 
Indies ?— Spitzbergen ? 

What Ocean lies east of America?— What lies west ?— What division of 
the Earth lies east of Europe?— What Ocean west?— What Ocean lies south 
of Asia ?— East of Asia ?— North of Asia ?— How are North and South America 
united ?— What Ocean east of Africa ?— What west ?— What Sea north ?— What 
is the greatest breadth of the Pacific Ocean ?— What of the Atlantic ?— Where 
is the Atlantic narrowest?— How wide is it there?— The term Antarctic Ocean 
is sometimes applied to the ocean sujrposed to exist south of the AntarctiA 

Through what parts of the world does the Arctic Circle run?— the Tropic 
of Caucer ? — the Equator ?— the Tropic of Capricorn ? — the Antartic Cii-cle ? — 
What great cities lie near the 40th parallel of north latitude?— the 50th?— 
Through what parts does the 30th parallel of south latitude pass?— Through 
what parts of the Earth does the meridian of Washington run? — the meridian 
of Greenwich ? — the meridian of Peking?— that of San Francisco ? 

Bound North America — South America — Asia — Europe — Africa — Aus- 
tralia — Spitzbergen — Arctic Ocean. 

Where is the Caspian Sea?— the Red Sea?— the Great Salt Lake?— Hud- 
son's Bay? — the Great Lakes of North America? — the Mediterranean Sea? — 
the Black Sea?— the Baltic?— the North Sea?— the Caribbean Sea?— the 
Gulf of Mexico ?— the Gulf of California ? 

Where is the Mississippi River ? — the Amazon ? — the Nile ? — the Rhine ? — 
the Danube? — the Volga? — the Ganges? — the Amoor? — the Darling? 

Where are the Alleghany Mountains ? — the Rocky Mountains ? — the An- 
des ?— the Himalaya ?— the Alps ? 

Find Washington, New York, San Francisco, Quebec, Livei-pool, London, 
Paris, Madrid, Hamburg, Berlin, Bogota, Lima, Mexico, Florence, Constan- 
tinople, St. Petersburg, Yakutsk, Petropaulowski, Honolulu, Melbourne, 
Havana, Reikiavik, Peking, Yedo. 

Which contains the most land, the Northern or Southern Hemisphere? 
Ana . The Nortliern contains three times as much as the Southern. — Which con- 
tains most, the Eastern or Western Hemisphere ? Ans. The Eastern contains 
twice as much. — Which Zone has the greatest proportion of land ? Ans. T7ie 
If&rth Temperate Zone : it has thirteen times as much land as tfw South Tem- 
perate Zone. — How much of the earth's circumference in the equatorial re- 
gion is water? Ans. Four-fifths. — How are the great Peninsulas of the 
Eai-th generally projected ? Ans. Toward tlie south, e. g., Spain, Arabia, Indo- 
China, Corea, Kamtchatka, Africa, South America, Alaska, California, Ma- 
lacca, and Greenland, and several other peninsulas. — How far have geo- 
graphers explored the Northern Hemisphere toward the North Pole ? Ans. 
iVo< farther than the %2d parallel of latitude. — On what parallel of latitude are 
both the Old and New World broadest? Ans. On the 50th parallel of north 
latitude. — Considering Australia a Continent, what proportion of the Earth's 

known land do you suppose c(msists of islands? Ans. About one-twerUy- 
fifth. — How do the mountain ranges of the New World run ? — How do those 
of the Old World run, mostly ? — In and near what Zone do you find the 
highest mountains? Ans. The Torrid. — Compare the coasts of North and 
South America with those of Greenland, Europe, and Africa, and see if they 
would ^< into each otlwr, if brought togetlier. 

Note. — Does not the eastern angle of South America look as if it had been 
torn out of the Gulf of Guinea, and the western projection of Africa out of 
tlie Gulf of Mexico ? You see how the projections of one coast correspond 
with the recesses in the opposite coast ; even the mountains and plains of the 
one correspond with those of the other. 

The meridian of Teneriffe, one of the Caniry Islands, divides the Earth 
into two parts ; in one of them the land greatly predominates, in tlie other 
the water predominates. On M'liich side of that meridian is the great mass 
of Land? 

LEssojv xr. 

;About Glimato. 

1. Climate is' the combined effect of light; heat, elec- 
tricity, and moisture, and is manifested in what we call 
'7Ae weather J^ 

It was held for a long while that the climate of a place 
depended only upon itvS latitude, but i)laces in the same 
latitude may and often do have very different climates. 

2. Jlotintain To^ts. — rit is a Avell known fact that the 
weather on the top of u mountain is generally cooler 
than the weather at its foot. Indeed there are some parts 
of the Rocky Mountains, even in our own country, unin- 
habitably cold. They arc alway's covered with snow, 
both in winter and summer. 

There are, in South America, where the Andes are crossed by the Equatoi, 
peaks, such as Antisana, wliieh, although it is a burning volcano, jiuslies its top 
up to the height of It), 1:17 feet above the level of the sea — so high as to reacli 
frozen regions. On the top of that mountain, even in the Torrid Zone, with 
the sun directly overhead, the cold is bitter. 

The line of elevation above; which the cold is, at all 
seasons of the year, sufficient to congeal the moisture of 
the air and form snow, is called the Snow-Line. 

3. The Snow-Line at the Bquator. — The limit of 
the snow-line at the Equator is 16,000 feet above the 
sea ; so there are mountains in the Torrid Zone on the 
tops of which the weather is as cold as it is at the North 
Pole. The ice never thaws, and no green thing can 
grow there. In descending these snow-capped moun- 
tains in the Tropics, we experience, in a ride of a few 
hours, all the changes of climate that would be felt in 
travelling from Spitzbergen to Cuba in a single day. 

4. Causes wJiich influence climate. — From facts 
like these, it appears that climate depends upon height 
above the sea, as well as upon distance from the Equator. 

But climates are influenced bv other circumstances also. 



The Island of Great Britain and the Territory of 
Labrador lie between the same parallels of latitude, 
and yet, notwithstanding the Highlands of Scotland and 
the mountains of Wales, are higher than the hills of 
Labrador, the winter climate of England is so mild 
that the pastures are green all the year, and London 
has to depend upon the ponds of New England, which 
are six degrees nearer to the Equator, to fill its ice-houses ; 
while the winter climate of Labrador, on this side of the 
Atlantic, is so cold as to render the country uninhabitable. 

Scotland, ia the northern part of Great Britain, is not only more moun- 
tainous than Labrador, but it is also farther from the Equator ; yet its 
winter climate is very much milder than tluit of Labrador. 

This difference of climate depends both upon the 
situation of those countries with regard to the sea, 
ami ui)on the prevailing direction of the winds. 

In the British Islands, the winds come from the ocean.^ They are 
l(;ade(l with moisture from the sea, and warmth from the Gulf Stream. 
In Labrador they cfnne from the land, and are dry and cold. It is 
owing to the direction of the winds with regard to the sea that the cli- 
mates of Oregon and British Columbia are mild like tliose of "Western 
Europe, not cold like tliose of countries in the same, latitude on the east- 
ern coast of America. 

3. A Hide for Climates. — In (;ountries within the 
temperate zones, where the prevailing winds come 
from the sea, the climates are not so cold in winter 
nor so warm in summer as they, are where the 
winds come from the land. 

The prevailing direction of the wind throughout 
the teuiperate zones is horn the westward, but from 
the eastward in the torrid zone. 

Xotwilhstauding the mild winter climate of Great 
Britain, the summer there is too cool for Indian 
corn to grow. 

Thus, in order to judge proi)erly as to the climate 
of a country, the geographer has to take into consider- 
ation not ouly its distance from the Ecjuator and its height 
above the level of the sea, but its distance from the sea 
and the prevailing direction of the winds also, and ascer- 
tain whether they come from the land or from the water. 

The Uible-land of Mexico is six or eight thousand feet above the sea ; and 
notwithstanding it is in the torria zone, it is not so high as to have a cold, or 
so low as to have a hot, climate. There are only two seasons there. We 
have four. With the Mexicans, the year is divided into the rainy and the 
dry seasons ; they have no wintry weather. The cactus, with its variety of 
forms, is the characteristic vegetation of the Mexican table-land. 

0. I.sothermfil lAnes. — To give a better idea of 
climates than a knowledge merely of latitude would 
convey, Humboldt introduced the plan of drawing on 
the maps lines through all places having the same aver- 
age temperature. These lines are irregular curves, 
Jind they are called Iso-therms (same temperature). 

They do not tell the climate, but they convey a bet- 
ter idea of what the climate of this or that place prob- 
ably is, than a mere statement of its latitude or eleva- 
tion above the sea would do. 

The striking lend of these isotherms is due to the 
presence of moisture in the air, the agency of the winds, 
and of the great currents of the Ocean. 

The isotherm of New York, immediately on leaving the Atlantic coast, is 
bent down by a cold Arctic current running near the coast ; but as soon as 
this line enters the Gulf Stream it inclhies northward toward Europe, and 
conies out on the other side of the Atlantic, 1500 miles farther north than 
New York. 

Sandwich. Is. 


Jamaica S. Domingo 


7. Industries ami Climates. — Though the geo- 
graphical distribution of all (ujricultural labor is almost 
wholly ail affair of climate, there are other industries, 
such as mining and manufacturing, that are, to a certain 
extent, independent of climate. 

The laboring man in some countries abandons th.^ 
cultivation of the .soil, especially in those parts of thr, 
world where the sea with its bounties, or the factorj- 
with its attractions, or the forest with its game, becomes 
more tempting than the soil. 

H. Tttde for Labor. — From all this we derive this 
geographical rule : As you recede from the warm cli- 
mates of the South and approach the cold regions of the 
North, human labor becomes less and less agricultural, 



and the occupations of man more and more diver- 

It is in obedience to this law that the Northern States 
are more devoted to manufactures and commerce and 
seafaring than the Southern States are. 

Quesfions. — "What is climate ? — Does the climate of places depend en- 
tirely upon latitude and elevation above the sea-level ?— What other two 
conditions influence climate ?— As you ascend a high mountain does it grow 
warmer or colder?— What is the snow-line ?— How high above the level of 
the sea is the snow-line at the Equator ?— How high is Antisana ?— Compare 
the climate of England with that of Labrador.— They are in the same lati- 
tude : show the contrasts.— Point out these countries on the map. (Mer- 

cator's.) Can yon describe the difference in their climates ? — How do you 
account for that difference ? — How does the climate of Oregon and British 
Columbia compare with the climates of countries between the same parallels 
of latitude that front on the Atlantic, as Maine and Labrador ? — What is the 
general direction of the prevailing winds in the temperate zone ? — What in 
the torrid ? — What are the conditions upon which climates mainly depend V 
— Wluit is the height of the table-lands of Mexico ? — Describe the climate 
there. — Does Indian corn grow in England ? — Wliat are isothermal lines ? — 
Who suggested them ? — Can you trace the isotherm of 40° V — How many de- 
grees of latitude does it cross in running from the west to the east coast of 
the United States? — Is there any geographical reason why the people of the 
New England States should, more readily than the people of the Southern 
States, resort to the sea, the railroad, and the fiictory for a living ? — Point out 
on the map those countries whose sea-coast lies within the temperate zone. 
— What geographical rule does this lesson teixch with regard to human labor? 






Our own Country — its Discovery and Settlement. 

1. The Discover If of America. — America is our 
country, and it is both interesting and instructive to 
learn its geography before it was inhabited by the 
white man. 

Though America is one of the grand divisions of the 
world, as late as four centuries ago it was unknown to 

the people of Europe. It was then inhabited by red 
men and wild beasts. It was discovered, you remem- 
ber, by Christopher Columbus in 1492, and was named 
America after Americus Vespucius, one of his compan- 
ions, a Florentine. 

The first land discovered was j\^hat is now caHed 
Watling Island, which is one of the small islands of the 
West Indies. This event led to the discovery of other 
islands, and finally of the American continent itself. 



2. Tlie West Indies. — Columbus at first thought that 
the islands he had discovered were the East Indies, and 
when he found out they were not, they were called the 
Wed Indies. In soil, climate, and productions there is a 
striking similarity between the two groups. 

3. Indians. — Both North and South America, with 
their adjacent islands, were inhabited by Indians, of 
whom only the Peruvians and the Aztecs of Mexico 
were civilized.- 


4. Domestic Animals — There were no horses and no 
milch kiiie on the Continent at the time of its discovery. 
Neither was there any draught animal, beast of burden, 
or domestic animal of any kind known to the natives, 
except the hairless dog of Cuba and the llama of Peru. 

.5. Sarf/asso Sea. — Among the strange things that 
Cohimbiis and his men came across on their outward 
voyage was, as you have learned in a previous book, the 
Sargasso Sea. That same sea of weeds is still there. It 
embraces an area of thousands of square miles. 

6'. The Trade-Wind. — Another thing that amazed 
and alarmed his crew was that, after leaving Si)ain and 
getting out to sea, they found the wind did not change 
its direction. Day after day it continued from the 
northeast. They feared that they shoul-d never be 
able to return to their own country against such a wind. 
This was the northeast trade-wind, well known to every 
sailor of the j)rcsent day. 

7. Sfraiif/e Things in the New ITorir/— But as wontlerful and as 
nuirvellous iis these thinj^s were, the red men of America, witli their jMpes, 
bows, and tomahawks; the inter-troi)ieal ve,!,'etation of the islands, with lis 
delicious fruits and beautiful flowers; and the perpetual summer of the Tiop- 
ics, with its soft climates, were still more so ; and the stories told by the simple 
natives of mifchty nations and golden treasures in a land still farther to the 
westward, filled the minds and inflamed the imagination of these daring 
mariners with the most dazzling pictures and extravagant allurements — such 

as a fountain in Florida, whose waters imparted perpetual youth to all who 
bathed in them ; and a King in the fastnesses of South America, who every 
morning was anointed with oil and covered with gold-dust. This was the 
famous but fabled El Dorado {gilt with gold), who lived somewhere on the 
banks of the Orinoco, in a city called Manoa. Its houses were roofed with 
gold, and its streets paved with precious stones. 

8. Spanish and Portuffuese Settlements. — Spain 
followed up her splendid discoveries in the New World 
by immediate possession, and the prompt establishment 
of colonies, of which Cuba and the Spanish Republics 
of America are the living memorials. 

She was closely followed by Portugal, who 
afterwards claimed Brazil by right of sup- 
posed priority of discovery. 

Bartiiolomew Dias, one of her navigators, doubled the Cape 
of Good Hope six years before Columbus saw America. 
Another, Vasco de Gamo, made the first voyage to India by 
that route. 

9. The Line of no Variation. — Between these two 
powers the New World was partitioned according to a sup- 
posed physical, but an ill-defined and ever-changing line — 
the Urn of no variation. In Europe the needle points to the 
west of north, ("olumbus, as he crossed the Atlantic, was the 
first to discover this variation ; and the Pope, who was then 
at the height of his power, used this line of no variation as a 
line of geographical division between the possessions of the 
two wrangling powers. But this line is ever changing its 
position, and fiiiled entirely to subserve the purposes of a 
geographical boundary. 

10. Early Colonies. — The first colony was estab- 
lished on the James river at Jamestown, Virginia, in 
1607. That was soon followed up by the establishment 
of other colonies. The Roman Catholics settled Maryland, 
the Quakers Pennsylvania, the Puritans New England. 

The Dutch had settlements in New York, the Swedes 
in New Jersey, and the Danes in Delaware ; but in 
1662 the inhabitants of these colonies became subject to 
the rule of England. 

San Augustine {San au-gys-teen'), in Florida, is the oldest settlement in 
the whole United States. Florida belonged to Si)ain until 1810, and the 
Spaniards had a settlement there — at San Augustine — nearly fifty years before 
Capt. John Smith established at Jamestown England's first American colony. 

Qiicfifions. — 1. On what Continent do you live ? — When and by whom 
was America discovered? — By whom was it inhabited? — Whence does it 
derive its name? — What was the first land discovered? 2. How did the 
West Indies get their name ? 3. Were any of the aborigines of America 
civilized ? — Who ? 4. What was their only domestic animal and beast of 
burden ? S. What and where is the Sargasso Sea ? — Point it out on the map. 
a. What natural phenomenon alarmed the crew of Columbus ? — Why ? 7. 
What things in the New World aj^peared most astonishing to the discoverers? 
— What fabulous stories did they hear and believe? — Where was the Foun- 
tain of Youth? — Who was El Dorado? S. What Nation was the first to 
jilant colonies in the New World ? — Why did Portugal claim a portion of it ? — 
Who was her great navigator, and what discoveries did he make ? — By whom 
and how were the rival claims settled ? i). What is the line of " no varia- 
tion ?"— Is it stationary ? 10. Which is the oldest city in the United States ?— 
How long after Spain established settlements in America before England began 
to plant colonies in the New World ? — When and where was her first colony 
established? — What were the other early settlements? 

58 '^"^ or-lTashington , 
^— i3 28 1-' 


/ / ^- 


lU , 



•? /f 











S-corroI. c.C"^'^l„«e» 





]00 200 300 400 500 coo 700 

Statute Miles 



"Weat of lireeinricli.. 




Studies on the Map of North America. 


Within what Meridians and Parallels is North America included ?— How 
is North America bounded? — What body of water connects the Atlantic 
with the Arctic Ocean?— What Strait connects the Arctic and the Pacific 
Oceans ? (see p. 10).— What Sea and Gulf wash this Continent on the south- 
east? — What great body of water in the northeastern part of the Continent ? 
—What land lies east of Baffin Bay ?— Is Greenland anywhere united to 
North America ?—M««. Nowhere, e.\cept by the ice in Smith's Sound. 

Where is Smith's Sound? — In what direction does Greenland extend? — 
Point out' Cape Farewell. — Where and what is Iceland? — Point out Cape 
North in Iceland. 

What Cape is first seen by a vessel crossing from England to America ? 


How and where does the Atlantic Ocean make indentations into the 
-shores of North America? Ans. In the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. — Where does the Pacific indent the Continent? Aim. In the Gulf 
of Califoriiia. — Does not the Gulf of Mexico look as if the Ocean Jiad scooped 
out tlie land? The great Eiiualorial current, coming from the Eastern side 
of the Atlantic, enters the Gulf of Mexico between Yucatan and Cuba,and 
sweeping in a circuit of the Gulf, issues at tiic Florida Channel, in the Qlulf 


Through what Strait would you enter Baffin Bay from tiie Atlantic ? — How 
would you enter tlie Arctic Ocean from liie Pacific '; (p. 10).— Point out Yucatan 
{yu-cH-taii). — Where is the Bay ()f Honduras? — Point out the West Indies. — 
Point out Cape Sable — Cape Ilatteras— C'a|)e Cod — Cajjc Race — The Strait of 
Belle-isle — Hudson Strait — Lancaster Sound — Barrow Strait — Melville Sound 
— Cape Bathurst — Point Barrow — Fo.x. Cliannel — IJehring Strait — Melville 
Ishtnd — Queen Charlotte Sound — Cape Flattery — Cape Mendocino {men-do- 
aee' no)— Toint Conception — Cape San Lucas. 

Watei- Divisions. 

Find Lake Nicaragua — Great Salt Lake — Lake Superior — Lake Michigan 
— Lake Winuepeg — Lake Athabasca — Great Slave Lake. 

Find Ballenas Bay — Chesapeake Bajr — Ascension Bay — Gulf of Te- 
huantepec (Itih-tcan'te-pek) — Bay of Panama. — Where is the Gulf of Darien ? 
—Where is Campeche Bay ? — Where is James Bay? 


What three mountain-ranges are tliere in North America? — Do they run 
m the general direction of the sea-coasts near them ? — How do liie Rocky 
Mountains run ? — Tlie Sierra Nevada ? — The Alleghany Mountains ? — Which 
is the longest range ? — Which the shortest ? — Which the loftiest ? — Which 
contains Mount Shasta? The Rocky Mountain range crosses the Isthmus of 
Panama and is prolonged in the Andes of South America to the extremity of 
that continent at Cape Horn. — How long is that? (See Map, p. 20.) 

Where are the Sierra Madre Mountains ? — The Cascade Mts. ? 

Point out Mount St. Elias. This is the highest peak in North America. — 
Where is Mount Hecla?— Long's Peak ?— Pike's Peak ?— Spanish Peaks? 

How are North America and South America imited ? — How wide, by the 
Map and Scale, is the Isthmus of Darien in its narrov/est part? 


Name some of the principal islands near the Arctic coast of the Continent 

— near the Atlantic coast — near the Gulf of Mexico — near the Pacific coast. — 
Point out Cuba — Hayti — San Domingo — Porto Rico — Andros Island — New- 
foundland — Vancouver Island — Queen Charlotte Island — Long Island — 
Prince of Wales Land — Breton Island — Anticosti. 


Where is the Mississippi River ?— Trace its course — Where, the Missouri ? 
— Trace it. — The St. Lawrence — the Ohio — the Ottawa — the Cumberland — 
the Brazos — the Rio Pecos — Lewis River — Clark's River— Red River — the 
Arkansas — the Tennessee — the Platte — the Saskatchawan — the Mackenzie — 
the Yukon — tht; Columbia — the Colorado — the Rio Grande ? — How long is 
the Mississippi? — The Missouri? 

Where does the Rio Gi-ande del Norte rise? — In which direction does the 
Mississippi flow ? — the Ohio — the Saskatchawan — the Yukon — the St. Law- 
rence — the Mackenzie ? 


Point out the Peninsulas of Yucatan, Florida, Nova Scotia, Alaska, and 
California. — Victoria Land, King William's Land, Boothia, Melville Penin- 

Political Divisions. 

What three great countries lie wholly north of the Trojiic of Cancer? 

What are the boundaries of the United States ?— What, of Alaska?— Of 
Labrador?— Of the Dominion of Canada? — Of Mexico? 

Bound Mexico. — What CQUutry lies between the Caribbean {k/ii--ih-be'<ih) 
Sea and the Pacitic Ocean ? 

To what power do Cuba aiul Porto Rico belong? Ana. To S|)ain. — To 
what power does Jamaica belong? Anx. To England. — Is Hayti independ- 
ent? Ans. Yes. 


In which zone is North Auu-rica mostly sitn;i(cd? 

Where would you fiiul tropical |)roductions on the (Jontinent ? 

Where are the finest fisheries? Ans. On the northeastern and noith- 
western coasts. 

Where is grain most extensively cultivated? Ans. In the Valley of the 

Where are the winters coldest, on the coast or in the interior of the same 
latitude ? Ans. In the Interior. 

Which are the two largest political divisions of North America?— Which 
is next in size? — Next?— Which is the snudlest ? 

Are all the West India Islands in the Torrid Zone ? — How much of Mexico 
is in the Temperate Zone ? 

Where do the Esquimaux live ? — Where is Upernavik ? — Ilopedale ? — St. 
John's? — Havana? — Aspinwall ? — City of Mexico? — ('liiiuiahua {che-wah - 
wah) ?— San Francisco ?— Virginia City ?— St. Paul ?— Detroit ?— Buffiilo ?— 
Albany ? — Washington ? — Memphis ? 

AVhat mountains and rivers would you cross in going directly from 
Washington city to San Francisco ? — From the city of Mexico to New York ? 
— Where is the Magnetic Pole ? 

What are the most northern lands of North America? — the most 
eastern ? — the most western ? — the most soiUhern ? 

What parallels of latitude woidd you cross in going from Panama to Point 
Barrow ? — What meridians of longitude would you cross in going from Sitka 
to St. John's, Newfoundland ? 



LEssojv xriii. 

Our own Country — Gontinued. 

1. Early English Settlements. — After establishing 
the colony at Jamestown, in Virginia, England pro- 
ceeded to establish and acquire others, until her colonies 
numbered thirteen. These were Virginia, Maryland, 
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. These 
are often called the " Original Thirteen^ 

These colonies were governed very much in the same 
way as the Dominion of Canada now is, but had no 
voice in their own government. 

2. TJie Revolution. — After many j'ears of unwar- 
ranted restrictions and painful exactions, they became 
dissatisfied with the treatment they received from the 
mother country, and complained to the King and his 
ministers. The colonists obtained no redress of their 
grievances. Then, in the persons of their representa- 
tives, they met in what is now called "Independence 
Hall." at Philadelphia, on the 4th of July, 1776, and 
declared themselves free, sovereign, and independent. 
But it became necessary to fight, to make the declara- 
tion good. 

Finally, after seven years' war, we were acknowledged 
by Great Britain herself to be thirteen independent 
powers. Afterward the " Thirteen" agreed to unite 
under the Constitution, and create the government of 
The United States of America. 

3. I*olitlcal Chanffcsy etc. — ^At the end of the Revo- 
lutionary War, Kentucky, and all that territory east of 
the Mississippi, which now constitutes the States of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, be- 
longed to Virginia. She ceded it to the government of 
the United States in trust for the benefit of all the 
States alike. 

In 1803 Louisiana, which then included what is now 
Arkansas, Missouri, and other States west of the Mis- 
sissippi, was purchased from the French. 

In 1819 Florida, which belonged to the Spaniards, 
was purchased from Spain. 

In 1845 Texas — having previously revolted from 
Mexico and established her independence — was annexed 
to the United States, and became one of them. 

In 1848 California was bought from Mexico for 
$20,000,000, and Arizona, in 1854. for $10,000,000. 
Finally, in 1867, Russian America, marked on the maps 

as Alaska, was purchased from Russia for $7,200,000, 
and thus the borders of the "Original Thirteen" have 
been enlarged to their present gigantic proportions. 

Questions. — 1. Name the original thirteen. To whom did they belong 
as colonies ?— How were they governed ? 2. How did they become separated 
from the British Crown? — When and where did tliey proclaim their inde- 
pendence? 3. What was the extent of the Territory tliat orijrinally formed 
the State of Virginia?— What did she do with it? — How have the United 
States since enlarged their borders most, by purchase or by conquest ? 


Geographical Position and Features of America.- 

/. Geographical Vosition. — Before we go farther 
into the political geogra})hy of our own country, let us 
take a general survey of Mercator's map (pp. 21 and 22), 
and study the geographical position which the American 
Continents occupy with regard to the rest x)f- the world. 
This position is important in its commercial, political, 
and social aspects. 

2. Extent. — The Continents ftf America, as you will 
observe on the map, stretch from the frozen regions of 
the North to the inhospitable climes of Cape Horn 
[Caho de Ornos), so called from the number of burning 
volcanoes which the. Spaniards, w.ho first doubled it, saw. 

They called it, therefore, the Cape of the Furnaces or Ovens (Ornos). 

These Continents extend from the parallel of 75^^ 
North to that of 57° South. latitude, which is more than 
nine thousand statute miles in length ; and they include 
within their borders large portions of four out of the 
five great zones into which geographers have divided 
the earth. Area, excluding islands, 15,000,000 sq. ms. 

Asia and Africa lie each partly in three, and Europe in two of the zones ; 
and though America is not the largest continent in area, it includes a gieatcr 
range of latitude, embraces a greater diversity of climate, and yields as great 
a variety of vegetable productions as all the others put together. 

3. Advantages of I*osition. — America lies between 
the two great Oceans ; it has the Atlantic on the East 
and the Pacific on the West. Its harbors on the Pa- 
cific are midway between the western shores of Europe 
and the eastern shores of Asia. 

With its double sea front, numerous harbors, narrow 
isthmus, and central position, combined with its great 
length from North to South, and the quick transit 
across it, and its great diversity (^f climate, America is 
destined to be the most maritime and commercial of all 
the continents. 

Commercially, it is in the position of a half-way house 
between the maritime nations of Western Europe and 



Eastern Asia. Highways for commerce have been con- 
structed across it, and more are in preparation. 

Australia is a British Possession, and already the Isthmus of Panama is 
made the thoroughfare for mails and passengers between that land of gold 
and its mother country. 

The maritime nations, and especially the United States, are making serious 
efforts to open a ship-canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Should this be 
accomplished, through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, or Panama, the canal 
would doubtless become the great commercial thoroughfare for the world's 
caravan of trade. 

4. Hivers and Lakes. — America possesses larger 
rivers than any of the other continents. It is more 
abundantly watered than any of them, and it has a 
smaller extent of desert waste and barren land than 
either Africa or Asia, and is capable of sustaining a 
larger ])opulation than either. 

More than half of all the fresh water in the world is 
contained in the Great North American Lakes, and 
there are no rivers anywhere of such volume as the 
Amazon and the Mississippi. 

What drains and gutters are to the streets, and ditches to the farmer's low 
grounds, rivers are to the country at large — they collect the drainage and 
carrj- it off. 

The proper study of the rivers and the mountains and the coast-lines of a 
country, simply as they are delineated on the maps, is most instructive. 

o. Runnimf Water. — The face of the earth has been 
made what it is by the influence of mountains, the agen- 
cies of rivers, and the action of water. Travel through 
the country where you will, and you will see in the 
rounded pebbles, in the layers of rocks and soil, or in 
the distribution of sand, evidence of this action. 

Wherefore, in studying a river in its geographical aspects, you arc not to 
consider so much the width of its channel, or the depth and capacity of its 
current, as you are to study the offices which the water, as it rolls along, 
performs, and the extent of country to which it gives drainage. 

0. Furtlier Offices of Itivers.— More clearly to understand the of- 
fices of rivers in the economy of nature, let us follow in imagination the 
waters wliich feed them from the time they come from the sea as vapor until 
tiiey return to it again through the river. It has formed clouds to decorate 
tlie sky and screen the earth from the heat as well as cold. It has been con- 
densed into rain, and refreshed the land with showers. It has filled the 
water-veins in the earth which feed the springs and wells, and in doing that 
it has collected food for the inhabitants of the sea, for it has dissolved and 
worn away the rocks, and torn off from them the materials of which sea- 
slielis and coral are made ; and while it was doing all tliis, it turned mills, 
drove machinery, floated ships, and carried the rich produce of our land to 

7. T7ie Watershed of a river is formed by the sides 
of the hills and valleys which slope toward it, and from 
which it receives the drainage. The valley, or hydro- 
graphic basin, of a river, is the whole extent of country 
that is drained by it. Thus we speak of the valley of 
the Mi.ssissippi, or the hydrographic basin of the Ama- 
zon, and mean all that part of the continent from which 
the waters run into those rivers. 

The valleys of these rivers form the two largest hydrographic basins in 
the world, and as the roofs of the largest houses require the largest gutters to 
carry off the water, so the largest hydrographic basins requh'e the largest 
rivers to drain them — tlie rain-fall being the same. 

Thus, simply by looking at the map and tracing out by the eye the various 
river basins, you arrive at the conclusion that the Amazon and the Mississippi 
are the largest rivers in the world ; and so they are. 

So, also, you might judge of the extent of an unexplored river basin by 
ascertaining the volume of the river through which its water is discharged. 

8. 3£ountalns. — America has also the longest range 
of mountains in the world. The Andes take their rise 
in Patagonia, and skirting the Pacific coast of the coun- 
try, extend all the way to the isthmus which connects 
North and South America, stooping down to hills of 
two or three hundred feet in height. They rise up 
again, as you go north, until they reach the grand pro- 
portions of the Sierra Madre — as the range is called 
in Mexico — and then of the Rocky Mountains in tlie 
United States, the name by which they are known in 
all their northern extent. 

The Orogkaphic View of the United States, on the next page, re- 
veals to you at a glance our great mountain-systems, our valleys and hills, 
the large divides and watersheds, which assist in giving direction, volume, 
and velocity to our noble rivers ; it also shows our immense pi-airies and 
slopes — in a word, it presents us with a miniature pictorial model of the face 
of our country. Examine it long and carefully. 

The different tints of light and shade represent the elevations and depres- 
sions of the surftice of the country ; the dark shades and tints show the low 
lands and deep valleys; the lighter tints show the higher lands and the 
mountains.— In the darker shades rivers are marked by a white line; and in 
the lighter shades by & black line. 

Questions. — 1. Why is our geographical position important ? 2. What 
are the northern and southern boundaries of the American Continent? — 
What is the distance between them ? — How did Cape Horn get its name V — 
How many Zones does tlie Continent of America cross? — Which of the four 
Continents has the greatest diversity of climate ? 3. Which coast of Amer- 
ica is nearly midway between the western shores of Europe and the eastern 
shores of Asia ? — What are the geographical circumstances which are des- 
tined to make this Continent the most commercial and maritime of the four ? 
^— What gives America its great diversity of climate and variety of produc- 
tions? — What two Oceans bathe its eastern and western shores ? — Which of 
the Continents is most abundantly watered ? — Which has the least Desert? 
— Why is this Continent capable of sustaining a larger population than 
any of the others ? How does it compare with them as to the size of its 
Lakes and Rivers ? 4. What proportion of the fresh water in the world do 
the Great Lakes contain ? — What, in a geographical point of view, is the use 
of Rivers? 5. Name some of the offices of water. — Did you ever see any 
evidences of its action ? 0. Tell what the water in a River has been doing 
since it left the Sea as vapor. 7- What is the Watershed of a River? — A 
Hydrographic Basin ? — Trace out with your finger on the map the Hydro- 
graphic Basin of the Amazon — the Valley of the Mississippi — the Ohio — the 
Tennessee — the Columbia — the Potomac — the Orinoco — the La Plata. — How, 
by looking at the map, can you judge as to the relative size of Rivers ? — Why 
does a large Watershed require a larger River than a small one to carry off 
llie water from it? — Where are the two largest Rivers in the world? 8. 
Wliich Continent has the longest mountixin range ? — Trace it out on the 
map. — To which coast is it nearest ? — What names does it assume ? 

On Avhich side of the Oroguapiiic View op the United States do you 
distinguish the loftiest mountains ? — On which side, consequently, do you find 
the longest and most majestic rivei's ? — How is the Mississippi Basin formed ? 
Ans. By the slopes of the Alleghany Mts. on one side, and of the Rocky 



Mountains on the other side.--Do you discern in the Orographic View a gen- 
tle elevation south of Lake Eiie ? From the crest of thig, some streams I'un 
northward inU) the Lake, and some southward into the Ohio River. 

Why are the streams west of the Rocky Mountains smaller than those on 
the eastern side of the range ?— How are the great Lakes fed ?— Judging by 
the eye, which has the most rain, the eastern or western side of the Alleglia- 
nies ? Am. The western. — Why is this ? Ans. Because the eastern side of 
the mountains gets little rain from the sea ; the prevaUing winds are from 
the west 


A General View of the Geography of the United States. 

1. Extent. — The United States extend from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific Ocean, and the distance from sea to 
sea, in a direct line across the country, is 2,100 miles 
in the narrowest and 2,600 in the broadest part. 

In latitude the United States extend from the Great 
Lakes on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. 
Further to the west they stretch from the confines of 
Mexico to the British possessions on the north. 

From their extreme northern to their extreme southern limits they em- 
brace, including the ne.wly-acquired teriitoiy of Alaska, forty degrees of lati- 
tude ; but tlie clioicest parts of the United States lie between the parallels of 
twenty-six degrees and forty-nine degrees. 

2. Climate and Productions. — This breadth of 
latitude, as you may have inferred from the preceding 
lesson, is the cause of a great diversity of climates in 
this country, with their varieties of production. 

This portion of the North TemperatG Zone corresponds in climate and 
productions to that which is occupied in Europe by the most enligliten(!d and 
prosperous nations ; but Europe is not blessed with such a variety of climate 
and productions as wc have here. Our groat staples of cotton, rice, sugar, 
and tobacco cannot be cultivated to a profital)lc extent in Europe. 

All the great agricultural staples of commerce, including tea, coffee, and 
indigo, are to be found in tlie United States. 

The climate of Florida and the lands bordering the Gulf of Mexico is 
semi-tropical. To the north of this belt we liave, either on the plains or in 
the valleys or on the mountain slopes, all climates that are to be found in 
Europe between the frozen regions of the North and the sunny plains of 
Greece and Italy. 

3. Our Sea-Fronts and Harbors.— On the cast, 
■south, and west we look out on the sea, and American 
waters arc more lavish with their l)ounties than those 
of other countries. They abound in excellent harbors, 
in which our neighbors are deficient. 

Nature lias placed in the way of Mexico and the Central American States 
obstacles which bar tliem, in a measure, from the industries of the sea, and 
tend to place obstructions in tlieir way as great maritime and commercial 

Nor are our neighbors on tlie nortli more favored in this respect than our 
neiglibors on tlie south, for in the dominion of Canada tlie harbors are closed 
annually with ice, and navigation suspended for many months; and when 
the harbors are free, their offings are often beset with icebeigs, and made 
dangerous to the navigator by renson of dense logs ; whereas the harbors and 
coasts of tlie United States are ever free and open. 

4. Inland NavUjation. — Inland, and midway be- 

tween the Atlantic and Pacific, the Mississippi River 
flows from north to south, receiving richly-laden vessels 
from its navigable tributaries as they pour in from the 
east and west, and giving to the inhabitants of its 
valley a free outlet to the sea for their produce and 

The great Lakes, from Superior to Ontario, are inland 
seas, which have the commerce of an ocean and greatly 
facilitate trade and intercourse between the people of 
the neighboring States. 

.5. Nearness to Market. — With all these advantages of geographical 
feature and position, we are nearer to the markets of Europe than are the 
people of either China or .Japan ; and consequently can undersell them there. 

With a canal through the Isthmus we shall also be nearer to the markets 
of China, Japan, and the East than the merchants of Europe are. 

Thus you perceive that this country occupies geographically the most 
favored position. 

Questions. — 1. What is the greatest distance in a straight line across the 
United States between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ?— What the least? — 
Across which tier of States does it run, the Northern or the Southern ? — How 
many degrees of latitude do the United States,, with the newly-acquired terri- 
tory of Alaska, embrace ? 2. To what is the great diversity of climate in the 
United States attributable ? — Why ai'c the United States able to boast of a 
greater variety of production than Europe? — Which of our great agricultural 
staples cannot be profitably cultivated tliere?— What great staples of com- 
merce are cultivated in the United States? — In what parts of the United 
States is the climate semi-tropical? — In the other parts what are the cli- 
mates? tf. Why, commercially speaking, is the geographical position of the 
United Slates more advantageous than that of any other continental power? — ■ 
Compare the United States with the countries immediately to the North and 
South with regard to harbors. — Why are Mexico and the Central American 
States never likely to become great maritime and commercial powers? 4. 
Can you name any other circumstances besides those which you have already 
mentioned, which tend to make the geograi)liical position of the United States 
so favorable? .5. Why should American merchants be able to undersell Euro- 
pean merchants in the markets of China and Japan? 


Studies on the Map of the United States. 

Coii/if/itration and Honndaries. — Point out on the map, the broad- 
est and the narrowest part of the United States. — Between what parallels of 
latitude do the United States lie? — Between what political divisions do they 
Vw'i — How are the United States separated from the British provinces? — 
Name the four great Lakes that lie between the United States and the Can- 
adas. — Name the Rivers or Straits that connect these Lakes one with another. 
— Is there any natural boundary between the United States and Mexico ? — 
What ? 

The boundary line, you observe, runs tlu'ough the middle of these Lakes and 
Rivers, thus showing that they belong equally to England and to us ; and that 
the navigation of them is alike free to both nations. 

Mountains. — Point out the principal mountain chains between which 
the Mississippi valley lies. — On which side of this valley are the Rocky Moun- 
tains? — On which the AUeghanies? 

Rivers. — Where does the Mississippi River ? — Which way does it 
flow, and where does it empty? — Measuring in a straight line, according to 


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the scale on the map, what is the length of the Mississippi from north to 
south ? — Through how many degrees of latitude does it flow ? — Which is its 
largest tributary from the west ? — What from tlie east ? 

You observe that the Mississippi River is less crooked than the Missouri ; 
the latter flows east through Montana into Dakota and then southeast to its 
juncture with the Mississippi at St Louis. Measuring in like manner in a 
straight line from the source to the bend in Dakota, and then to its mouth, how 
long is the Missouri? From its junction up, which drains the largest valley, 
it or the Mississippi ? — Which drains the largest valley, the Ohio or the Mis- 
sissippi — above their junction? 

You observe in California an inland range of mountains, the Sierra 
Nevada (snowy mountains), witli a Coast Range in front, flanked in Oregon 
and Washington by the Cascade Range, and that tlie valley between the 
Nevada range and the Rocky mountains is very broad. In this valley lies 
the Great Inland Basin of the Continent. It has no sea-drainage, and in it 
the Great Salt Lake and other lakes of like quality are found. 

Remember this as a general rule : All lakes that ham no outlet are salt. 

What rivers rise west of the Rocky Mountains ? — Which way do they 
flow ? — Which of them is the longest, measuring in a straight line from source 
to mouth ? — Repeat the general rule about salt lakes. — Why do you call a 
part of the valley between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains an 
inland basin ? — What is the meaning of Sierra Nevada ? 

Bays, Straits, Gulfs, Capes. — Name the bays along the Atlantic 
shores of the United States ; the straits; the gull's; the capes ; the peninsu- 
las. — Where are the Bahama Islands ? — What large river drains the great 
lakes ? — What large river flows into the Gulf of Mexico ? — Describe the course 
of each. — What range of mountains runs parallel with the Atlantic coast ? 

Name the gulfs and bays along tlie Pacific coast of North America. — 
Name the straits, capes, and islands. — Name tlie two largest American rivers 
that empty into the Pacific Ocean. — What chains of mountains run parallel 
with the Pacific coast ? 

Name the principal islands and capes along the Ai-ctic shores of North 
America. — The bays, sounds, and gulfs. 

What large river empties into the Arctic Ocean ? — Describe its course. — 
Which is the largest, British America or the United States, judging by the 
eye ? — Mexico or the United States ? — Which of these three divisions abounds 
most in lakes and islands, and indentations along the sea-shore ? 

States. — Beginning with the most northerly, name, in order, the thirteen 
Atlantic States and their capitiils. — Mention in the same way the States bor- 
dering on the Gulf of Mexico. — The States and territories on the Pacific. — 
Name the eight States on the Great Lakes. — What State is partly bounded 
by the St. Lawrence river ? — What States touch British America ? — What 
territories lie contiguous to Mexico ? 

Koutes. — What States and rivers would you cross in going directly from 
New York to Chicago ? — What States, territories, and rivers would you cross 
in going directly from New York to San Francisco ? — From Washington to 
Charleston ? — Should you take a steamboat at Pittsburg for St. Louis, on what 
rivers and near what States would you pass ? — In going from Pittsburg to New 
Orleans by steamboat, what States would you see ? — Sliould you sail from 
Portland, in Maine, to Galveston, Texas, what Stiites, bays, and gulfs would 
you pass ?— What islands and capes ?— Sailing from Alaska to San Francisco, 
what capes, islands, and States would you pass ? — How would you go by 
steamer from New York to San Francisco ? Ans. By the way of Aspinwall, 
where you would cross the isthmus on the Panama Railroad, and take an- 
other steamer from Panama to San Francisco.' 

Through what river-valley would you pass in going by steamboat from 

New Orleans to St. Paul ?— How would you go to Omaha by steamboat from 
New Orleans? — How, by the same means, would you go to ]\Iobile ?— To 
Louisville?— To Fernandma, Florida?— To El Paso, Mexico?— To Austin? 


The Political Subdivisions of the United States. 

1. The Census. — A census is taken by the general 
government of the United States once every ten years. 
By the census of 1860, the population was ni, 443, 321 : 
by that of 1870, it was nearly 39,000.000. This 
r.iakes the United States more populous than any of 
the European nations, except Russia and Germany. 

The population of GriMt niit.iin is 37,000,000; of France, 35,000.000; of 
Russia, in Europe, 69,000,000; and of the new German Empire, 4."), 000,000. 

2. States, Territories, e^c— The United States con- 
sist of thirty-eight States and ten Territories, which 
are variously divided into groups or sections for the 
convenience of reference. 

3. JJi vis ions.— The ordinary grouping of these thirty- 
eight States and ten Territories, is this : 

1st. The six New England, or Easxni States, — Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut. 

2d. The five Middle /States, — New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, with the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

3d. The eleven Southern States, — Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Fh^-ida, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Tennessee, 
with the Territories, New Mexico and Indian Territory. 

4th. The thirteen Western States, — West Virginia, 
Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, Wi.'sconsin, Minnesota, Ncbra.ska, Kansus, 
Colorado, with the Territories, Wyoming, Dakota, and 

5th. The three Pacific States, — California, Nevada, 
and Oregon, with the Territories of Washington, Idaho, 
Utah, Arizona, and Alaska. 

By a more natural classification, we might group the States as the At- 
lantic, the Gulf, tlie Inland, tiie Lake, and the Pacific States. 

We also speak of the Valley States, meaning those that are in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley; or the Cotton States, meaning those in which cotton is the 
principal stiiple, as Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, 
and South Carolina. 

Questions. — 1. What is the Census? What was the population of llie 
United States in 18T0 ? — How does it compare with tlie population of Eng 
land?— How with that of France ?— of Russia ? 2. How many States and 
territories are there? 3. How many and what sectional divisions are there? 
— Name the States and Territories of each section. — Wliat other groupings 
are sometimes made? — Point out (m Map of United States all the above- 
named States and Territories. — Bound them in order. 




Tho New England States. 

Total Population, 3,487,924. 



New Hiinipsliire. 


Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island. 
Connecticut . . 


Chief Cities and their 

Augusta Portland 31,413 

Concord Manchester 23,.')3G 

Montpelier : Burlington 14,387 

Boston Boston 250,526 

( Providence / 

/ Newport f 


Providence 08,904 

New Haven.... 50,840 

1. Map Study. — The most lively impressions as to 
the geojrraphy of a country are to be obtained by 
travelling" over it ; but this cannot always be done, and 
the best ideas that we can obtain as to all except the 
Political Geography of a country, are to be obtained 
from the map. Study the maps ; look at them often and 
attentively, and you will soon get the sections of the 
country fixed in your mind as indelibly as your play- 
ground and gymnasium. 

Let us, therefore, study, with the map before 
us. the geography of the six New England States. 

They are situated in the northeast corner of the 
United States, between the parallels of 41° and 47° 20' 
north latitude. They are nearer to Europe than any 
other part of the United States. " They are small States. 
The six put together are not as large as Missouri, nor 
one-third the size of Texas ; but, according to area and 
population, they have more power in Congress than any 
other part of the United States twice their size. They are 
bounded — See Map — on the west by the State of New 
York, on the north and east by the Dominion of Canada, 
and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean. Rhode Island 
is the smallest State of the Union. 

Rhode Island has two Capitals. 

2. Coast iHflentations. — One of the first things that 
strike the eye of the geographer, as he turns it for the 
first time upon a map of these States, is the very jagged 
appearance of their coast-line, especially of Maine, and 
the number of rocky islets which curtain the shores — 
sure signs that there is no lack of dee}) water and good 

The New England States are, as you might therefore 
infer, ridi in harbors, bays, «ipes, and islands, for this 
is shown by a glance at the map. 

Vermont is the only one of the New England States 
that has no sea- front. 

3. Lakes and Mivers. — Another striking feature 
also most prominent in Maine, is the number of fresh- 
water lakes that dot its surface, as well as the number 
of small streams which, in all the States of this section, 
thread their way from the hills to the sea. 

Some of these rivers flow west into Lake Champlain, 
some north into the St. Lawrence ; but most of them 
run east and south, and empty into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Thus the New England States, in their orography, 
are like a " hipped-roof house" which sheds the water 
off in four directions, their largest watershed sloping 
toward the Atlantic Ocean. 

4. " Orogrftj}hf/" means the irregularities of tho earth's surface up and 
down, or in the vertical way. You have already seen an Orographic View 
of the United States, (p. 30.) 

.5. Mountains. — Now when we remember that, after 
those of North Carolina, the highest mountains in the 
"Atlantic States" are in the New England States 
(Mount Washington, White Mountains, New Hamp- 
shire, 6,234 feet ; Mount Mitchell, a peak of the Blue 
Ridge, North Carolina, 6,770 feet high), and when we 
consider how close the mountains and highlands of New 
England are to the sea, we may understand that the 
streams which flow thence to the sea have a great de- 
scent, with rapid currents and falls sufficient to afford 
abundance of water-power. 

0. Facilities for Mills and Factories. — Such is 
the case : and the New Englanders recognizing the 
force of those principles which regulate the geographical 
distribution of labor, have erected mills, factories, and 
manufacturing establishments along the Ijanks of these 
streams. They have invoked the aid of this power, 
and made it subservient to their purposes. 

7. Mauufacturiuff Totvus. — Fall River, Lowell, 
Lawrence, Manchester, Springfield, Nashua, with many 
other places, are celebrated for their water-power and 
for their manufacturing industry. 

The New England States have no coal-mines, and 
their hills are poor in metallic ores. 

8. Climate. — Their winter climate, though they front 
on the sea, is very cold. The sea there, however, is 
never frozen, and the harbors very seldom closed, not 
because the weather is not cold enough, but because the 
sea is so- deep and the tides so rapid. Therefore, even 
in the severest weather, its waters, on account of their 
depth, are comparatively warm. 

Because the waters are warmer than the air, the coast 
of New England is not so cold as the interior. 


You know that the water from a deep well or a good spring is cool in 
summer, warm in winter. It only appears so because in winter tlie weather 
is colli and in summer it is warm, while the temperature of the water in the 
well or spring is nearly the same in winter as in summer. 

It is for this reason that the winds which blow over large bodies of water 
are cool in summer, warm in winter. 

.9. Prevailing Winds. — The prevailing winter 
winds in New England are from the land, not from the 
sea. They are consequentlj^ dry and cold ; the weather, 
therefore, is often bitterly severe. But when the wind 
comes from the sea, as it sometimes does, it makes 
damp, foggy, and disagreeable weather, especially in 
winter, late autumn, and early spring. Moreover, the 
winters there, besides being severe, are, by reason of 
the latitude, long, while the summers are short. Con- 
sequently the soil yields scantily, and agriculture is by 
no means the most profitable branch of industry that 
the inhabitants of a country so favored with watcr- 
l)ower, so blessed with harbors, so convenient to the 
sea with its bounties, and so rich in timber for ship- 
building, may pursue. 

10. Resources and Industries. — The agricultural 
labor of New England does not yield food enough for 
home consumption. But they gather abundant harvests 
from the sea and its fisheries. 

With the severe climate and stingy soil on one hand 
to make agriculture uninviting, and with their forests 
of ship-timber, their capacious harbors, their water- 
power, and sea-fisheries to attract on the other, it is no 
wonder that the sons of New England should have re- 
sorted to these industries, for they find in them am})le 
rewards for the labor and hardihood which they demand. 

11. Fisheries. — Marblehead, 
Newburyport, and Gloucester are the 
chief towns that are engaged in the 
fisheries ; they are all three in Mas- 
sachusetts, and their fishing-grounds 
for cod and mackerel are on the 
banks of Newfoundland. 

These they salt and dry, and then 
bring them home, and afterward send 
them to all parts of the world — 
especially to the Roman Catholic 
countries, where the people during 
Lent eat no other animal food. 

Thus the people of the New Eng- 
land States, consulting the geographi- 
cal position of their section in con- 
nection with its natural resources, 
have made lumbering, shipbuild- 

ing, ice-harvesting, seafaring, and manufacturing their 
most important industries. 

Questions— 1. What can you learn from maps ?— How large are the six 
New England States ?— Where are they situated ?— Between what parallels 
of latitude do they lie?— How are they bounded ?—Whicli is the smallest 
State in the Union V— How does their jjower in Congress compare according 
to and in proportion with other parts of tlie Union? 2. What is the most 
striking feature presented by tlie map of these States ?— Which of Uiese 
States has the longest sea-coast and the best articulated coast-line ?— What 
geographical conclusion do you derive from these indentiitions of shore-line? 

3. What striking feature in the land do you observe on the map of the New 
England States ?— To what can you liken the watersheds presented by these 
States ?— Which way do they slope ?— Where do the rivers from them empty ? 

4. What is the Ovocjraphy of a country ? 5. What, where, and how high 
is the loftiest mountain of New England ?— Is it the highest mountain in 
the Atlantic States ? 6. What effect have the hills of New England and their 
distance from the sea upon the industry of these States ? 7. What and where 
are the most famous manufacturing towns of New England ?— IIow do you 
account for its mild coast climate ? H, Does the sea freeze off the coast of 
New England ? U. Wliy are the winters in New England long and the 
summers short ? 10. Can you explain why the industries of New England 
are rather commercial and manufacturing than mining ; seafaring, than 
agricultural ? 11. Name three of the principal fishing towns in New Eng- 
land. — Point them out on the map. — Where are their principal fishing- 
grounds ? — Where are their fish markets ? — What are the chief industries of 
the New England States ? 

LESSOM xir. 

The New England States — Gontmued. 


Maine excels in shipbuilding, the lumber-trade, and 
the harvesting and export of ice. The timber is cut 
during the winter, hauled in the frozen snow to the 
banks of the streams, upon which it is launched and 




floated down in the spring. Most of it is drifted down 
the Penobscot river to Bangor, whence it is exported ; 
but much of it finds its way to Bath and other seaport 
towns which are celebrated for their himber-trade and 
shipbuilding. The fine ships that they send thence to 
help cSrrj on the commerce of the world, have spread 
the fame of the New England shipwrights along the 
sea-coasts of all countries. 

Portland is the principal seaport of Maine. It is in 
railway connection with Canada. A vast amount of 
the direct trade between Canada and England is car- 
ried on through Portland. Emigrants and travellers 
from England to Canada often, especially in winter, go 
through Portland, and frequently through Boston. 

New Hampshire. 

This State has only a few miles of sea-front, and her 
people are not given to seafaring so much as those of 
Maine and Massachusetts, which have extensive lines 
of sea-coast. 

The people are extensively engaged in her quarries 
of stone, and in the manufacture of cotton and woollen 
goods. Manchester, Nashua. Dover, with other towns, 
prosper in this business. 

Portsmouth, on the Piscataqua [pis-hat' a-kwah) river, 
is the only seaport town in New Hampshire. It 
has a splendid man-of-war harbor, upon wiiich, just 
across the border, at Kittery " in Maine, the United 
States have one of their finest navy-yards. Hanover 
is the seat of Dartmouth College. 


Rhode Island, and Connecticut are more extensively 
engaged than any other States in manufacturing. More 
than one-third of all the woollen, cotton, and leather 
goods that are manufactured in the United States are 
manufactured in these three States, 

Boston is the commercial emporium and pride of 
New England. This famous city is situated on a fine 
harbor in Massachusetts. Yielding to New York in 
commercial importance, it boasts of rich merchants and 
much capital, and vies with Philadelphia and Baltimore 
in foreign trade. 

The largest and most celebrated manufacturing estab- 
lishments 11 Massachusetts are at Lowell and Lawrence, 
famous for their woollen and cotton goods. The United 
States have their most extensive armory at Springfield, 
where muskets and other small arms, for the public 
service, are made. Lynn is celebrated for shoemaking. 

New Bedford and Nantucket are largely engaged in the 
whale and other deep-sea fisheries. 

Ehode Island. 

Newport, in Rhode Island, is situated on one of the 
finest harbors in New England. It is a noted watering- 
place, where the sea-bathing in summer is exceedingly 
fine. The largest manufacturing establishments in 
Rhode Island are in Providence, where there are 
extensive cotton factories. 


Connecticut is especially famous for the manufacture 
of small wares, such as clocks, sewing-machines, pistols, 
hooks and eyes for ladies' dresses, etc. There are 
large establishments in Bridgeport for the manufacture 
of sewing-machines, and one in Hartford for the manu- 
facture of fire-arms. 


Yale College, at New Haven, Harvard in Massachu- 
setts, Princeton in New Jersey, and William and Mary 
in Virginia, are the oldest colleges in the country. 

New London and Stonington, on Long Island Sound, 
are engaged in whale-fisheries. 


Vermont is an inland State ; it is therefore cut off 
from the sea and its marts ; consequently the industrial 
pursuits of Vermont are more or less different from 
those of her five sister States, for they can be neither 
commercial, seafaring, nor fishing. 

In Vermont, grazing seems to be the most important 
branch of industry. Vermont is famed for her horses, 
and has fine quarries of marble and slate. Both 
she and New Hampshire are also fine wool-growing 

Note. — Common schools are more general in New England than they are 
in any other section of the United States. 

Their best endowed and most renowned institutions of learning are: 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Yale College, New Haven, Conn. ; 

72 Longitude VTast 71 from Greenwich. 

Longitude East from \Va.sliinffti>n 



Brown University, Providence, R. I. ; Middlebury College, Vt. ; and Dart- 
mouth College, N. H. The University of Vermont is in Burlington. 

Questions. — What is the principal branch of industiy in Maine? — At 
what season of the year is the timber gathered ? — What are the chief seaport 
towns in this State ? — What, the shipbuilding places ? — Where is Portland ? — 
What business is done through it ? 

What are the principal branches of industiy in New Hampshire ? — Why 
are they not connected with the sea as extensively as Maine and Massachu- 
setts? — How does the coast-line of New Hampshire compare with theirs as to 
extent? — How many seaport towns has New Hampshire ? — What great pub- 
lic establishment is situated on Portsmouth harbor ? — Point out some of the 
principal manufacturing towns in this State. 

Which three of the New England States are most extensively engaged in 
the business of manufacturing ? — What and where is the commercial empo- 
liimi of New England ? — Where are the most extensive manufacturing 
establishments in New England? — Name the principal wares that are manu- 
factuied at each. 

In what industries arc New Bedford, New London, and Nantucket largely 
engaged? — Whei-e is Newport, and what is it famous for? — For what class of 
wares is Connecticut especially celebrated ? — Name the oldest institutions of 
learning in the United States. — Where are they? — Whj^ do the industries 
of Vermont differ from those of the other New England States ? — For what 
class of industries is Vermont most noted ? — Name the chief colleges and 
univereities ni New England. — Tell the capital and chief city of each State. — 
Population of chief city in each State. 


Studies on the Map of New England. 

Honndnries. — How are the New England States bounded? — Bound 
each one separately.— Which one has the greatest length of sea-coast "r 

Water Divisions. — Name the principal bays, capes, and islands along 
tlic coast. — Wliat Rivers have their rise in the. New England States, and 
tlieir mouth in the British possessions ? — What, judging by the eye and accord- 
ing to the valleys, are the largest Rivers in Maine ? — Which is the longest 
River in the New England States ? — Where does this River rise ? — Which way 
docs it flow ? — Where does it empty ? — What River rises in the White Moun- 

Mountains. — The White Mountains are a cluster of high peaks in New 
Hampshire, of whidi Mount Washington is the highest. Tliey are an offsliool or 
spur of tlie Oreen Mountains, in Vermont, which are a branch of the AUeghanies, 
that take their rise in Georgia and skirt the Atlantic sea-hoard all tlie way until 
tliey end in the Green Mountains of Vermont, and are cut off by the St. Law- 
rence in Canada. 

Note. — The Rivem of New England, for reasons already explained, liavc 
a rapid fall, and therefore none of them are navigable any great distance, 
althouj?h the tides I'ise to a great height along the New England coast. 

Trace the irregular line which, in the New^ England States, divides the 
watershed of the Atlantic from the watershed of the St Lawrence. 

T7*c Divide. — You observe that all tfie Rivers on one side of this line flow 

for the most part in a southwardly direction' while those^on the otlier side flow 


This line, you must remember, is called the " divide" between the two 

Note. — You discover, also, that it is among the valleys in the upper and 
middle parts of these watenheds, that Lakes most abound. 

Tjaken serve an important office as reservoirs or cisterns for receiving 

the water during floods, or in periods of heavy rains, and distributing it 
gradually, by evaporatio* in times of drought. 

Look at the map and tell which are the largest Lakes. Which of the New 
England Lakes has outlets to the sea through the St. Croix ? The Penob- 
scot ? The Kennebec ? The Androscoggin ? The St. Johns ? The Mer- 
rimac ? The Richelieu {ree-she-lu') ? Tlie St. Francis ? Where are the two 
last named rivei-s ? To which watershed do they belong ? 

What lake borders on Vermont and New York ? — What is the distance 
from the head of Lake George to the head of Richelieu River ? 

Capitals. — Name the Capitals of each of the New England States. — 

Tell upon what river, and upon which bank of the river — right or left — they 

are situated. 

{Remember, the right or left bank of every river is tlte right or left hand side 
of that river as one descends it.) 

What is the coui-se and distance of each one of these Capitals from 
Boston? — How far, and in what direction, is each Capital from the centre 
of the State ? 

Chief Towns. — What is the chief town in each of these States ? — De- 
scribe its situation. — Where is Cambridge? — Bath?— Bangor? — Lawrence? 
— Lowell ? — Newburyport ? — Lynn ? — Gloucester ? — Marble Head ? — Spring- 
field ? — New Bedford? — Nantucket? — Tell what each one is noted for. 

Routes for Travellers. — How would you go from Boston to Lowell ? 
—From Boston to Hartford?— To Lynn ?— To New Bedford?— To New 
London ? — To Manchester ?— To Montreal ? 

How would you go from Providence to New Haven ? — From New York 
to Brattleboro ? — From Hartford to New York by steamboat ? — From Con- 
cord to Boston? — From New York to Rutland by railroad? — From Man- 
chester to Providence ? — From New York to Boston by water ? 

Questions. — Can you explain any use of lakes in physical economy ? — 
What is llie right bank of a river? — Are the rivers of New England naviga- 
ble for great distances? — Why not? — Of what mountains are the White 
Mountains a spur? — Of what are the Green Mountains a branch? — Where 
do the AUeghanies begin ? — What is the highest peak of the White Mountains ? 


The Middle States. 

Total Population, 9,848,255. 


New York. 

New Jersey 




■District of Columbia . 


Albany... . . 

Trenton . . . 


Annapolis . 

Chief Cities and their 

(New York 942,293 

/ Brooklyn 396,009 

Newark 105,059 

Philadelphia 674,032 

Wilmington 30,841 

Baltimore 267,354 

Washington 109,199 

1. Geof/rapJilcal Features. — Always keeping the 
map before you, let us now proceed to gather from it 
.some idea as to the principal geographical features of 
these five States, with the District of Columbia, (p. 45.) 

You see that they are traversed by the Alleghany 



Mountains, which run from southwest to northeast, 
nearly parallel with the coast, and that these mountains 
are divided into ridges, which lie parallel with each 
other ; the distance between the top of the eastern and 
the western range varying from 50 or 60 to 100 miles, 
or more. 

These mountains divide these States into two grand 
watersheds, one of which slopes toward the southeast, 
and carries the drainage off into the Atlantic Ocean ; 
and the other to the northwest, with drainage both 
for the great Lakes, by numerous small streams, and 
for the Gulf of Mexico through the Ohio and Mississippi 

You observe, therefore, that the Middle States lie 
partly in the Mississippi valley, partly in the basin of 
the great Lakes, and partly along the Atlantic slopes. 

You notice, also, by the rivers, that there are here 
and there gaps in the mountains, through which the 
waters break and pass from one side to the other 

Thus the head-waters, both of the Delaware and the 
Susquehanna, rise beyond what appears to be the crest 
of the AUeghanies, and passing through a gap in these 
mountains, find their way to the Atlantic Ocean. 

These water-gaps, as they are called, are found in all 
mountainous countries ; and sometimes the scenery 
about them is very beautiful, wild, and grand. 

2. Position. — The Middle States lie between the 
parallels of 38° and 45° ; they embrace seven degrees 
of latitude, and extend several degrees farther to the 
south than the New England States do ; consequently 
their climates are milder, their agricultural productions 
more varied, and many of their chief industrial pursuits 

3. Size. — New York is the largest and Delaware the 
smallest of the Middle States. 

New York alone is three-fourths the size of all the 
New England States put together ; while all the Middle 
States together are about half the size of Texas. 

4. Coast-Line. — The coast-line of the New England 
States — especially of Maine — is, as you remember, of 
rock, while that of the Middle States is chiefly of loam. 

5. Allufial Country. — In one section tlie sea is encroaching upon 
the land, and has worn the shore away to the soUd rocks ; in the other the 
land is encroaching upon the sea, and is gaining upon it continually. 

The seaboard of the Middle States, and of all the country to the south, is 
formed in pait of what the sea has cast up, and in part of what the rivers 
liave brought down from the mountains. It is therefore an alluvial country. 
Every rain muddies the rivers, and these muddy waters flow into the sea; there 
the mud settles and gradually forms land. A large portion of the best and rich- 
est countries of the world are alluvial ; that is, the soil has been brought down 

little by little, by waters from the hills. The meadows and low grounds along 
the margins of the brooks and streams are alluvial. 

6. Alluvial Country in the United *Sto«es.— The 

extent of this alluvial country in the United States in- 
creases as 3'ou go south ; following the coast-line until 
you get to the mouth of the Mississippi, it extends far 
up on both sides of that river, and embraces large por- 
tions of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The coral, the sea- 
shells, and other marine fossils found there, show that 
there, also, the sea once roHod its waves. (Map, p. 32.) 

The inland limits of tide-waters are marked by falls 
or rapids, as those of the Schuylkill at Philadelphia, of 
the Patuxent near Baltimore, of the Potomac at G-eorge- 
town, of the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, of the 
James at Richmond, of the Roanoke at Weldon, and so 
on along the whole Atlantic seaboard. 

7. Falls. — These falls are at the head of navigation 
and of tide-water, and the belt of country between them 
and the sea is called in each State the tide-water or 
low country. 

This belt, though it increases in l)readth as you go 
south, is not so broad as it would be had the rise and 
fall of the tides been as great in the South as they are 
in the North. 

8. Tides. — In the Bay of Fundy, which borders the 
coast of Maine, the rise and fall of the tide is sixty 
feet, whereas, as you go south and reach the shores of 
the Carolinas, it is only as many inches ; and when you 
get to the shores of Florida, in the Gulf of Mexico, it is 
not so much as a foot. 

9. Climate. — The Gulf Stream, with its tepid waters, 
sweeps close to the shores of the Middle States. 

The New p]n<'land States have high and cold moun- 
mills from which the west winds blow. The Middle 
States, on the contrary. New York esi)ecially, have the 
lakes to the westward of thoni, and they temper in 
winter the keen west winds as they sweep by. Sudi is 
the influence of lakes and large sheets of open water 
in mitigating the severities of winter climates. 

In sheltered spots upon the borders of Lake Ontario it is so mild that 
even the peach will mature in the open air. The cold west winds, after 
crossing the mountains and being cliilled, make the climates of New Eng- 
land entirely too severe for this delicious fruit. 

10. Pursuits. — The difference of climate in these 
two sections is also both seen and felt in its effects upon 
the industrial pursuits of the people. 

Consequently there is less of seafaring and manufac- 
turing in the Middle States, and far more agriculture 
and mining industry. The former States are poor in 
mines, but the latter are rich in both coal and iron. 



11. P Inducts. — Wheat, rye. 
oats, and Indian corn, buckwheat, 
orchard-fruits, berries, and garden 
vegetables, all do well in the Mid- 
dle States. 

Still, so great is the town and city population 
of these States in comparison with their rural 
population, that as you pass in review State after 
State from Maine toward the South, you find 
none of them producing corn and wheat enough 
for their own consumption until you come to 
Maryland. She is the first State tluit regularly 
produces enough and to spare. Slic also grows 
more tobacco than she requires for her owu use, 
and sends large quantities of it abroad. 

Questions. — Name the Middle States. 1. 
By what range of mountains are they traversed ? 
— What are their principal geographical features 
as shown on the map ? — Describe the great water- 
sheds into which tL.ey are divided by these moun- 
tains. 2. Where do the jVIiddle States lie ?— Be- 
tween what parallels ? — What rivers have water- 
gaps through the AUeghanies ? 3. Which is the 
largest and which the smallest of these States ? 
4. Describe their coast line. 

ii. Wliere in tiie Middle States is the alluvial 
c-ountry ? G. Descrilie it. — Describe the tide- 
water country and the navigation of the rivers. — 
How are its limits marked ? 7- Contrast the tides 
and the shore-line of the New England and the 
JVliddle Stiites. 

8. How high does the tide rise in the Bay of 
Fundy V — How high in the Gulf of Mexico? 0. 
Which of these two sections has the mildest 
climate? — What is the cause of this difference? 

10. What are the industries of the Middle Sta:tes? II. What are the agri- 
cultural productions of the Middle States ? — "What, the mineral productions ? 
— As you travel south along the seaboard from Maine, which is the first State 
you c:)me to that produces breadstuffs enough for home consumption ? 



More about the Middle States. 
New York. 

The climate of Western New York is tempered by 
l.hc lakes, which soften the west winds as they sweep 
over them. That part of the State is, therefore, a fine 
wheat and corn country. It is also a good grazing 
country, and the hardier orchard-fruits do w^ell there. 
New York is also a wool-growing State. 

There are salt-springs at Syracuse which arc owned 
by the State : the water is sold to the salt-makers, who 
produce annually about one-sixth of all the salt that is 
consumed in the United States. 

Apart from her salt-works and stone-quarries, her 
beds of gypsum, and some iron ores near the Pennsyl- 
vania line. New York is poor in minerals. 

The city of New York is the em|)oriuin of trade for the 
whole country, and the largest city in the New World. 

Albany is one of the most important inland towns in 
the Middle States, and is, besides, the capital of the 
most populous State in the Union. It is situated at the 
head of navigation, on the right bank of the Hudson and 
at the mouth of the Erie canal, where vessels from the 
Lakes freighted with western produce meet those that 
ply up and down the river from New York. 

Lake Erie, as is shown by the falls and rapids of 
Niagara, is more than three hundred feet above Lake 
Ontario. The smaller lakes, which give such a charm 
to the scenery in this part of the State, are situated on 
the terrace with Lake Erie ; consequently the rivers 
which from these lakes carry water into Lake Ontario, 
have, like the Niagara, to leap a precipice in order to 
escape from this terrace. Their rapid falls afford fine 
water-power for mills and manufacturing purposes. 

Rochester and Oswego have availed themselves of it, 
and are extensively engaged in milling and iminun^ictur- 
ing. Grist is sent them even from Canada and the 



Thi falls of the Hudson are near Albany, and Troy 
avails herself of the power afforded by them, and ap- 
plies it to various manufacturing purposes. At Water- 
vliet, between Albany and Troy, the United States 
have an arsenal. The Military Academy at West Point 
is on the right bank of this beautiful river, and a few 
miles below Newburg. There is also an extensive 
navy-yard at Brooklyn. 

The country bordering upon the Hudson is in a high 
state of cultivation and improvement. The fine houses 
and beautiful grounds lend enchantment to the scenery, 
and many travellers take passage in steamers that ply 
on the river merely for the pleasure of enjoying the 
beautiful views that meet the eye at every turn. The 
scenery on the right bank, between West Point and 
New York, is rendered bold by columns of basaltic 
rock called the "Palisades," that rise up perpendicu- 
larly to the height of four or five hundred feet. 

Notwithstanding the number, splendor, size, and 
fleetness of the steamboats that ply on the Hudson be- 
tween New York and Albany, a railway has been built 
directly on the bank all the way between the two 
cities. The trains run very swiftly, and carry crowds 
of passengers. 

New Jersey. 

New Jersey has more sea- front than New York. 
This State lies almost entirely in the tide-water coun- 
try. It is not so far north as New York ; it has, there- 
fore, a milder climate. New Jersey is famous for its 
fruit-orchards, and for peaches especially. It is richer 
in mines of iron and zinc than New York. 

There are some flourishing manufacturing towns in 
this gallant little State. Paterson, at the falls of the 
Passaic, is celebrated for its railway cars and locomo- 
tives — Newark for the extent and variety of its manu- 
factures ; and among them, those of india-rubber in par- 
ticular. Its population has been doubled within the 
last seven years. 

Princeton College is one of the most renowned and 
ancient seminaries of learning in the United States. 


Delaware has no mountains and is poor in minerals, 
but, like New Jersey, it lies mostly in tide-water re- 
gions, is rich in soil, and favored with a mild climate. 
It is a fine grazing country, and the laboring-classes find 
profitable employment there in supplying the markets 
of Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, Brooklyn, and 
the other large cities and towns in that part of the 

country with fresh meat, butter, fruit, and vegetables. 
The most celebrated powder-mills in the United States 
are on the Brandywine, near Wilmington. 


Pennsylvania abounds in coal and iron ; the richest 
wells of petroleum oil are found near Lake Erie, in the 
upper valley of the Alleghany river, in this State. 

The anthracite coal of Penn.sylvania is the chief ar- 
ticle of fuel that is used for domestic purposes in the 
Middle States. It is largely consumed, also, for smelt- 
ing and other manufacturing and mechanical purposes. 
It constitutes one of the most im})ortant branches of 
trade in the United States. The flourishing cities of 
Reading and Scranton owe their prosperity chiefly to it. 


The quantity of coal exported from this couutry is very small. All that 
is mined is required in our domestic economy. Petroleum lias suddenly 
sprung up into great commercial impoitance : the first oil wells were dis- 
covered about fifteen years ago; it is, after cotton and provisions, the chief 
article of export from this country. It is used mostly for ligiits, and Ger- 
many is our best customer. Cotton is our most valuable article of export. 
The following is an official statement of the exports from this country for the 
year ending .Inly, 1871 : Cotton, $221,885,000 ; Breadstnffs, |79.382,000 ; Oils 
and Petroleum, $.3r,:n:5,000; Provisions, $:J6,444,000 ; Tobacco, .f;22, 200,000; 
Naval Stores, $2,704,000; all others, $12,917,000; Total, $412,o47,00(). 

The German farmers of Pennsylvania are noted for 
their good husbandry and fine barns, which are gener- 
ally more elegant buildings than their dwelling-houses. 

Philadelphia is celebrated for the cleanliness of Its 
streets, its fine market-places, its medical schools, its 
academies, and its charitable institutions. 

In proportion to its population, Pittsburg is more 
extensively engaged in manufacturing than any otiier 




oitv in the State. Iron and glass are among its chief 

articles, and it has a large trade, also, in bituminous 

coal, with which the neighboring hills are bountifully 



The peninsula between Delaware Bay and the Chesa- 
peake, belongs, a part to Delaware, a part to Mary- 
land, and a part to Virginia. Its elevation above the 
sea-level is not much : for it is without mountains, and 
its climate is softened by the mild temperature of the 
ocean and warmtli from the Gulf Stream in winter, 
and by the cooling sea-breezes in summer. 

Moreover, the Chesapeake Bay, with its ojjcn water 
and other benign influences, reaches up into the heart of 
Maryland, and imparts to the country along its shores, 
in this State, a softer climate than any other part of the 
Middle States can boast of. 

Tobacco is prominent among the agricultural staples 
of Maryland, which embi-ace corn, wheat, and the other 

Its mountains abound in coal and iron, and mining 
constitutes a large and important branch of the industry 
of this State. 

Baltimore, on the Patai)sco river, is the sixth city 
in the Union. 


Cumberland, at the western terminus of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio canal, is the centre of the mining region. 

Frederick, on the border, and Hagerstown, where 
there is an excellent college, are in the middle of that ex- 

ceedingly fertile belt of 30tintry, of which the celebrated 
Valley of Virginia forms a part. Its fertility is owing 
to the same vein of limestone that makes the Falls of 
Niagara. The Genesee country, the finest agricultural 
part of New York ; the Harrisburg country, the best in 
Pennsylvania ; and the Shenandoah valley the garden 
spot of Virginia, are all upon this vein of limestone. 
Weirs' Cave, with its splendid stalactites, near Staun- 
ton, and the Natural Bridge in Rockbridge county, near 
Lexington, with its fine archway, both in Virginia, are 
formed of this limestone rock. 

This vein forks in Virginia, one part passing through Lexington and the 
Green River country of Kentucky, tliu other via Abingdon, Virginia, into 
Tennessee, and so on to the Muscle Siioals of the Tennessee, where the two 
forks come together and continue tlieir course toward the southwest. It 
crops out from under tlie Walnut Hills of Vicksburg ; that is the last that is 
seen of it. The country, all the way from the banks of the Mississippi to those 
of the Niagara River, is one of unsurpassed fertility. 

The blue-grass country of Kentucky and Tennessee, owes its celebrity to 
this fertilizing vein. 

Trace this limestone vein on the nuip with the eye, for it will enlighten 
j'ou as to the distribution of labor, and help you properly to understand the 
geography of your country. 

No sheet ot water in the world surpasses the Chesa- 
peake Bay for the variety, excellence, and abundance of 
the fish and game with which its shores and waters 
abound. Its shad and herring fisheries are very valu- 
able. Seines, a mile long, are hauled for them. 

The canvass-back duck, the terrapin, and the oyster 
of the Chesapeake Bay, are unsurpassed in flavor and 
excellence. They often grace the tables of royalty in 
Europe, as delicacies. This sheet of water, on account of 
the v;ilue of its fisheries, has been compared for wealth to 
the gold mines of California. The oyster-sellers through- 
out the West are supplied chiefly from its bounties. 
DiSTKicT OF Columbia. 

This District, embracing originally an area of 10 miles 
s(|iuire, was ceded, a part by Virginia and a part by 
Maryland, to the general Government. 

In 1846, Congress ceded back to Virginia the portion 
on the right bank of the Potomac that was originally 
ceded by her, so that now the District contains only 
iiboul 60 square miles. 

Washington City was planned by General Washington. 
It is beautifully laid out, on the left bank of the Potomac, 
and contains many magnificent public buildings, the prin- 
cipal of which is the capitol. It was called District 
ort^olumbia after Columbus. It is no longer governed 
directly by Congress, but, like the territories, has a 
legislature and one delegate to Congress. 

The peoi)le of the District have a Governor appointed 
by the President and Senate. 




Georgetown, availing itself of the water-power de- 
rived from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, is engaged 
extensively in the manufacture of flour ; it has also a 
considerable trade. This city is connected with Alex- 
andria by the canal which crosses the Potomac at 
Greorgetown, over a magnificent aqueduct. 

Washington is without commerce or manufactures ; it 
derives its importance entirely from the presence of the 

Questions.— ^hich State embraces the most degrees of latitude ? — What 
effect have the Great Lakes upon the climate of New York?— What are its 
principal agricultural staples V— Where are the aalt-works?— To what does 
Alhany owe its importance ? — How high is the level of Lake Erie above that 
of Lake Ontario ?— Uow do the streams get from one level to the other ?— 
What use is made of these falls?— Wliat two cities have availed themselves 
extensively of this water-power?— For what purpose ?— Where are the Falls 
of the Hudson? — What city makes the most extensive use of this water- 
power? — What important Government establishments are at Watervliet 
and Brooklyn ?— Where is West Point?— What makes it so noted?— Where 
are tlie Palisades? — What are they ? 

Which has the mildest climate and the longest coast-line, New York or 
New .Jersey ?— How do you account for this difference of climate?— For what 
industries are Paterson and Newark noted ?— Where is Princeton, and for 
what is it celebrated ? 

What are the most valuable minerals in which Pennsylvania most 
abounds ?— What is the chief article of fuel in the Middle States ?— Whence 
is it obtained ?— Name the chief article of export.— What is the most valua- 
ble?— What is the chief market for petroleum?— What can you say of Penn- 
sylvania as an agricultural State?— For what is Philadelphia especially 
noted?— For what is Pittsburg?- To what do Reading and Scranton chiefly 
owe their prosperity ? — Where are they situated ? 

What can you say of Delaware ? — Name the staple productions of that 
State, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. — What famous works are on the Bran- 
dywine near Wilmington ? — By what States is the Delaware peninsula occu- 
pied ? — Describe it. — To what do you attribute its mildness of climate ? 

What are the staple productions of Maryland ? — Where are her coal mines ? 
— Upon what vein of rock is Hagerstown ? — Look at the map, and name the 
parts of the Southern States that are situated upon it. — What do you know 
about the fisheries of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries ? 

What is the Territory of Columbia? — How is its name derived? — Are its 
inhabitants entitled to representation ? — Who makes their laws ? — Describe 
Washington City. — Who planned it ? — To what does it owe its importance ? 
— Where is Georgetown? — In what business is it chiefly engaged? — How is 
it connected with Alexandria ? 


Studies on the Map of the Middle States. 

Soundaries. — How are the Middle States bounded ? — Bound each one, 
and the Territory of Columbia, separately. 

Ctrpitals and Towns.— Giva the population of each State, with 
that of its chief town. — Tell the situation of each capital. — Tell the bearings 
and distance of each Capital from the chief town of the State. — Which of 
them exteads from tide-water to the Lakes ? — AVhich has the greatest length 
of sea-coast ? 

Const Marks and Indentations. — Name the principal Bays along 
the coast of the Middle States. 

JSIcntion the principal Islands. — The chief Capes. 

Mountains. — What mountain .system crosses this section of tlie United 
States? — In what direction does it extend? — What part of New York does 
it cross? — Where does it cross New Jersey? — Point out the Adirondacks. 
— What is the most eastern range of the Alleghany Mountains called ? — Name 
the chains in Pennsylvania, beginning at the eastern part of the State. — 
Name the mountains in New York. 

Faffs. — Where are the Niagara Falls ? — Trenton Falls are near Utica, 
X. Y. — Where is Harper's Feny ? — Wliere is the Delaware AVater-Gap ? 
Ann. Where the Delaware River forces itself through the eastern ridge of 
the Allcghanies, in the northwestern part of New Jersey. — What Falls are 
thereat Rochester? Ans. Those of the Genesee River, as it nutkes its way 
into Lake Ontario. 

Comparative Geof/rapfii/.—Lonk at the map, and describe the 
difference between the sea-coast of the Middle States and of New Eng- 
land. — Which has the greatest breadth of tide-water country, and lh(; 
greatest length of navigable rivers, the New England or the Middle States ? 
— On account of what natural cause is it, that the alluvial country in the 
Middle States is so much broader than it is in New England ? — What infer- 
ence do you draw from this, as to the extent of inland navigation in the two 
sections?— Name, in each section, .some of tlie principal seaport towns, and 
describe their situation. 

Towns and Cities. — How far is New York from Sandy Hook? 
— How far from the Gulf Stream ? Aiij<. About 240 miles. — Where, in New 
York, is Syracuse ?— Rochester ? — Buffalo ? — Binghamton ? — Ithaca ? — Sara- 
toga ? — Poughkeepsie ? — Brooklyn ? 

Point out, in Pennsylvania, Pittsburg. — Where is Harrisburg? — Reading? 
— Scranton ? — Mauch Chunk ? — Gettysburg ? 

Where, in New Jersey, is Trenton ?— Elizabeth ?— Paterson ?— Newark? 
Princeton ? 

Where is Dover ? — Wilmington ?— Where is Annapolis ?— Baltimore ?— 
Ellicott's Mills ?— Port Tobacco ?— Frederick ?— Havre de Grace ?— Hagers- 
town ? — Georgetown ? 

Rivers and Lakes.— Descnhe the coui-se of the Hudson. — Trace 
the Mohawk.— The Delaware.— The Susquehanna.— The Potomac— Trace 
the headwaters of the Ohio.— What streams form the Ohio?— Find 
Lake George.— Lake Champlain.— Where does the St. Lawrence empty its 
waters V— What lakes are drained by the Oswego River ?-Wiiat rivers and 
lakes border on the Middle States?— What State most abounds in lakes ?— 
Upon what watershed are these lakes chiefly situated ?— Name the principal 
rivers of the Southern, the Western, and the Northern watershed.- What 
tributary of the Ohio takes its rise farthest to the North ?— Wiiat farthest to 
the East ?— Which is the longest, the Che.sapeakc or llio Delaware Bay?— 


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What Rivers empty into them ?— What Capes are at the mouth of each ?— 
What, judging by the eye and the scale of miles, is the greatest length and 
breadth of each Bay ? 

Routes and Travels.— How would you go by steamboat from 
New York to Albany?— On what waters would you sail in going from 
New York to Philadelphia ?— To Baltimore ?— How, in the same way, from 
Buffalo to Oswego ?— To Ogdensburg ?— How would you go by steamboat 
from New York to Boston ?— From New York to Atlantic City ?— To Cape 
May ?— How would you go by railroad from New York to Albany ?— To 
Buffalo ?— To Dunkirk ?— From Buffalo to Pittsburg ?— To Harrisburg ?— To 
Washington ?— How would you go by rail from Philadelphia to Pittsburg ?— 
From Wilmington to Trenton ?— How would you go from New York, by 
steamer, to Green Port, Long Island ? Am. You would go by way of Long 
Island Sound.— How do steamers enter the Sound from New York ? Am. 
By passing through East River, an arm or estuary of Long Island Sound, im- 
properly called a river.— Where is T>ong Branch ?— Cape May?— Atlantic City? 

Miscellaneous.— To which of the four cities, Boston, New York, Phil- 
adelphia, and Baltimore, measuring in a direct line, is Chicago, at the head 
of lake navigation, nearest? Ans. To Baltimore.— To which of these four 
great Atlantic Cities is Cleveland, Ohio, nearest? Am. To Baltimore.— 
To which of them is Buffalo nearest ? Ans. To Baltimore. 

On which bank of the Delaware is Philadelphia ?— On which bank of the 
Hudson is New York ?— Jersey City ?— How is Baltimore situated ?— Wil- 
mington ?— How is Washington located ?— Georgetown ? 


The Eleven- Southern States and Two Territories. 

Total Population, 9,591.260. 



Chief Cities and their 

Virprinifl . . . . 


Richmond 51,037 

^ortli Oci'ol i n a 


Wilmington .... 13,446 


Charleston 48,956 



Savannah 28,235 

Ti^loridn. . . 


Pensacola 3,347 


Mobile 32,034 



Natchez 9.057 


New Orleans 


New Orleans . . . 191,418 


Galveston 13,818 


Little Rock 

Little Rock 12,380 



(Memphis 40,220 

"( Nashville 25,865 

Tahlequah 1000 

Indian Territory 


Santa Fe 

Santa Fe 9,699 

1. Geographical Position. — The Southern States 
lie between the parallels of 26° and 40°. These are 
the most favored latitudes on the earth, both as to 
climate and production. Between these parallels are 
found such countries in Europe, as Grreece with its 
Archipelago ; Southern Italy and Spain ; the Land of 
Goshen, in Egypt ; and in Asia, the Promised Land — 

the Yale of Cashmere — the Valleys of the Hoang Ho, 
and the Yang-tse-kiang, where lie the great City of 
Pekin, and the choicest parts of China and Japan. 

Excepting the two countries of Italy and Greece, the Southern States arc 
better watered than any of them. 

2, Past and Present Condition. — Domestic servi- 
tude was one of the established institutions of the 
South ])rcvious to the recent war. In round num- 
bers there were 4,000,000 of negro slaves, who were 
emancipated by proclamation from the President of the 
United States. 

In consequence of this and the ravages of war, the 
industry of the South has been greatly deranged, and 
the people have not yet had time fairly to adjust them- 
selves to their new situation. 

Let us, therefore, content ourselves by looking not so 
much at the present industries and political condition, 
as at the natural geography and resources of the South- 
ern States. 

:i. Peculiar Features. — The Southern States em- 
brace nearly twice the breadth of latitude contained in 
the Middle States and the New England States together, 
and they contain f(mr times their area and four times 
their extent of sea-coast. 

The population of the Southern States, however, 
amounts to only four-lifths of that of the two other 

E.xcepting Virginia, the shores of the Southern States are curtained with 
a chain of long, narrow, and sandy islands, with navigable inlets and pass- 
ages here and there obstructed by sandbars which prevent the entrance of 
ships that draw more than si.xteen or eighteen feet of water. The largest 
ships draw 28 feet 

As we go from the sea iuliuul, anywhere between Virginia and Texas, we 
cross a belt of swamps, covered with cypress, magnolias, yellow jessamine, 
and jungle. Then we come to a sandy soil in the piny belt. In some parts 
these two belts are 300 miles broad ; nowhere less than 100. After them 
come the oaks and the deciduous trees. The cypress belt is noted for its 
pendent mosses, parasites, and flowers — Magnolia grandiflora, and tlie 
yellow jessamine, the loveliest of them all ; the pine belt, for its ship-timber 
and naval stores. In the Gulf States, the cotton produced by this sandy 
sjil, which extends through Mississippi as fur up as Tennessee, is called 

4. Watersheds, — The Alleghany Mountains divide 
the Southern States east of the Mississippi into three 
watersheds, sloping severally to the east, south, and 
west, and sending their streams and rivers off into the 
Atlantic Ocean, into the Gulf of Mexico, and into the 
Mississippi River. 

New Mexico and Western Texas are evidently dry 
countries, for, as the map shows, they have few water- 
courses. Consequently, in these regions you would ex- 
pect to find severe droughts and much barren land. 

" Llano Estacado," the Staked Plain, in Texas, is an 



immense barren waste across which the early Mexican 
travellers and traders marked their way by sticking up 
stakes along the trail. 

o. Minerals. — The mountainous regions of Virginia, 
North Carolina, G-eorgia, and Tennessee are rich in 
minerals. Iron, coal, lead, copper, salt springs, min- 
eral springs of rare virtue, quarries of marble and gyp- 
sum, and veins of gold ; in Louisiana, salt-beds ; in 
Arkansas, salines and quarries for the best of whet- 
stones ; in Alabama, artesian wells with power to turn 
machiner}' : — these are some of the mineral riches and 
sources of wealth in the Southern States which depend 
not upon climate. 

6*. Climate and Occupations. — You already un- 
derstand enough about climates to infer simply from 
the map that there is a great difference between the 
climates of Virginia and the New England States on 
the one hand, and the climates of Virginia and the 
Gulf States on the other ; and that, consequently, there 
should be a corresponding diflTerence in the industrial 

In Virginia the chief occupations consist in the cul- 
tivation of wheat, corn, rye, oats, and tobacco, fruit and 
vegetables ; in the cutting of firewood and ship-timber 
for the northern cities ; and in wool-growing, grape- 
growing, cattle-raising, mining, and fishing. 

lu the more Southern States, industr}^ in addition to 
the raising of flocks and herds, is directed to the cul- 
tivation of rice, cotton, and sugar, with breadstuflfs and 
fruits for home consumption, and to the turpentine and 
lumber business. 

7. Influence of Inventions. — Human inventions 
and improvements are important geographical agents, 
for they often change or alter the industrial pursuits 
throughout extensive regions of country. So far as they, 
do this, they bear upon questions, especially of political 
geography, and they should not escape the attention of 
those who study this most important and instructive de- 
partment of human knowledge. 

Not only the face of our country, but the chief indus- 
trial pursuits of the people have been greatly changed 
or aflfected by the invention of the cotton-gin, by the 
application of steam to machinery and locomotion, and 
by the various mechanical improvements of the age. 

Before Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin, the cultivation of cotton in 
tiie Southern Stales was confined to a small " patch" on each farm, capable 
of producing a few pounds only, from which the seeds were picked by hand, 
and tiie wool washed, carded, spun, and woven by the women of the family 
into cloth or " homespun," then the chief article of clothing. 

The staple production of South Carolina and Georgia, at that time, was 
indigo, and cotton was known, as an article of commerce, only in India and 
the East. 

But, with Whitney's gin, which in a few minutes could pick the seed out 
from as much wool as a whole family could pick in a day, the sagacious people 
of these States perceived that the cultivation of cotton would be much m(>re 
profitable than indigo — so they gave up indigo and undertook cotton. Tlie 
farmers in India, perceiving how much superior to theirs the American cotton 
was, gave up cotton and undertook indigo— for the indigo of India is as good 
as ours. 

About seventy years ago, an American ship, from 
Charleston, arrived in England with ten bales of cotton 
as a part of her cargo. She was seized, on the ground 
that so much cotton could not be produced in the United 
States. Before the war, the production had reached 
four millions and upward. 

The invention of the spinning-jenny and the power- 
loom, about that time, tended still further to stimulate 
the })roduction of cotton ; and as raiment is to the 
human family next in importance to food, the production 
of cotton in those States continued to increase until the 
year before the war, when it had reached the enormous 
quantity, before stated, of four millions of bales and up- 
ward, and which, at present prices, would be worth not 
less than $200,000,000. 

8. Value of Productions. — Before the war, the 
people of the Southern States addressed themselves with 
great skill and energy to the various branches of agri- 
cultural industry, wisely trusting to the natural advan- 
tages afforded by their soil and climate to give effect to 
their labor ; and though numbering but little more than 
one-third of the population of the whole country, they 
produced, in value, two-thirds of the whole amount of 
its exports. 

Questions. — 1. Name the eleven Southern States. — Between what par- 
allels of latitude do they lie? — What countries remarkable for fertility in the 
Old World lie between the same parallels? 2. What is said of domestic 
servitude ? 3. How do the Southern States compare, as to climate, area, and 
population, with the New England and Middle States? — Contrast their coast- 
lines and compare their harbors, from Norfolk to the mouth of the Rio Grande. 
— What obstructs the harbors ? — Where is Noifolk ? — Trace out on the map, 
and describe, the chain of islands in the Atlantic that skirts the Soutliern coast- 
— How much water do the largest ships draw ? — Describe the three principal 
watersheds into which the Southern States are divided, and point out the 
principal streams which carry off the drainage. — What parts of the Southern 
States suffer most from want of water? — Point out and describe the Llano 
Estacado. 5. Point out on the map those parts of Virginia that are richest 
in minerals. — Those in Tennessee. — Those in North Carolina. — What kind of 
minerals? — What kind in Louisiana? — What kind in Arkansas? — In Ala- 
bama? (i. How does the climate of Virginia compare with the climate of 
New England, on the one hand, and of the Gulf States, on the other? — What 
are the chief industrial pursuits of Virginia? — What, in the more Southern 
States ? 7- Can you give instances in which industries of people have been 
changed or created by human inventions ? — Before the invention of the cotton- 
gin, what were the chief staples of South Carolina and Georgia? — Why did 
indigo go to India and cotton come to Carolina and the South for cultivation ? 
— Why was an American ship, with a few bales of cotton on board, seventy 



years ago, seized in Liverpool ? — How many million of bales had the annual 
cotton crop reached before the war ? 8. What portion of the exports of the 
country at that time was of Scutheru growtli ? 


The Southern States — Continued. 


Yirginia, the oldest of the States, and "Mother of 
Statesmen,'"' was the largest of the "original thirteen,"' 
and nsed to be called the " Old Dominion." 

In the Revolution of 1776 she took the lead, and 
played a most conspicuous part. She was renowned for 
the virtue of her sons and the wisdom of her statesmen. 
Some of the greatest men— Washington, Madison, Mar- 
shall, Jefferson — that the country has i)roduced, were 

This State is situated between the parallels of 36° 30' 
and SQ*^ 40' north latitude. It fronts for more than two 
hundred miles on the Atlantic Ocean, and on the mag- 
nificent Chesapeake Bay, itself an arm of the sea. Its 
western borders extend back to the tributaries of the 
Ohio, and form a part of the Mississippi Valley. They 
are drained into that river through the Ohio by New 
river and the Tennessee. 

The climates of Virginia correspond nearly Avith those 
of Cashmere and the best parts of China. 

Her latitude, the length of her days and nights, and the skies overhead, arc 
the same as those in some parts of Asia Minor ; but the climates of the two 
countries differ chiefly in this — Asia Min(>r is a iby couutr}', Virginia is well 

The mountains here, though they rise into peaks 4,000 
or 5,000 feet high, are neither snow-capped nor barren, 
but are clothed with forest-trees and undergrowth from 
the bottom to the top, affording fine range and pasture* 
for cattle. 

This woody vesture is a striking and peculiar feature of the whole Al- 
leghany range. Both these mountains and their spurs are forest-clad from 
Maine to Georgia. Upon them, as well as in the valleys between their ridges 
and spurs, are to be found medicinal plants, timber, and ornamental woods of 
various kinds and fine quality, such as cypress and cedar, maple, walnut, 
chestnut, beech, wild cherry, dogwood, and lignum vitae, pines and oaks 
of many varieties, with hickory, ash, mulberry, snake-root, ginseng, sumac, etc 

In tide-water Virginia, the cutting of ship-timber for 
northern builders, and of fire-wood for northern brick- 
kilns and other purposes, creates profitable industries. 

The Natural Bridge, in Rockbridge County, is an 
object of great interest to tourists. 


The Alleghany Mountains, and their outlying range 
of the Blue Ridge, run along in a zigzag course, but 
nearly parallel to each other ; the valleys between them 
vary in breadth from 30 to 70 miles, and are very fertile. 
The Valley of the Shenandoah is the largest and most 
fertile among them. 

Rising on the eastern slopes of these mountains, and 
flowing through these valleys, are the Potomac, the 
Shenandoah, the James, and the Roanoke rivers. The 
Rappahannock and the York rise east of the Blue Ridge. 
The New river has its head-waters in North Cai-olina, 
and empties into the Ohio river, on the western slopes 
of the mountains, where the head-waters of the Tennessee 
take their rise. These are noble rivers. The smallest 
of them is larger than the Thames in Europe. 

All tiiese rivers which flow down the Atlantic slope, are navigable from 
the sea to the head of tide-watei, and for distances varying from 100 lo 200 
miles from the ocean. 

The distances from their sources to tide-water varies from 50 to 250 miles, 
with a total fall in their descent of from 300 to 3,000 feet in the aggregate. 

This affords, all along these streams, from the mountains to tide-watci-, 
abundant water-power for mills and machinery of all sorts. 

The whole country is well wooded and watered, and is 
rich in minerals. 

The coal-fields near Richmond have been j)rofitably worked for many 
years. The coal is bituminous, and is extensively used in Philadelphia, New 
York, and other cities, for the production of gas. 

Winchester, in the Shenandoah Yallev, and Fred- 

TKCfT'E^The Soutk-Weslern boitvdnry 0/ Maryland is the ri;rht bank 0/ /he 
Palontar Kifrr from iff iourre to S»itf/i's f'oint at tH month and 
the Southern Loundary u at sHmvn t>j> thi ime on the Ata^t 




ericksbiirg. on the Rappahannock, are celebrated for the 
great battles that were fought at and near them during the 
late war. The latter has fine water-power. Williams- 
burg was, in colonial times, the capital of the State ; and 
William and Marj, situated there, is the oldest college 
in Virginia. The University at Charlottesville and the 
Virginia Military Institute with Washington College, 
both at Lexington, are flourishing institutions. 

The harbor of Norfolk, for capacity and depth of 
water, is not surpassed in the United States. 

Richmond has most extensive flour-mills, large found- 
ries, and a great number of machine-shops. 

Richmond flour is especially valuetl, because, in shipping it across tlie 
Equator, it is not liable to " heat" or ferment. 

Petersburg and Lynchburg ai'c largely engaged in 
the manufacture of fobacco, for which the climate of the 
latter is particularly favorable. 

Staunton, in the valley of Virginia, has asylums for 
the blind, the deaf and dumb, and for the insane. Alex- 
andria, eight miles below Washington, has a good trade. 


North Carolina and Tennessee are between the same 
l)arallels of latitude, and, except in the tide-water 
country of the former, the industrial pursuits of the two 
States, so far as the 
soil is concerned, are 
very much the same. 
Tennessee is the 
daughter of North 
Carolina, as Ken- 
tucky was of Virginia. 

Tiie , territoiy once be- 
lonj^etl to lier, and Tennessee 
was settled diiefly by emi- 
grants from Nortli Carolina. 
Daniel Boone, the celebrateil 
backwoodsman, who led the 
way for settlers, both ini" 
Kentucky and Tennessee, 
! was a North Carolinian. 

The cypress 
swamps and forests 
of pitch-[)ine, whicli 
abound in the tide- 
water country of 
•North Carolina, af- 
ford to her i)eoj)le 
important and valu- 
able branches of in- 
dustry, in the cutting 


and getting out of cypress staves, shingles, of lumber 
and naval stores. 

Tar, pitch, and turpentine are all the productions of 
the yellow i)itch-pine. The turpentine is obtained by 
blazing the tree, and dipping the gum from a box that is 
put at the root to receive it as it exudes from the tree. 

Many of these trees are very tall and straight, and 
they make the finest masts and spars for ships in the 
world ; large numbers of them are sent to the dock-yards 
of France and England for their men-of-war. 

The mild climate and the tides in the flat country of North Carolina, 
adapt many parts of it to the cultivation of rice, and in the geograjihical dis- 
tribution of labor in this State the people find profitable branches of indus- 
try in their rice-fields, as well as in their pine-forests, the presence of which, 
in Tennessee, is forbidden by geographical law. Both States are admirably 
adapted to the growth of Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, peas, beans, and 
barley ; fla.K and hemp ; to the vine, fig, and peach, with other orchard- fruits ; 
to melons, peanuts, and sweet potatoes ; and along the southern borders of 
both States cotton is extensively cultivated. 

In the mountainous portions of these States are found 
valuable deposits, and veins of gold, copper, tin, lead, 
iron, coal, and marble. The marbles of Tennessee are 
more esteemed than those of anv other State for their 
beauty and variet3^ Tennessee also excels in stock- 

Mount Mitchell, the highest peak of the Alleghanies, 
is in North Carolina. 

The University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, is 
an old and excellent institution. 

Wilmington is the chief place of export for the naval 
stores, staves, shingles, timber, rice, and cotton of North 
Carolina. It has many saw-mills. 

Newbern is famed for its Indian corn, peanut, sweet 
potato, and melon trade with the North ; Albemarle 
Sound for its fisheries, — more than a million of herrings 
are sometimes caught there at a single haul. 

Memphis and Chattanooga, in Tennessee, have not 
been surpassed in the rapidity of their rise as places of 
importance by any towns of their size in the South. 
The former derives its imi)ortance from its situation on 
the left bank of the Mississippi; the latter, from its situa- 
tion at the junction and crossing of a grand system of 
railroads. Memphis is the chief cotton port for the 
planters of North Alabama and Mississipj)!, who send 
their crops there to be shipped by steamboat to New 
Orleans. Norfolk has of late become the chief shipping 
port of Tennessee ; for she sends, by rail, more cotton 
to Norfolk for shipment thence by sea, than she sends 
to New Orleans via Memphis and the Mississippi river. 

The Tennessee river is navigable from its mouth up 
to Florence, Alabama, at the foot of Muscle Shoals.' 



Tliese celebrated rapids— twelve or fifteen miles long — are formed b y llie 
river as its waters rush over that remarkable vein of limestone which gives 
us elsewhere tlie Falls of Niagara. 

Attempts have been made to improve the navigation of these rapids by a 
canal like that round the falls of the Ohio at Louisville. United States en- 
gineers are now at work upon them. These officers, coming from the severer 
climates of the North, are charmed with the lovely climates and tine coun- 
try here. 

This river drains 16,000 square miles of country 
above the Muscle Shoals, with 825 miles of natural 
navigation, which is capable, with inexpensive improve- 
ments, of being extended to 1300 miles. 

The advantages of this section of the country over 
the Northwest must have their weight ; and when it is 
more generally known that its climate permits the 
Malaga grape, the fig, and the pomegranate to flourish 
in the open air, immigration must be turned to the Ten- 
nessee valley in the vicinity of Chattanooga and Hunts- 

The vast resources of this lovely valley, as an agri- 
cultural and stock-growing district, are demonstrated 
by the fact that upon them both armies subsisted for 
nearly two years during the late war. 

The coal deposits of Hamilton and Roan counties, 
in this State, are enormous, and the coal is of a (juality 
equal to the best Pittsburg coal for all purposes. 

South Carolina and Georgia. 

South Carolina and Georgia resemble each other in 
climate. The}^ both front on the Atlantic and abut 
against the mountains. Their industries arc the same, 
and we speak of them together. 

South Carolina takes the lead in the production of 
rice. Of all the Southern States, she and Georgia were 
the foremost with railroads. 

The University of South Carolina is in Columbia, a 
beautiful countr}^ town and an elegant capital. 

Charleston is the principal city and chief seaport 
town of the State, but like all Southern ports, the en- 
trance to it, for large ships, is obstructed by a bar. 

The palmetto grows in the streets of Charleston. As an emblem of 
sovereignty it was borne on the shield of the State ; for that reason she is 
called the Palmetto State. The palmetto is a tree-palm. 

or all trees, those of this family are the most useful and beautiful. Among 
its varieties— of which there are not less than 60 in the " New World," 
which are entirely unknown in the " Old" — are found specimens which fur- 
nish man with food and shelter, with weapons and garments. 

The shores of Georgia and the south coast of Carolina 
are curtained with the " Sea Islands," which are cele- 
brated for a superior kind of cotton, called the " Sea 
Island" cotton. 

This cotton, formerly growing only in these Islands, is now also culti- 
vated very successfully in Soutlieastern Texas and Southern Louisiana, near 

in C E P I^ A N T . 

the Gulf Coast. It has a long silky fibre, and is chiefly used in Europe, 
especially in Brussels, for the manufacture of laces and other fine fabrics. It 
is sold at four or five times the ordinary value of other cotton. 

Rice is one of the chief staples of 
both South Carolina and Georgia. 

In Georgia the seasons are so far in 
advance even of those no farther north 
than Virginia, that it is no unusual 
thing to see green peas and strawberries 
grown in the open air and lit for table 
use, in March. 

The State University is at Athens. 
Augusta and Atlanta are celebrated for 
their workshops. Georgia is more ex- 
tensively engaged in manufacturing than any other 
Southern State. 

The gold mines of Georgia, as well as those of North 
Carolina and Virginia, have been worked with prolit, 
and before the gold mines of California had revealed 
their richer treasures, the}' were considered very rich. 

The climates of Georgia, on account of its low latitude 
on one hand and its high mountains on the other, are 
very varied. 

The hill country of Georgia, like that of Tennessee, 
produces the finest of wheat, while the rice delights in 
the low country along the coast. 

Savannah is the chief city of Georgia. 



Florida has the mildest climate of all these States. 
It fronts both on the Gulf of Mexico and on the Atlantic, 
and though its winters are too warm for frost, its sum- 



mers are so tempered by the sea-breezes and the ocean 
that the heat is less oppressive there than it is in New 
York and other States. 

Though the Spaniards established a settlement at San Augustine, in 
Florida, long before any otlier Europeans had begun to found colonies in 
America, this State is so thinly settled at this day that there is only one in- 
habitant for eve:y 300 acres of land ; in New York there is one for eveiy 6^ 

Florida is adapted to the cultivation of all that is 
grown in the four other Atlantic States immediately to 
the north of it, with the addition of the sugar-cane, of 
intertropical fruits, and even of coffee in favored spots. 

Florida is famous for its oranges and other fruits. The sweet potato pro- 
duces there until killed by the frost, and in the soulhera parts the people gather 
it from the same patch, witliout replanting, for two or three years consecu- 
tively, and until there comes a killing frost, so mild is the climate. This 
Stale is mountainless, but abounds in swamps and everglades, and its 
live-oak forests are one of its chief ornaments. 

Live-oak is the hardest, the heaviest, and most durable of woods ; it is 
considered well-nigh impervious to decay, and is, on that account and for its 
strength, extensively used in ship-building. 

The soil of the country is of limestone and coral form- 
ation. It abounds in beautiful lakes and clear, deep 

Some of the latter, of lake-like proportions, are deep enough to float a line- 
of-battle ship, yet so limpid that the pebbles can be distinctly seen on the 

The Gulf Stream sweeps around this State and sepa- 
rates it from the great Bahama banks and islands, which 
are also of coral — making navigation dangerous. 

The Dry Tortwjas, off the coast of Florida, belong to 
the United States, and are fortified. 

Key West is a famous wrecking station, where the 
property rescued fi"om shipwreck is brought to be dis- 
po.'^ed of. Pensacola has the deepest water of any 
liarbor on the Gulf-coast of the United States. The 
Government has a navy-yard there. 

Questions. — Between what parallels of latitude docs Virginia lie?— 
What is the length of her co:',st-line? — What part of Virginia lies in the Mis- 
.nssippi Valley V — Tliio.igli what rivers is it drained into the Mississippi 
river?— \v'liat parts of the Old World are in the latitudes of Virginia? — 
Which of them resemble her most in climate ? — AVhatis the chief ditfereuce? 
— Descri*x! the mountains in Virginia. 

Name some of their oiTiamental woods and medicinal plants. — What are 
the principal rivers in Virginia? — Which empty into the Chesapeake? — 
Where do',M New river and empty ? — The Tennessee ? 

How far are the rivers, that are tributary to the Chesapeake, navigable ?— 
What, from their source to the head of tide-water, is tiieir total fall? — What, 
the distance ? 

What kind of coal is mined near Richmond ? — Where is Staunton, and 
for wiiatis it noted? — Fredericksburg? — Where is William and Maiy Col- 
lege ? — Where is the University of Virginia? — Where, Washington College, 
and the Virginia Military Institute? — Point out the places where they are, 
and tell their bearings from Richmond. — What is said of Norfolk harbor? 
— What can you say about Richmond? — Petersburg? — Lynchburg? — 
Staunton ? 

What State has the finest marble in Hie United States? — Where and what 

is the highest peak of the Alleghany Mountains ? — Where is the University 
of North Carolina? — What can you tell about Wilmington? — Newbern? — 
The fisheries of Albemarle Sound? — In what rural industries does Tennessee 
particularly excel ? 

To what do you ascribe the rapid rise and importance of Memphis and 
Chattanooga? — Does Tennessee export most cotton via New Orleans or 
Norfolk? — To what town is the Tennessee river navigable from its mouth? 
— Where are the Muscle Shoals ? 

Upon what vein of rock are the Muscle Shoals? — How far is the river 
navigable above them ? — What is the area of its valley above them ? — What 
account do the officers of the engineer corps of the army give of this valley ?— 
Of its climates? — Of its agricultural and mineral resources? — In what part of 
the State are the Tennessee and Cumberland rivei's ? 

How do South Carolina and Georgia resemble each other? — In what 
branch of industry does South Carolina take the lead of Georgia ? — In what 
line of improvements are these two States ahead of the other Southern States? 
— Where is the University of South Carolina ? — Wliy is South Carolina called 
the "Palmetto State?"— Are there many varieties of the palm-tree ? — How 
many are there in the New World? — Where does the Sea Island cotton 
grow ? — What is it used for? 

How, as compared with those in Virginia, are the seasons in Georgia ? — 
Where is the State University of Georgia ? — For what are Augusta and At- 
lanta noted ? — Which of the Southern States is most extensively engaged in 
manufacturing? — What part of Georgia is best for wheat? — What for rice? 

How does Florida compare in density of population with New York? — 
Is Florida tliickly settled ? — What can you cultivate in Florida that cannot 
profitably be grown in Georgia and the States north ? — What delicious fruit 
is abundantly cultivated in Florida? — Describe the face of the country. — The 
springs. — What excellent ship-timber abounds there? — How is Florida sep- 
arated from the Bahama Islands? — What makes the navigation along Floiida 
coast so dangerous ? — Where are the Dry Tortugas ? — Where is Key West ? — 
For what is it noted ? 


Southern States — Continued. 

Al.vbama and Mississippi. 

"With the exception of the hilly regions in the north- 
oast corner of Alabama, tlie face of the countiy in these 
two States is similar. Their latitude and climates are 
tilso much the same. Cotton is their staple })roduction, 
ill which they excel all the other States, as Alabama 
and Tennessee did, iiccording to the census of 1860 
in the |)roduetioii of corn. 

The pine forests and cypress swamps of North Caro- 
lina extend all the way along the coast to the mouth of 
the Mississippi river, and even beyond. 

The Mississippi river, as it flows through the lowlands 
of the South, is prevented, in many places, from over- 
flowing its banks and converting these low grounds into 
swamps, by embankments called levees. In this way a 
vast extent of land, remarkable for its fertility, has been 

These reclaimed lands were known as the "Mississippi bottoms." 
Before the levees were constructed, the whole an^a of lands in the Missis- 
sippi Valley, subject to overflows, and therefore unsalable, was estimated to 




be not less than 34 millions of acres. The State of New York does not con- 
tain as much as 34 millions of acres. 

The rain-fall in the Southern parts of Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, and Louisiana (60 inches) is nearly twice as 
heavy as it is between the same parallels of latitude in 
Georgia and Florida on the one side, and in Texas on the 
other. It is greater than in any part of the country east of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The University of 
Alabama is at Tusca- 
loosa, and that of Mis- 
sissippi, at Oxford. 
The latter has been 
successfully revived 
since the war. 

Alabama has rich de- 
posits of coal and iron,, 
but Mississippi lacks 
coal, and is poor in 
metallic ores of all 

Mobile is one of the 
two gulf ports from 
which most of the cot- 
ton produced in these 
States, as well as in 
those of Louisiana and 
Arkansas, finds its way to the sea and to distant ports. 


Creoles, a term that has been bor- 
rowed by the natives generally, who 
call themselves Creoles instead of na- 
tive Louisianians. 

Louisiana was purchased from 
France in 1803, chiefly to secure a 
free outlet to the sea ; but, in the pur- 
chase, was included all the country 
west of the Mississippi, even as far 
as the Pacific Ocean, except Califor- 
nia, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 
During the war, when the people 
of the South were suffering for the 
want of salt, the usual supplies of 
which, except in Virginia, being cut 
off, an island of excellent rock salt 
was discovered on the coast of Louisi- 
ana. It continues to be profitably and extensively 

New Orleans is the great emporium and produce 
market of the South and West. It exports more cotton 
than any other seaport town in the world. At certain 
seasons of the year its levees are piled up with produce 
that has been sent there from the up-country for ex- 



I^ouisiana was settled by the Spaniards and French : 
the descendants there of the latter are called French 

portation, and its wharves nre lined for miles with 
steamboats, shijjping. and other craft that are engaged 
in the carrying trade. 

The waters of the Mississippi are veiy smooth ; the tall frees and thick 
forests on the banks break the violence of the winds, therefore the Mississippi 




steamboats are built to stand high out of the water. Some of them are like 
floating palaces, the^^ are so large and splendid. 

All along the banks of this river, and those of its navigable tributaries, 
the business of cutting and hauling wood for these steamers (for wood is 
their favorite fuel) is an important branch of industry. It was worth, before 
the war, seven or eight millions of dollars annually. The industry and en- 
ergies of the people of this State are directed chiefly to the cultivation of 
cotton and sugar. The climates along the Gulf-coast are semi-tropical, and 
many of the fruits and flowers of the torrid zone, such as the magnolia- 
grandiflora, the orange, pomegranate, and fig, flourish there in great beauty 
and perfection. 

From the mouth of the Red river to the Gulf the level of the Mississippi 
and its outlets — called Bayous— is higher than that of the adjacent country. 
There the drainage is from and not toward the water-courses. There the 
people say, '' Let us go up to the river," instead of " down" to it, as we do. 
In this low and flat country, called " the coast," the river banks are the highest 
lauds. The palm-leaf fims that you use in summer come from these swamps 
and niai-shes, with tiieir exuberant vegetation. 

The depression of the country lying on both sides of the Mississippi, 
south of the Red river, exposes it to fearful floods and inundations. 

In the lowlands and swamps, from North Carolina, extending along the 
seaboard, and for many miles l)ack in the interior, all the way to Texas, the 
forest-trees of the South arc drai)ed in gray moss, a parasite that hangs down 
in long and graceful fest(jons from the branches, imparting to the forest 
scenery a striking and picturesque feature. 

This is the moss which is so extensively used in upholstery for beds, 
cushions, and mattresses. 


Texas lies between the parallels of 26° and 36° 30'. 
It is the State, as to area, in the Union, though 
it has a population of less than seven persons for every 
square mile — Massachusetts, one hundred and eighty- 
five. Texas is thirty-five times the size of Massa- 

Texas was formerly a part of Mexico ; she separated from that country in 
1837; her independence was acknowledged, and then, in 1845, she was an- 
nexed to the United States. 

In Northern Texas the atmosphere is dry, and the 
quantity of rain which falls there annually is small, 

A dry climate makes hot summers and cold winters, a fact which will be 
explained in the Plij-sical Geography, but which should be remembered, for 
it will serve you as a key to the climates of many countries. 

In some parts of Texas the climate is ad- 
mirably adapted to the cultivation of cotton and 
sugar ; in others, to corn, the olive, and the vine. 
Texas is also a fine grazing and wool-growing |^J 

San Antonio is the oldest town in Texas. 
Houston is a flourishing shipping port for a large 
section of rich country. Galveston is the chief 
port of Texas, as it has a fine harbor. 

The dry part of the State begins with the 
celebrated "Llano Estacado" (the staked plain) 
already spoken of, that borders Texas and New 
Mexico. It is about 200 miles from east to 
west, and 300 from north to south. 

Texas is famed for its beautiful prairies and 

the Severity of its north winds. These come on at times 
so suddenly in winter, and are so cold and severe, that 
both man and beast have been known to perish in 

There are, in Texas, New Mexico, and also in the In- 
dian Territory, vast plains which abound in prairie 
dogs, buffalo, wild deer, and other game, 


Arkansas abounds in swamps and lowlands. About 
one-fourth of the State was liable to overflow before the 
system of leveeing the Mississippi Avas commenced. The 
famous Red river raft, which was so instructive to the 
geologists of Europe, is in Louisiana, near this State. 

There the driftwood has lodged for ages. In that warm climate plants, 
vines, and creepers soon began to take root upon this mass of trees and logs 
which covered the river fnjni one side to the other. Presently trees began 
to grow upon it : these, with their roots, tendrils, and branches, bound this 
drift matter in one compact mass. It extends miles up the river, which dis- 
appears from view as it flows under the raft, near Shreveport. 

Arkansas has but few towns, and none of them are 
large ; thus indicating that her industry is rural. 

The western part of the State is a good grass coun- 
try, and, among its mineral resources, it has a (juarry 
of the most valuable whetstones known to commerce. 
Valuable deposits of zinc, coal, iron, lead, and anti- 
mony, with perhaps copper and silver, are also known 
to exist within its boundaries. 

The hot springs of Arkansas are celebrated for their 
medicinal virtues. 

New Mexico and Indian Territory. 

These territories are both bounded on the north by 
the same parallel, of 37°. Congress set apart this In- 




dian territory, and gave it to the red-men and their 
descendants, to be occupied and governed forever in 
their own way. The Cherokees, Chickasaws {cMck'a- 
saws), Chocktaws, Creeks, and Serainoles, are the most 
noted of these tribes. They till the soil, and have a 
constitutional government, schools, and churches. 

Tahlequah {tah'le-kwah), the chief town, is in the Chero- 
kee division. Some members of this tribe have elegantly 
furnished houses, are accomplished in manner, and re- 
fined in taste. Some of their neighbors, however, in 
the old-fashioned wa}' of their fathers, still scour the 
plains in search of game and adventure. 


New Mexico was formerly a part of Mexico, and was 
settled by emigrants from that country. Spanish is still 
the language in most common use. 

Its landscapes abound in grand and imposing scenery, 
but they too frequently lack the charm of green pas- 
tures and still waters. The face of the country is often 
as dreary and wild as naked rocks and barren wastes 
can make it ; but, wherever there is water, the soil is, 
as it is in the Indian Territory, exceedingly fertile. 

Certain varieties of potato thrive in New Mexico. 
Indian corn, wheat, and the small grains do well. 
Onions, cymlings, and melons attain to an enormous size, 

and great excellence in flavor. The grape commences 
to ripen in July and ceases in October. 

The celebrated " El Paso" wine — a superior kind of Madeira — is made from 
this grape. 

The olive and the date would do w.ll in that country. 

Near Las Vegas, in New Mexico, are some celebrated hot springs. There 

is a cluster of thirty or forty of them, of various temperatures, from 80° to 140°. 

Near the city of Colorado are four remarkable soda-springs, which, within 

a short distance of each other, come bubbling and boiling out of the earth 

as though they were fresh from the fountain. 

Zuni is a small Indian village, situated in a desolate region. 

There are some remarkable ruins in its vicinity, supposed to be the 
habitations of a former generation, made desolate by famine or pestilence. 

Questions. — Which are the five Gulf States ? — Which has 
the most hill country, Alabama or Mississippi ? — Has either of 
them any mountains? — How are the climates ? — What arc their 
staple productions? — In what brancli of industry do these States 
excel all others ? — How far do the pitch-pine forests extend ? — 
Can 3'ou give an example of tlie effect tliat soil and climate 
have upon the industries of people ? — How, since the Missis- 
sippi river is higher than the country a little way back, is it 
prevented from overflowing its banks at high water, and 
drowning these low grounds ? — What are the " bottoms ?" — 
levees? — What, before tlie levees were built, was the area of 
land in the Mississij)pi valley tliat was subject to overflow ? — 
What part of the country' on tliis side of the Rocky Mountains 
receives the heaviest rain-fall ? — What is the depth of tliis fall 
in inches ? 

What State has the largest city in the South ? — What city, 
of all in the countrj', exports the most cotton ? — How far from 
New Orleans to tlie Gulf? (Sec map.) — Describe the appearance 
of the city. — W'hy are the Mississippi steamboats built to stand 
high out of the water?— To what important branch of industry 
have the steamboats of the West given rise ? — What are the 
two chief branches of industry in Louisiana? — Which way does 
the cotton go for a market ? Am. — Largely abroad. — How ar<} 
the climates of Louisiana? — What tropical fruits and flowers 
tlourisli tliere ? — Describe the lowland forests along the sca- 
l)oard from Nortli Carolina to Texas. — Wliat use is made of 
this parasite? — By whom was Louisiana settled? — When and 
from whom was Louisiana purchased ? — What was the main 
object of this purchase ?— What extent of territory was in- 
cluded in this purchase? — What valuable mineral deposit was 
recently discovered in Louisiana? 

Between what parallels of latitude does Texas lie?— 
(See Map, p. 57.)— How does it compare with the other Statei 
as to area?— W'hat poptdation does it average to the square 
n^ile? — How many times larger than Massaciiusetts is Texas? 
— Suppose it were as thickly inhabited, how large would its population 
be?_When was Texas annexed ?— Which is the driest part of Texas?— 
What effect has a dry atmosphere on the summer and winter temperature 
of a countiy ?— What is the chief port of this State?— WHience are the 
rivers that flow through the diy parts of Texas fed?— How large is 
Llano Estacado (staked plain) ?— How high is it above the sea-level ? (See 
map.) — What wind is particularly severe in Texas?— Are tliere any plains 
in Texas ? — What animals do you find upon them ? 

How much of Arkansas is liable to overflow ?— Describe the Red River raft. 
—What is the industry of the State ?— Its minerals ?— Its springs ? 
How are New Mexico and Indian Territorj' situated as to latitude ? 
By whom, and for what purpose, was Indian Territoiy set apart ?— De- 
scribe the Indian settlements. — Chief town. — Habits of Indians. 

To what power did New Mexico once belong?— What language is in use ? 
— Its scenery? — Soil and products? 

What is the "El Paso" wine ?— Wh;ii is said of Zuni? 




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The Western States and Territories. — Their Geographical 
Position and Features. (Maps, pp. 67, 73.) 

Total Population, 14,813,713. 


West Virginia. ... 








Iowa , 





Montana Territory. 
Dakota " 

Wyoming " 


Wheeling . . . 
Columbus . . . 
Frankfort ... 
Indianapolis . 
Springfield. . . 



Jefferson City 
Des Moines. . 

St. Paul 





Yankton . . . . 
Cheyenne. . . . 

Chief Cities and their 

Wheeling 19,380 

Cincinnati 216,2o9 

Louisville lOO,?');} 

Indianapolis 48,214 

Chicago 298,977 

Detroit 79,577 

Milwaukee 71,440 

St. Louis 310,8(54 

Dubuque ]8,4;J4 

St. Paul 20,030 

Leavenworth . . . 17,893 

Omaha 1(;,08;J 

Denver 4,750 

Helena 3,106 

Yankton 737 

Cheyenne 1,450 

1. Position and Orography. — These States and 
Territories are all inland, and all of them, excepting 
Michigan, give rise to streams that empty into the 
Mississippi river ; they occupy what is often called the 
Upper Mississippi Valley. They also embrace portions 
of the two great watersheds, which are formed by the 
Rocky Mountains on the one hand and the Alleghanios 
on the other, so as to carry their waters off into ihe 
Mississippi, which lies between them as a gutter, and 
delivers the drainage into the Gulf of Mexico. This 
river, therefore, occupies the line of lowest level (see 
the Orographic Yiew^ of the United States, p. 30) that 
can be drawn from north to south along the valley 
drained by it. 

2. Course of the 3lississippi. — You observe that 
the Mississippi does not occupy the middle of this valley, 
it is far to the east of the middle, winding along, especially 
in Kentucky and Tennessee, not very far from the out- 
lying ridge of the Alleghanies. 

The geographical conclusions that, with the orographic view and the map 
of the United States before you, you are able to draw from this fact, are : — 

1st. — That the eastern tributaries of the great river, as compared with the 
western, are more rapid in their descent. 

2d. — That they are not navigable to so great a distance. 

3d. — That the plains watered by them are not as broad or as long as arc 
those through which the more gentle streams of the -western watershed flow. 

4th. — That when heavy rains occur, these long and gentle streams of the 
West require more time than do the shorter and more rapid streams of the 
East, to discharge their floods into the main gutter — the Mississippi river itself 

3. Climates. — The Orographic Yiew shows all this, 

and more ; it shows that these States and Territories, 
all lying between the parallels of 36° 30' and A9°, are 
separated from the sea by a range of mountains on 
the east and on the west ; and you have already learned 
enough about the influences which regulate climates, 
to teach you that the differences of climate among these 
States and Territories are to be accounted for chiefly by 
mere difference of latitude and elevation, regardless of 
their distance from the sea. 

You may also infer that those portions of these States that lie along the 
margins of the Mississippi and its great lakes are the warmest, because the 
lowest, while those parts that lie among the hills wliieh give rise to its tribu- 
taries are the highest, and therefore the coldest, the latitude being the same. 

4. Cfmfinental Sf opes and Drains,— You may observe, by look- 
ing at the map of North America a little mort' closely, that from the Tropic 
of Cancer to the Arctic Ocean the continent is divided into two grand water- 
sheds, whicli, together, include all the minor ones that we have hitherto con- 
sidered; and that, near the parallel of 50° north, and extending across our 
continent fiom the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, there is a ridge which divides 
the whole country into two grand watersheds, one of which inclines to the 
Qorth, and drains the waters off into the Arctic Ocean and its Bays ; the other 
inclines toward the south, and drains off into the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Gulf of Me.xieo, or into the South Sea, as the Pacilie was called. The head- 
waters of these two drains — the Mississippi and the Red Kiver — rise about 
1,000 feet above the level of Lake Superior. 

The distance between them is short, as it is between the Saskatchawau 
and Athabasca, So if there was a canal across these two narrow portages, 
an Indian entering the ^Mackenzie, from the Arctic; Ocean, in his bark canoe, 
might, after ascending that river and passing these two canals, descend the 
Mississippi into the Gulf of Me.xieo, and so pass by fresh water channels from 
the regions ol' eternal winter to perpetual summer. 

The ascent to the top of this ridge would be about 1,000 feet, and the 
descent as much; the descent from St. Louis to the Gulf being over 380 feet 

From Minnesota to Ihe Atlantic this ridge seems to have been depressed 
and hollowed out, as it were, to make a cistern tipon the top of it, and form a 
basin there for the great lakes. The St. Lawrence is the gutter for draining 
these lakes ; it carries the water off to the east and empties it into the Atlantic 

3. Favored Position. — The regions occupied by 
the Western States are the granaries of the country. 
Every year they satisfy the land with bread ; and after 
it is fllled, they have enough to relieve famine abroarl. 

6. Population. — The thirteen Western States occupy an area of 
767,000 square miles, and have a population of 19 persons to the square mile, 
or an average of 31 acres per inliabitant. 

Belgium, which does not lie in such sunny climes, and whose soil is no 
more generous, averages only an acre and a half per head for her inhabitants. 

According to this ratio, there is yet in these Western States, exclusive of 
the Territories, room for more than 290,000,000 of people. 

The extent of their grassy plains and prairies, the cheapness of the lands, 
the facility with which they are brought under cultivation, together with the 
fertility of the soil, are the attractions which direct immigraticm to this part 
of the countiy in preference to any other portion of our wide domains. 

7. Supply of Water. — The winter rains of the 
Pacific coast, to be treated of at another time, turn to 
snow on the Rocky Mountains, and there the snow re- 
mains as a reservoir to feed the rivers when it melts iu 
spring and summer. Now, when the heavy rains of the 
spring and early summer happen to flood the eastern 



tributaries at the time that the tributaries from the west 
are discharging great volumes, arising from a thaw in 
the mountains, the Mississippi river receives two floods 
at once. 

The river sometimes swells over with these floods and 
attains the proportions of a sea. In the spring-flood of 
1 867, the Mississippi was estimated to be, at Memphis, 
more than 40 miles broad. 

8. Prairies and Plains. — The most striking fea- 
ture of the Western States is the size and picturesque 
loveliness of their treeless plains. They are covered with 
grass, gay with flowers, and alive with herds of wild 
cattle. On the east side of the Mississippi they arc 
called prairies, and on the west side, plains. Nearly 
the whole of Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 
is a level country, and the plains stretch out to the 
declivities of the Rocky Mountains. 

f). Products. — The Western States are a grazing and 
agricultural country, and the staple productions arc 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, and barley ; potatoes and culinary- 
vegetables ; with hemp, grapes, fruits, and tobacco. The 
soil and climate are also admirably adapted to the 
growth of sorghum, or Chinese sugar-cane, which is 
rapidly assuming in its cultivation the proportions of 
an agricultural staple. 

The people of the W^estern States are also extensively 
engaged in wool-growing, and in raising cattle, horses, 
beef, and hogs. The annual wool-clip both in Ohio 
and in Michigan is very great. 

JO. Minerals. — The Western States and Territories 
are richer than the Southern States in minerals. The 
coal-fields of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 
are the largest and the most bountifully stored in the 
world. They embrace an area of many thousand 
square miles. 

There arc in the United States four great coal-fields. Those of Pennsyl- 
vania can yield 50,000,000 tons per annum. In Maryland the seam which 
supplies our steamers witii tlie best fuel is 14 feet thick and 50 miles lon.i;. 
The coal-fields of Missouri alone have coal enou^^li to last the world 3,000 
years, while it would take 100,000 years to exhaust those of Illinois at tlie 
present rate of consumption. 

Masses of native copper, tons in weight, have been 
quarried out of the mines in the Lake Superior copper 

Lead abounds in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Mis- 
souri. In the last-named State there is a mountain of 

Salt springs and wells abound on the east side of the 
Mississippi : in the mountains of the west, gold and 

silver. Michigan now produces nearly as mueh salt as 
New York. 

The fisheries of the great lakes are a profitable source 
of industry, especiall}^ to Michigan. 

The white-fish of the lakes, when salted and packed, are highly estcemcil 
as an article of food. The Mississippi liver also yields bounteously of its 
fresh fish to the people along its banks. 

Questions. — 1. Do any of the Western States border on a sea or lake? 
2. What is the course of the Mississippi ? — Name some of tlie conclusions you 
draw from a study of its course. 3. Why have some of the Western States a 
different climate from others ? 4. Name and describe the two great slopes 
of Nortli America. — Do you observe any depression or hollow on the Oro- 
graphic View which lead you to conjecture that tliere is here a grand natural 
cistern ? 

5. Is the region occupied by the Western States favored ? 0. What is 
the ratio of area to Uieir population ? 7- Where do the floods of the Missis- 
sippi come from? — How can you illustrate their magnitude? 8. What is 
said of the Prairies? — What are the Plains? 9. Products and industries of 
the people ? — Which States grow the most wool ? 10. What is said of tlic 
mineral resources of the Western States ? — Wlicre does lead abound? — Where 
is there a mountain of iron ? — What is said of Michigan fisheries ? 


Western States — Continued. 

West Vikginia. (Map, p. 45.) 

This State was formed out of the " Old Dominion" dur- 
ing the last war. It is the most mountainous of the West- 
ern States, and is classed with them, because it adjoins 
them, is in the same latitude, lies on the western 
waters, and is an interior State, as they are. Its hills 
abound in coal and iron : in its valleys are to be found 
salt-springs, petroleum-wells, and mineral-waters of 
great excellence, — among them the celebrated White 
Sulphur Si)rings. No part of the world can surpass 
the mountains of the two Virginias in the abundance, 
variety, and excellence of their mineral-waters. 


Some of the finest varieties of coal known to com- 
merce, such as splint and cannel coal, are found in 
the valley of the Kanawha river, on which Charleston, 



the former capital, is situated. It is at the head of 

slack-water navigation. 


There also are the salt-works. The water is obtained by boriu 
through the rocks below the bed of the river. The 
Kanawha salt is extensively used by the meat 
packers of Cincinnati. 

The chief article of food for sailors at sea is salt 
beef and pork. Most of that used by the navy of 
the United States and in our merchant ships, and 
much also of that which is used on board the ships 
and navies of Europe, is packed in Cincinnati, and 
cured witli the salt which comes from Kanawha and 
from Pomeroy, Ohio. This salt has peculiar jiroper- 
ties, which give a special value to the meats that 
are packed with it. 

The hills which surround Wheeling 
also contain valuable deposits of bitu- 
minous coal. This, with its position 
near the head of navigation of the 
Ohio, and its connections by railroads 
with Baltimore on one hand and the 
Western States on the other, gives 
Wheeling great importance. 

It is proposed to enlarge the James River Canal • 
and make it a great national ship-canal, capable of 

passing large steamers and other vessels to and fro, between the Ohio and 
Chesapeake, so as to give, in war, a water route between the Atlantic seaboard 
and the West, entirely within our own borders. 

Kentucky. (Map, p. 67.) 

This State was a colony of Virginia. It was settled 
chiefly by Virginians. 

It is separated from the Atlantic seaboard by a 
mountain barrier, across which the passage in those 
early times, even on horseback, was difficult, and ren- 
dered perilous by the Indians. 

Kentucky was separated from the Gulf of Mexico by 
a long and tedious river navigation, and to get her 
produce to markets then, she had to ship it on flat- 
boats and drift down vf'iih the current. Arriving at 
last at New Orleans, the cargo was sold, and the boat 
broken up for firewood — for it could not be poled back 
against the current ; and the crew were left to find 
their way home on foot through almost pathless forests, 
infested, too, frequently by hostile Indians. 

Thus it took one year to grow a crop, another to carry it to market and 
return, so that these early settlers could produce for market only one crop in 
two years. 

Such was the condition of the Western States about fifty years ago, 
when steamboat navigation first reached the Mississippi River, and the revo- 
lution that steam and the steamboat have made upon the industrial pursuits 
of the people of these States is, with its efi'ects, the most remarkable feature 
in their political geography. It has turned the howling wilderness into 
smiling gardens. 

In many parts of the State the soil is of surpassing 
fertilitv. Lexington, in the midst of the famous blue- 

grass region, is on the vein of limestone that forms 
Niagara Falls, Mammoth Cave of Ky., and the Muscle 
Shoals of Alabama. It makes Kentuckv rich in cattle. 

M A M M U 1 1 1 

Hemp and tobacco, with corn and the cereals, are the 
chief agricultural staples of Kentucky. It is also a fine 
fruit country. 

Iron mines are profitably worked in the lower part of the State. Coal also 
is abundant. 

Kentucky and Tennessee are the only States east of Uie Mississippi tiiat 
give their drainage entirely to that river, and are wholly within its valley. 

Louisville is at the Falls of the Ohio, where there is a 
canal capacious enough to pass the largest steamers 
that ply on those waters. 


The Ohio river, with its connections, placed this State 
in water communication, at an early day, with all the 
commercial marts of the Mississii)pi Valley. Iler geo- 
graphical position on the lakes, and the early completion 
of the Erie Canal, gave her great advantages, which 
were increased soon after by the construction through 
this State of several canals between the Ohio river and 
the Lakes. These works at that time contributed power- 
fully to the prosperity and i-apid settlement of Ohio. 
At a later day the railways of New York, Pennsylvania, 
and Maryland completed the connection with the East- 
ern and Middle States, and made Ohio the great 
thoroughfare of trade and travel between the Atlantic 
seaboard and the West. 

This State was also once a part of the " Old Dominion," and many of the 
first settlers of Ohio were Virginians. 

There are no mountains in this State ; the country is 



comparatively level ; there is no lack of limestone and 
other rocks, and so it was quite easy for the early 
settlers, before steam was introduced as a locomotive 
power, to interlace this State with good turnpike roads. 

Ohio has already become the third State of the Union, 
and her people are more largely engaged in mining 
and manufacturing than those of any other Western 
State. She has a growing trade with the South. 

There are valuable deposits of coal and iron in the 
region round about Ironton. 

Ohio is a fine grain country, and the grape is exten- 
sively cultivated there for the manufacture of wine. 
The Catawba of Cincinnati is classed in Europe with 
the favorite wines of the Rhine. 

Besides Cincinnati, which is the largest city of Ohio, 
Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, and Columbus (the capital 
of the State), are important and flourishing cities. 

Pork-packing is the branch of industry for which Cincinnati is most noted. 

Indiana and Illinois. 

These States arc in the Prairie country ; they have 
no mountains ; their latitude, climate, and agricultural 
staples are the same. 

Next to Ohio, Illinois is the most populous of the 
Western States, and, like Ohio, is greatly favored in its 
geographical position, 

Chicago is one of the most flourishinq; cities in the 

OHIO A «0 . 

West. It is especially remarkable for its grain and 
provision trade. It is the chief place for the shipment 
of grain and breadstuffs from the West to the East. Ex- 
cepting London, Chicago is the greatest grain market in 
the world. Vessels sometimes take in the cargo at Chi- 
cago, and sail thence direct for Europe. Galena is in 
the midst of the lead-mining regions. Cairo derives 
geographical importance from its position at the junc- 
tion of the Ohio with the Mississippi, and that impor- 
tance has been vastly increased by the Illinois Central 

Evansville, Indiana, is a flourishing city. 

New Alban}^ is a boat-building place, where many of 
the steamers that ply on the Mississippi are launched. 

A new and magnificent bridge now connects Louis- 
ville with New Albany. 

Questions. — What kinds of coal are found in the Kanawha valley ? — 
For what is the Kanawha salt especially valuable ? — How is the salt water 
obtained there V — What kind of coal is found in the hill-sides at Wheeling ? — 
Wliat waters is the James River and Kanawha Canal to connect? — Why 
is it proposed to make it a national work? 

To what State did the territory whicli now forms Kentucky formerly be- 
long? — By whom was it settled? — What made the journey for the early set- 
tlers there so difficult and dangerous ? — How, before the introduction of the 
steamboat on the Western waters, did Kentucky get her produce to market ? 
— How long did it take them to make and get a crop to market? — W^hat is 
the most remarkable feature in the political geography of the Western States? 
— Can you give another example of the bearings of luunan inventions upon 
the geography of a country? — Where is the blue-grass region of Ke'n lucky? 
— What great natural curiosity is found there ? — What are tiie chief agiicul- 
tural staples and mineral productions of Kentucky ? — What two States east 

of the Mississippi lie wholly in the 
valley of that river? — W^here is 
Louisville ? — How do steamboats 
pass the falls there ? 

What State was the first to send 
settlers to Ohio ? — Describe tlie face 
of the country. — How came Ohio to 
be a thoroughfare between the 
West and the East ?— What advan- 
tage do the farmers of Ohio now 
enjoy on account of her geographi- 
cal i)osition? — How, in the order of 
population, does Ohio rank among 
the States of the Union? — How, 
among the Western States? — Whicli 
one among the States of the Union 
is the first in population ? — First in 
area? — Besides the agricultural, 
what are the industries that chictiy 
engage the attention of the peojile 
of Ohio ? In what part of the State 
are mines of coal and iron e.xteu- 
sively worked ?— What celebrated 
wine comes from Ohio ?— For what 
business is Cincinnati so noted ? 

Wliy are the staple productions 
in Illinois and Indiana the same? 
—In what respect is Illinois so 
favored in position?— Which two 
are the largest of the Western 



States ? — Upon what rivers and lake does the State of Illinois border ? — Upon 
what river and lake does the State of Indiana border? — Judging by the eye, 
which has the most river-front? (see Map.) — In what branch of business is 
Chicago especially noted ? — Do vessels ever go from Chicago to Liverpool ? 
— Where is Galena, and for what is it noted ? — What increases the importance 
of the geographical iwsition of Cairo ? — For what branch of industiy is New 
Albany noted ? — Where is Evansville ? 


Western States — Continued. 

Is divided into two peninsulas {see Map). It is nearly 
surrounded by the great lakes, and, like Ontario, 
its climate is milder than that of any of the other 
States in the same latitude. Its shores, that look out 
upon Lake Michigan to the west, are, on account of 
their softened climates, excellent for fruit culture. 

Though navigation on the great lakes is annually ob- 
structed by ice for about live months, they are frozen 
entirely over only for a short time. 

Fresh water can never be colder than 33°, because that is its freezing 
point, when it becomes ice. In winter, when it is very cold, water at 32° 
feels comparatively warm, as you know by putting your hand into the water 
of a boiling spring. With extensive sheets of open water, like those on 
Lake Michigan in winter, to temper the biting west winds as they approach 
the eastern shores of the lake, you can imagine that the winter temperature 
of these shores is very mueli milder than that of the opposite shores. 


Lake Superior is the largest of the great lakes, 
and the highest above the sea-level, as is shown 
by the Falls of Sault St. Marie, over which its waters 

escape into the lakes below. A ship-canal has been 
constructed around the Falls, so that vessels may 
now pass to and fro between Lake Superior and the 
ocean. The Pictured Rocks of Lake Superior are 
often visited. 

Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie are on the middle level, for the water 
is poured from them over the Falls of Niagara into Lake Ontario, which is 
still considerably above the sea-level. The Welland Canal, constructed by 
the British Government, on the Canada side, passes around the Falls of Ni- 
agara, and opens a way for navigation, through which the vessels that trade 
between Chicago and Liverpool find their way. 

Lake Huron is the deepest of all the lakes. 

The Lake Superior copper-mines are in Michigan. 
They bring shipping to Ontonagon and Eagle Harbor. 
This State is next to Pennsylvania in its manufacture 
of iron ; it is rich in agriculture, and next to New 
York in the production of salt. There are extensive 
salt-works in Saginaw Valley. 

Michigan has but few rivers or mountains of anj 

Much of the State is heavily timbered, and the timber trade is thcreforo 
very valuable, as there is so much lake coast from which it can be easily 
floated to market in any direction. The steamers on the lakes consume im- 
mense quantities of wood that is cut in tliis State. 

Moreover, the lak(! frontage of Michigan, you will be surprised to find, 
is more than 1000 miles in length, and greater thau the sea-front of any 
other State in the Union, e.\cept Florida. 

This is the youngest of the five States into which the 
magnificent land-grant made by Virginia to 
the United States, in 1787, has been erected. 
You see by examining the map tiiat the head- 
waters of the Wisconsin river almost join those 
of the Fox, one of the lake tributaries. In 
former days, and when the country was a wil- 
derness, the Indian traders and trappers used 
to pass this w;iy in their canoes from the lakes 
to the Mississippi. They had to carry their 
canoes overland only a short distance. The 
{)ortage was near the place where now stands 
the city of Portage. 

Wisconsin is level, or rolling ; it has no 
mountains, and there is in it but little land unfit 
for cultivation. 

This State, more than the other four, abounds 
in lakes. Madison, the Capital, is ))eautifully 
situated in the midst of a nest of them. 

Prairie-du-Chien {-sheen), on the Mississippi, 
is one of the most beautiful of prairies. 
The agricultural resources of AYi.sconsin are the same 

as those of Michigan and her sister States. 
trade of the State is very large. 

The timber 



Wisconsin has also valuable lead-mines. 

The west winds of winter sweep across this State from tlie laud, and are 
cokl ; on their passage across tlie hxke to tlie Michigan shore, they are warm. 
Hence, though in the same latitude, Wisconsin is colder than Michigan. 

Hie Great Lakes. — These border chiefly on the 
Western States, and separate them from the Dominion 
of Canada. 

You now understand (see the Orographic Yiew of the 
United States) how the Falls and Rapids between Lake 
Superior and the sea, show that the Lakes are situated 
upon three terraces, one above the other, and in such 
a manner that, in going from the sea to Lake Superior, 
you ascend b}' three steps. The first lands you on the 
Lake Ontario terrace ; the second, above the Falls of 
Niagara, where lie the three middle Lakes, and the 
third, above Sault St. Marie, on Lake Superior, at 
least 600 feet above the sea-level. On a plateau 1,000 
feet above this terrace, both the Mississippi and the 
Red River of the North take their rise. 1.600 feet 

MIJliM O.N LAKE tll'EHIOr^. 

therefore is the total descent which the waters from this 
plateau, and 600 feet the descent which the waters from 
tlii.s terrace, have to make before they get to the sea. 

Now, by observing the falls of the rivers, as they come from their sources 
<m their way to the sea, you may trace the shapes of the terraces into which 
nature has arranged our country. The Wetland Canal passes on the Canada 
side, around the Falls of Niagara. 

The Sault St. Marie (soo sent ma'ry) between Lakes Huron and Supe- 

rior, and the Falls of St. Anthony on the Mississippi, 12 miles above St. Paul, 
in Minnesota, indicate the limits in these portions of the Lake Superior terrace. 

The commerce on the Lakes is very great ; it is chiefly domestic, but it 
greatly exceeds in value the whole foreign trade of the country. With canal- 
boats, lake-steamers, and sailing-craft, the Great Lakes, during the navigable 
season of seven months, give employment annually to not less than five 
thousand vessels. 

The storms on the Lakes are as furious as those at sea, and the waves 
that they raise are as violent. The Storm-warnings, now issued by the Gov- 
ernment Signal-Service and Weather-Bureau, from Washington, are greatly 
needed on these stormy waters ; and in several instances already, the timely 
telegram, announcing the tempest's approach, has been the means of staying 
the departure of ships and steamers from port, and of saving many lives 
and property of immense value. 


Minnesota has hills, but no mountains. Its soil is a 
rich and black loam, that is very fine for wheat and 

"The Father of Waters" takes his rise from Lake 
Itasca in this State. It abounds in lakes, many of which 
are beautiful, though none of them are large. The 
Falls of St. Anthony and of Minnehaha are noted for 
their beautiful scenery. 

Minnesota lies partly on the northern 
slope of the great "Divide, "and its sum- 
mit is crowned with lakes of clear wa- 
ter. Its summer climates are delightful, 
especially to persons with pulmonary 
diseases ; but its winter climates are 
very severe ; they are colder than the 
winters of Wisconsin, because the 
country is higher, farther north, and 
more exposed. None but the hardiest 
plants can withstand them. 

Pembina {pem'bl-na) is a frontier town where the 
half-breeds and others from the Red River settlements 
of the North coino every summer to trade their furs, 
peltries, buffalo-robes, tongues, and pemican. These 
lieople also go down to St. Paul annually in large 
caravans with the spoils they have won from the 

The forests of this State abound in fine timber. 
Vast quantities of it are cut and floated down to the 
river markets below in huge rafts, on which the 
raftsmen build their shanties and live. The timber- 
trade is an important branch of business all along the 
Upper Mississippi and its tributaries ; much lumber is 
produced by the mills at St. Anthony, which are 
driven by the fine water-power there. 

The limits of Minnesota extend as far north as the 
parallel of 49°, and farther than those of any State 
east of the Mississippi. 


The climates, soil, and productions of Missouri and 



Iowa correspond to the soil, climates, and productions of 
Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois, which are between the 
same parallels but on the opposite side of the Mississippi, 
and which have already been described. 

In Missouri, tobacco cultivation receives attention, as 
it does in Kentucky, and the vineyards occupy laborers, 
as they do in Ohio. The wines of Missouri are excel- 
lent. This State was a part of the Louisiana purchase, 
and among her other sources of wealth she boasts of a 
mountain of iron. 

St. Louis was settled by the French. Geographically, 
this city is the commercial centre of the Mississippi 
Yalley. It is an entrepot of great importance between 
the East and the West, and has an extensive inland 

Midway between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, St. Louis is on the way- 
side of the great inland routes for trade and travel. Tlie Western States 
alone have 35,000 miles of railway connection. 

Situated near the meeting of the two great rivers in the northern hemi- 
sphere, and with a back country embiaciug thousands of miles of the most 
fertile lands, and containing in its hills veins and deposits of gold and silver 
of fabulous richness, she is in the focus of a vast and expanding trade. 
No city in the world has a more dazzling future th>.n St. Louis. 

The Railroad to the Pacific has placed St. Louis in commercial connection 
with the marts of that ocean, and the early compleiion of the railway-bridge 
now in process of construction across the Mississippi, will make the connec- 
tions of that city, bj' rail, complete from East to West, as they already are, 
by water, from North to South. 

Iowa is a level State. It has no mountains, but 
hills enough to divide it into watersheds, and with 
inclination sufficient to give the country wholesome 
drainage and abundant water-power. Its lands are 
fertile, yielding bountiful harvests of wheat and corn. 

Dubuque, on the Mississippi, is the centre of a grow- 
ing business. 

In some parts of this and other Western States, coal is often so dear and 
fire-wood so scarce that the people use corn as fuel. The great expense of 
sending their grain to market makes it cheap. 

So great is the expense of getting the raw produce of Uie West to the At- 
lantic seaboard, that the engineer officers of the army who have been sent 
out there, report that, by present routes, corn grown 100 miles west of Chicago 
cann( t pay the expenses of carrying it to New York. 

The study of geography, as it bears upon questions of 
political economy, is highly instructive and profitable, 
and facts like these are important. So also are the 
routes of commerce, because these touch the prosperity 
of all of the States in an eminent degree. 

Kansas and Nebraska. (Map, p. 73.) 

The surface of these States consists of barren wastes, 
lolling prairies, and grassy plains, with borders and 
clumps of timber along the streams and in the bottom- 

Bears, deer, wolves, and buffalo abound in many 

A very small portion of the country has been reduced 
to cultivation as yet, but the soil and climates are 
suitable to the great staples of the States in correspond- 
ing latitudes east of the Mississippi river. These States 
are also without mountains. 

The best lands in Ne- 
braska are in the eastern 
half, which is the most 
thickly settled. The wx'st- 
ern half is more suitable for 
pastoral life. 

Omaha is a flourishing 
and growing city. 

The Platte, like all the 
western tributaries of the 
Missouri, during summer 
and autumn, w'lien droughts 
|)revail, often presents the 
singular spectacle of a river 
in flow near its sources 
and its mouth, but without 
any continuous stream in 
the intervening portion of its bed. 

Its head-waters are fed by the snows, and lower down in the valley the 
rains, the rivers, and lateral tributaries are sufficient to keep up the current ; 
but as it crosses the " mild winter belt" the water is cither absorbed by the 
earth or sucked up by the sun, and at this season in this part of the country 
many " drj' creeks" are found, which at other seasons of the year are dashing 

The soil in the valley of this river is fertile, and is 
very productive when there is water. 



The climate of Kan- 
sas is mild, and the 
winters are not of long 
duration, nor of great 

The staple is Indian 
corn. Gypsum and coal 
abound in the State. 

The eastern part of 
the State has been rap- 
idly settled ; the west- 
ern part still contains 
some Indians. 

Leavenworth is the 
metropolis of the State. 

Dakota Territoky. 

This territor}^ though it lies between the same 
parallels of latitude with Minnesota, differs greatly 
from it in climate ; it is not as well watered, its 
rain-Fall is not as great, neither is it as abundantly 
supplied with lakes ; it is a much drier country than 

The buffalo still swarms over its plains at certain 
seasons, and hunting and trapping is an important 
branch of industry among the hardy settlers of this 
territory, who furnish us with bear-skins, buffalo-robes, 
hams, and tongues. 

Colorado, with Wyoming and Montana Territories. 

This region, one State and two Territories, though 
lying chiefly on the eastern side of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, nevertiieless occupies on both sides portions of 
the great watershed whicli separates the waters of the 
Atlantic from those of the Pacific ; for you observe 
that both the Colorado and Coluuiljia rivers have their 
head-waters, the former iu Colorado, the latter in Mon- 
tana. These two rivers eventually find their way 
through tlie water-gaps in the mountains to the Pacific. 
(See the Orographic View of the United States.) 

The crest of this dividing ridge is from 5,000 to G.OOO feet above the sea- 
level, though some of it.s peaks have more than twice that altitude. These 
high peaks are always covered with snow, and it is the melting of tlie snows 
of these mountains in warm weather which feeds the rivers on the eastern 
slopes and prevents them from running dry in summer. 

The heiid of navigation of the Missouri — 3,000 miles 
above St. Loui.s — ^is at Fort Benton, in Montana. Large 
numbers of steamers go up there every season, bringing 
gold from the mines of the settlers. 

M 1 - > o i 1! I i; 1 V 1. 1. 

In the centre of Montana are the great falls of the 
Missouri river, among the most picturesque in America. 

The lovers of the chase frequently come over from Europe, and taking an 
Indian for their guide, spend the summer iu the western prah-ies, hunting 
Ijulfalo and other large game. 

In the highest ])arts of this very mountainous region, 
the snow lies on the ground all the year. The pre- 
cious metals abound, and the mines of silver and gold 
are worked with great profit. 

Tliere is a peculiar climate along this part of the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains. It may be called The Mild Winter Belt; for when the 
plains of Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, are covered with 
scow so as to deprive the wild cattle of subsistence, the buffalo finds abun- 
dant pastures in this mild belt, where it passes the greater part of the winter. 
Thus you see that, although in the same latitude as the States east, and higher 
above the sea-level, yet here, at the base of the mountains, you have winters 
so mild that the lizards and reptiles of Texas are found here; and the win- 
ters at Fort Laramie, on the heaf-waters of tlie Platte, in Wyoming, are so 
much milder than they are at St Louis, that the river, at the fort, does not 
generally freeze until long after thv, navigation has been closed at that city. 

Fort Laramie is not only higher than St. Louis above the sea-level, but it 
is further north : for both of these reasons the winters at the fort ought to be 
the eoldei'; but the winter rains make them milder. 

It is well for the geographical student to be ac- 
([uainted with these facts ; but he should not be content 
with that ; he should strive to understand their cause. 

AVinter is the season of the heavy rain-fall on the Pacific slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains. It is then that their summit is snowed up to the depth of 
m:niy feet; and it is a law of nature that when vapor enough is condensed to 
make'a gallon of snow-water, heat enough is liberated and set free in the sur- 
rounding air to boil nearly six gallons of water. It is the heat from this 
source that tempers the winter climates all along the eastern slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains and the plains many miles to the eastward. 

With this explanation you arrive at a knowledge of 
this fact touching the climates of the trans-Mississippi 



country — viz., that as j^ou go west, the winter climate 
grows milder, till you reach the Rocky Mountains. 

Of all the States and Territories, Wyoming is the 
only one where women are allowed to serve on juries. 

The soil about Cheyenne is very rich, and, when irri- 
gation can be had, never fails to produce abundantly. 
Coal has been found in this neighborhood. 

In the same vicinity, also, is tlie picturesque and unique scenery called 
the " Garden of tlie Gods," through which a beautiful stream is consUmtly 
flowing, and into which you enter through a natural gateway cut out of the 
solid rock. 

In the territory of Dakota there is a district covered by large masses of 
indurated clay and marls, which have been worn by the weather into archi- 
tectural forms and fantastic shapes. In this district are the " Bad Lauds" of 

Colorado is famous for the deep and enormous Canons (kan-yons') or 
gorges, which maik the line of the Colorado river. 

Colorado embraces within its bordere a remarkable system of mountain 
peaks, and the head-springs of four large rivers, namely,— the Colorado, flow- 
ing west into the Pacific ; the South Platte, flowing in the opposite direction 
to join the Missouri ; the Rio Grande ; vnd the Arkansas. 

Quesfions.—Uow, geographically, is Michigan State divided ?— Why is 
its climate no mildV— V/hat is the freezing-point of fresh water?— How long 
is navigation suspended on the lakes annually ?— What tempers the cold wes"t 
winds of winter as they approach the eastern peninsula of Michigan?— 
Which is the largest of the great lakes ?— Why do you suppose it to beliigher 
than the rest above the sea-level ?— How do vessels get from it to the lower 
lakes, and back?— How many steps or levels do the Lakes occupy ?— "Which 
lakes are on the middle level ?— What canal passes around the Falls of Niag- 
ara?— On which side of the river is the Welland Canal?— Suppose you knew 
the fall of each river or strait between Lake Superior and the sea, could you 
tell the height of each lake above the sea-level ?— Which is the deepest lake ? 
—Where are the Lake Superior copp?i'-mines ?— To what lake towns do they 
give importance?- In what branches of industry does Michigan vie with 
New York and Pennsylvania?— Where are her salt-works ?— Describe the 

face of the country in this State.— How does Michigan compare, as to the 
length of her shore-line on the lakes, with the Atlantic States ? 

What, on the map, are the most striking geographical features of Wiscon- 
sin and Michigan ?— Between what rivers, which empty their waters into the 
Mississippi, and others which empty into the lakes, is there a short portage? 
—Describe the face of the country in Wisconsin.— Whicli State can boast of 
the greatest number of lakes ?— In what iuiportant branchiis of industry, be- 
sides agriculture, are the people of Wisconsin engaged ?— Why is the timber 
trade so important in prairie countries? 

Upon how many terraces do the great lakes lie ?— How high is the Lake 
Superior terrace above the sea-level ?— How can you find out the edges of 
this terrace ?— How, as to magnitude and importance, does the commerce of 
the lakes compare with the foreign trade of the country ?— What is the total 
navigable length of tlie Mississippi and its tributaries ?— How many ves.sels, 
including canal-boats, are annually engaged with lake commerce ?— Are the 
lakes vexed with storms as the sea is ?— Describe the face of the country in 
Minnesota. — What are its chief agricultural productions ? 

What States, east of the Mississippi, do ilissouri and Iowa resemble? (See 
page 63.)— What agricultural staples, besides wheat aiul corn, aie cultivated in 
Missouri? — What famous mountain is in this Slate?— By wdiom was St. 

Louis settled ? — What geographical 

circumstances make the .site of this 
city so important? — Describe the ad- 
vantages of its situation. — How many 
miles of railway have the Western 
States ? 

Is Iowa a mountainous State? — 
Describe tlie face of the country. — Its 
(;()mmercial relations. 

What great river rises in Minne- 
sota? — In what lake? — AV here is the 
head of navigation on the Mississippi ? 
— Ujjon what two great watersheds 
does tlie State of Minnesota lie? — De- 
scribe its climates. — Can you explain 
why the winteis here are so much 
colder than they are in Wisconsin ? — 
How far north does3Iinnesota extend? 
— What trade is actively carried on in 
Pembina? — Witii whom? — To what 
l)ninch of business do the forests of 
lliis State give rise?— WHiat famous 
falls are at St. Anthony?— Its water- 
routes to the markets of the Atlantic 
seaboard ? — What are its slajile pro- 

Describe the face of the country in 
Kansas and Neljraska. — What wild 
animals are found there ? — With the 
climates of what States would you C(miparc the climates of these? (Refer 
to the Orographic View of Ilie United Slates.) 

Between what parallels of latitude does Dakota lie?— How does its climate 
compare with that of Minnesota?- Describe its natural aspects.— What 
still constitutes an imi)ortant branch of industry U) the settlers of this Terri- 

Do Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana lie wholly within the Valley of the 
Mississippi ? 

How high above the sea-level is the crest of the great watershed between 
the two oceans?— How high the loftiest peaks?— To what point is the j 
Missouri river navigable ?— How far is Fort Benton above St. Louis?— I 
How long on tht; Rocky Mountains does the snow lie? 

In what other miuerals besides the precious metals does this sec- 
tion abound ? — What is a peculiarity «)f its winter climates ? — How far 
does the mild-winter belt extend?— What proof can you give of the mild- 
ness of the winters in this belt '—Can you explain why the climate is 
milder here than it is several hundred miles to the eastward, and in the 
same latitude ?— At what season of the year does tlie great snow-fall lake ^ 
place in the Rocky Mountains ?— What is said of the soil about Cheyenne? 


wiii'isMr wiMi. 

{For West Virgi:n<u xee p. 45 ; /or Kansas, Nfbraska^ and Western TerrHort$9t 
nee p. 73.) 


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Studies on the Maps of the Western States and 
Territories. (Pp. 67, 73.) 

Extent and Boundaries.— Name the Western States ana Terri- 
tories (p. 58). — Between what parallels of latitude do they lie? (i\Iap, pp. 33, 
33). — How are they bounded, as a whole, on the north? — On the south? — 
Between what meridians of longitude do Ihey lie ? — How do you bound them 
on the east ? — Hovi', on the west ? 

What Western States border on Lake Erie ? — Wliat, on Lake Huron ? — 
What, on Lake Superior ? — What, on British America ? — On the Ohio river ? 
— On the Mississippi river ? 

Bound each of these States and Territories separately. 

Judging by the eye and the map-scale, which is tlie largest of all the Western 
States? — Which is the smallest? — Which has the most Lake coast? — Which 
has the greatest extent of border ou the great rivers ? 

Rivers, — Trace the three great rivers of the Western States : the Mis- 
sissippi ; the Missouri ; the Ohio. 

Across what, and between what States and Territories does the Missouri 

What river flows between Indiana and Illinois ? — What two rivers 
from Tennessee traverse Kentucky ? — How far above its mouth do they empty 
into the Ohio? — How near do they approach each other? — Which empties 
into tlie Ohio farthest up ?— Where is the Muskingiun river? — Wliere 
does the Cumberland rise? — Describe the Lickuig, the Kentucky, and 
Green rivers. — Name the rivers of Ohio. — Describe their course, and tell 
where tliey empty. — What rivers empty into the Mississippi from the Western 
States?— Does the Minnesota river empty above or below St. Paul? — Are 
most of the rivers of Minnesota di'ained into the Missouri or Mississippi ? — 
Is New Madrid above or below the mouth of the Oliio ? — Does the Missouri 
empty into the Mississippi above or below the mouth of the Ohio? — Where 
does the Kansas river empty ? — Is this above or below Jelfei-son Citj- ? - ~ ' 

Where is the Red river of the North? — Its source? — Its course and ter- 
minus ? — Where are the head-waters of the Missouri ? — Which way do they 
flow from their source for a considerable distance? — Where does the Des 
Moines river rise ? — Where does it empty ? — Trace the Kansas river. — What 
rivers, which find their way into the Pacific, flow from Colorado, Wyo- 
ming, and Montana ? 

Where does the Platte river rise? — Its course? — Its mouth? — Through 
what States do the Kansas and Platte rivers ruu?— Wliere is Smoky Hill 
Fork ? (See Kansas, p. 78.) 

Lakes. — Describe the lake-basin of the Western States. — What rivers con- 
nect Lake Huron and Lake Erie ? — What lake lies between them ?— What 
is the river that flows into it? — How are Lakes Huron and Michigan con- 
nected? — Lakes Huron and Superior?— Erie and Ontario? — Ontario and the 
sea? — How long, judging by the eye and tlie map-scale, is Lake Michigan? — 
How wide ? — How broad is Lake Superior ? — Do most of the rivers of Min- 
nesota rise in lakes? — Which is farthest to the north, Lake Traverse or Lake 
Itasca ? — Where is Lake Pepin ? 

Bays and Straits.— Y^het^ is Green Bay?— Saginaw Bay?— Kee- 
weenaw Bay? — Georgia Bay?— Where is the Strait of Mackinaw? 

Routes and instances. — What is the course and distance from 
Wheeling to Baltimore ? — From Wheeling to Parkersburg ? — To Charleston ? 
— How far is it from Charleston to Point Pleasant at the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha river? Map, p. 45. 

How fixr is it, going by steamer, from Charleston to Cincinnati? — ^To 
Louisville ?— To St. Louis ?— To New Orleans ? —Find Lexington, Ky. — How 
far is it from Louisville? — From Cincinnati? — How far is Louisville from 
Nashville ? — From Memphis ? — Is Louisville above or below Cincinnati, on ' 
the Ohio ? — How far is it from Louisville to Chicago ? — To St. Louis ? — How 
would you go from Chicago to Indianapolis ? — From St Louis to Indianapolis V 
—How would you go from Cleveland to Dayton? — From Cleveland to 
Chicago ? — To St. Louis ? — To St. Paul ?— How far from Cincinnati to Lake 
Erie ? — How would you go ? — How would you go fi'om Springfield to Terra 

How would you go from Fort Wayne to Terre Haute? — From Fort 
Wayne to Milwaukee? — How far is Dubuque from Pembina? — Hew far 
is Pembina from Omaha City ? — From St. Louis ? — How would you go from 
Des Moines to Chicago ? — Where is Burlington ? — How far above St. Louis ? 
— How far is St. Louis from New York? — From New Orleans? — From 
Chicago? — From San Francisco ?— How could you go from Omaha to 

Mountains. — What part of West Virginia is most mountainous?— 
What mountains are there in Kentucky ? — Which part of this State is most 
mountainous? — Describe the mountains of the Western States generally. — 
Where is Pike's Peak? — Where is Lang's Peak? — Where is Iron Mountain? 
— Are there any mountains in Dakota? 

Watersheds. — Describe the watersheds of the Western States and Terri- 
tories generally. — State, in order, how each one of these States and Tenitoi-ics 
is drained. 

Note. — The scholar will do well to examine the Orographic View of tlio 
United States, at this point. 

Mines. — Wliere are the lead mines of Missouri ? — The iron mines ? — 
The lead-mines of Illinois? 

Chief Towns. — Point out Wlieeling. — Charleston. — Point Pleasant. — 
Parkersburg. — Louisville. — Frankfort. — Covington. — Henderson. — Newport 
Faducah. — Danville. 

Cincinnati. — Columbus. — Dayton. — Where is Cleveland? — Where is 
Toledo ? — Chillicothe ? — Marietta ? — Steubenville ? — Where is Peoria ?— 
Sandusky? — Springfield? — Where is New Albany? — Cairo? — Terre Haute? 
— Where is Fort Wayne? — Where is Detroit? — Lansing?— How far is 
Detroit from Chicago ?— From Buffalo ?— Where is Sault St Marie ?— Where is 
Dubuque ? — Where is Des Moines ? — Where is St Louis ? — Is it above or below 
the mouth of the Missouri? — Where is JeScrson City? — Kansas City? — To- 
peka? — Lecompton?— Omaha?— Where is Pembina ?— Where is Duluth? — 
What towns in Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, are at the junction of 
rivers? — Where is Cheyenne City? — Where is Gallatin? — Virginia City in 
Montana?— Yankton ? — Lincoln?— Leavenworth ?— Denver ?— Does the Platte 
river empty above the city of Omalia or below it? 

Miscellaneous. — Where are the salt-works oi Kanawha river. West 
Virginia?— Where are the White Sulphur Springs?— What is the only river, 
rising in West Virginia and emptying into tlie Atlantic Ocean? — Upon what 
long vem of rocks are Lexington, Ky., and the Greenbrier country situated? 
— Where is Fond du Lac V— Isle Itoyale ?— Where are the Pictured Rocks of 
Lake Superior? Ans. In the northern part of Michigan, on the Lake. — 
Where is Fort Snelling ?— How would you go from Chicago to Liverpool all 
the way by ship ? 

Note.— The Government of the United States has organized a Storm 
Bureau, for tlie pui-pose of rendering the navigation of the Seacoast and 
Lakes much safer by applying science to the prediction of storms, and estab- 
lishing a system of signals for warning vessels of their approach and force. 




The Pacific States and Territories. 
Total Population, 835,059. 





Arizona Territory. 
Utah " " . 


Washington " 
Alaska " 


Sacramento. . . 




Salt Lake City 
Boise City. . . . 

Chief Cities and their 


San Francisco . . 




Virginia City.. . 




Salt Lake City.. 


Boise City 






1. Coast-Ijine and Orofjrapliij. — We come now to 
the Pacific slopes of our country, and the first thing that 
a geographer does when he reaches a new country is 
to study its maps and its orography, to learn how the 
land lies. 

The map of the United States tells you tliat the coast- 
line of the Pacific, along our southern borders, is not 
curtained with islands, as is our Atlantic coast in the 
same latitudes ; nor is it indented with deep bays and 
harbors, as the coast of Xew England is. 

Parallel with the coast there is a range of mountains, 
as on the Atlantic side. On the Atlantic, this coast- 
range is separated from tiie sea by a belt of lowlands, 
varying in breadth from 50 to 250 miles ; ^vhile on the 
Pacific side the hill-country comes down to the'sea, and 
the coast is bluff and steep. Consequently the tide- 
water country along our Pacific shores is confined to a 
very narrow belt. 

The San Joaquin [mJin wah-ken) river runs between 
the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range. 


2. The Pacific Table-Land. — Between the Nevada 
and the Rocky Mountains there is an immense table- 
land or valley, situated several thousand feet above the 
sea, and varying in breadth from 300 to 700 or 800 
miles. This table-land extends all the way from the 
isthmus of Tehuantepec through British America and 
Alaska to the Arctic Ocean. 

The city of Mexico, at the height of 7,500 feet above the sea, stands upon 
it, and from north to south its total length is scarcely less than 4,000 miles. 

In the widest part of this table-land is the great 
inland basin of our continent, which is chiefly occupied 
by parts of Utah and Mexico. 

You recognize (see Orographic View of the United States) the various 
parts of this inland basin by the lakes here and there which have no outlet ; 
such lakes are sometimes salt, sometimes brackish, seldom fresh. 

3. Jlinerals. — The hills and mountains that rise up 
from this plateau are stored with rich mineral deposits. 
Silver, gold, copper, and quicksilver, with mines 
of iron, surpassing in quantity and quality even the 
celebrated iron mountain of Missouri, have been found 
in this region. Veins of tin, zinc, lead, and other 
metals, and beds of salt and soda of unknown extent, 
are also found. 

The chief industry of all this region of country at 
present, js mining ; but the agricultural resources are 
immense, especially in California and Oregon. 

4. Cliniates. — Latitude for latitude, the climates of 
our country along its Atlantic slopes afford no clue to 
the climates of the Pacific slopes. 

In the former case the winds are from the land, and 
in winter are cold ; in the latter case they come from 
the sea, and are warm and moist. This difterence of 
climate depends simply upon the way the winds hlow. It 
is so marked, that the seasons in California, instead of 
being divided into summer and winter, are often al- 
luded to as the rainy and the dry seasons. This is 
. the case all along the Pacific slopes, from California 
to Chili, except in Peru, where it does not rain at all. 

For weeks together in summer not a drop of rain falls in California ; 
lier winter is the rainy season ; but, as you proceed north, the westerly 
winds become more dominant, and the rains more copious, so that from 
Oregon, all the way up to the north, the American slopes of the Pacific 
are well watered,— whereas from Oregon all the way to Valparaiso in 
Chili, there is lack of water and a dry season of six months every year. 

Oregon and the New England States are in the same latitude. In New 
England the farmers have to liouse and feed their cattle all tlie winter, 
while in Oregon they lie down in green pastures, and require no shelter. 

Here you again ])erccive that, as a rule, climate 
mainly depends upon the direction of the prevailing 


This rule is one of the keys to Geography, for when you understand 
tlie climates of a country, you can judge of its productions, and by its pro- 



ductions you can judge of the occupations and industrial pursuits of its inhab- 
itants — and by their pursuits you may form some idea of their general char- 

Questions. — 1. What diflFerence do you observe on the map between the 
coast-line of the Pacific and Atlantic States ? — Where are there most harbors, 
in New England or in California and Oi-egon ? — Which has the most tide- 
water country, the Atlantic or Pacific States ? — Why is the tide-water belt 
of the Pacific so narrow ? 2. Describe the' table-land between the Sierra 
Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. — How high is it? — Point out on the map 
some of the inland basins that are situated upon it : How do 3'ou tell an inland 
basin ? — Are its lakes fresh or salt ? 3. What are the minerals that are found 
here? — What is the chief industry of this part of the country? 4. The 
country here lies between the same parallels that some of the Atlantic States 
do : why can you not judge of the climates of the former by those of the 
latter? — Upon what does the difference depend? — How are the seasons along 
the Pacific coast generally divided ? — Wliy is not the year in Peru divided 
into the rainy season and the dry,as well as in Chili and California? — What 
is the dry season in California and Oregon ? — Oregon and the New England 
States are in the same latitude ; contrast then- climates. — What, by simply 
knowing what the climates of a country are, can the geographer tell 
about it ? 


Pacific States and Territories— Continued. 


This is the oldest of the Pacific States. The Spanish 
Jesuits established missions or settlements in it at an 
early day. But it was thinly settled, except by the 
Indians, until it was purchased of Mexico in 1848, for 

Soon after that gold was discovered, and there was such a rush to the rich 
mines from all parts of tlie w<n-ld as had never before been known. The 
population of California consists chiefly of Americans ; but all nations, even 
the Chinese, are represented there. The agricultural are quite as great as the 
mineral resources of this State. 



The soil there produces with an abundance that astonishes even the 
farmers of the Southern and Western States, and with an excellence that sur- 
prises eveiybody. All the root-crops and culinary vegetables grow there to 
an enormous size ; and the fruits can be surpassed neither in flavor nor size. 

Apples, pears, peaches, grapes, plums, cherries, and melons, with the whole 
list of small fruits, are of the finest quality. So also are wheat, corn, and the 
other cereals. Tea, coffee, and sugar, cotton, hemp, and tobacco, find con- 
genial climates and suitable soil, along these sea-tempered slopes. California 
is also a fine grazing country. 

The largest and tallest trees that grow have been found in the forests of 
this State. 

California produces wheat remarkable for its hardness, 
and for that reason it is called the " maccaroni wheat ;^' 
it can stand the longest sea-voyages without damage, 
which the wheat of the Atlantic States cannot do. 

Immense quantities of delicious fruits from California, especially pears 
and grapes, are now sent bj' the Pacific railway to the Eastern States. 

San Francisco is situated on the finest bay along the 
whole coast ; already it is the largest seaport town on 
the American shore of the Pacific. 

A line of 
steamers has 
been establish- 
ed thence to 
China and Ja- 
pan. Thus a 
way is being 
opened by 
which the far- 
mers along the 
Pacific slopes 
of the country 
will find a 
ready market 
for all their sur- 
plus bread- 
stuffs; for In- 
dia, China, and 
Japan are so 
densely popu- 
lated that tht 
cry of the peo- 
ple there is 
now, and for 
ages has con- 
tinually been, 
for "bread." 
This line of 
steamers has, 
with the aid of 
the Pacific rail- 
way, already 
opened a tea- 
irade between 
China and Chi- 

Falls, on the 
river Merced, 
afford one of 
the grandest 
sights on the 
globe ; they are 
the loftiest in 
the world ; they 
are half a mile 
high — sixteen 
times higher 
than Niagara. yosemite 



The only United States navy-yard on the Pacific, is 
at San Francisco. 

There is in this State a number of flourishing towns, 
such as Sacramento, Benicia, Stockton, Nevada, and 


This State has copious rains. Its streams abound 
with excellent fish, and its forests with the finest of tim- 
ber. It has a valuable lumber-trade. The winters are 
rnild and the summers do not oppress with heat. Its 
climates resemble those of Southern France along the 
Atlantic, more than they do those of the New England 
States in the same latitude. 

It is a fine grain country, but its wheat will not bear 
long sea-voyages like the wheat of California. It there- 
fore will not bear transportation to the distant markets 
of the world, for at present the nearest grain-markets of 
the Old World are not less than ten thousand miles off ; 
hence the inhabitants have turned their attention to 
stock-raising and wool-growing. 

There is a bar at the month of the Columbia river which, with certain winds 
and times of the tide, becomes dangerous to vessels seeking ingress or egress. 
The whole State is lacking in good harbors, but its commerce, nevertheless, 
is on the increase, for it has an important inland trade with Idaho and 
Montana, which is growing as the population of these Territories increases. 

The country between the Cascade Mountains and the 
ocean is the best part of the State, and is most thickly 
settled : but its industries being chiefly agricultural and 
pastoral, Oregon has no large towns. 

Its coast-range, like the; AUeghanies, but unlike the Kocky ]\[oiuitains, ts 
clothed with verdure to the top. 

Wa.siii \(iT()»v Ti:hkito]iy. 

Washington is better watered than any of the Ter- 
ritories in this section : it borders upon the Strait of 
Juan dc Fuca [kwnn day foo'hiJi), which unites with the 
ocean the magnificent bays and liarljor.s that indent the 
northwest corner of this Territory. They have water 
enough for vessels of any size, and room for the navies 
of the world. 

The Columbia river as it passes through this Territory has some beautiful 
falls, which at a future day will be turned to effective water-power. 

Railways have already been built around them, which serve as portages 
for the river-trade that is already springing up between Montana and this 

Lumber is the chief article of export from Washing- 
ton. Olympia, the capital, stands at the head of Paget 

East of the Cascade Range, Washington is chiefly a 
grazing country. 


This is a new State ; gold and silver mines constitute, 
at present, its chief source of wealth. The mines are 
profitably worked, and there are signs of great prosperity 
in the villages about them. 

Some of its valleys and shel- 
tered places here and there are 
very fertile ; but it has many salt 
plains and barren places, and the 
settlers have not yet begun to turn 
their attention from their mines of 
gold and silver to agriculture, or to 
any other of the many sources of 
wealth that undoubtedly abound 
there. Virginia City is the depot 
of supplies for the mining interests, 

Idaho, Arizoka, and Utah 

These three Territories, geo- 
graphicall}', are higli above the 
sea-level, very mountainous and 
rugged. With the exception of 
the mountain-passes and water- 
gaps here and there, they are sep- 
arated from the Western States by 
the Rocky Mountains, and from 
those that border on the Pacific by 
the Sierra Nevada range. 

These Territories are mining 
countries, and the settlers are 
principall}^ engaged in working 
the gold and silver mines, or in 
trapping and hunting. 

Idaho, as the map shows, is the 
most northern of the three, and, 
owing to its distance from the sea, 
to its elevation and its latitude, its 
snows are very deep and its win- 
ters severe, so that communication in this Territory 
from one part to another, in winter, is very difficult, 
and often impossible. 

Boise City, the capital of Idaho, is a thriving town. 
Arizona, like the other Territories along the slopes of 
the Rocky Mountains, is rich in minerals, deficient in 
water, and but thinly inhabited. 

It was purchased of Mexico, and is inhabited chiefly 
by Indians. 




Utali is inhabited chiefly by the Mormons, a sect who 
style themselves " Latter-day Saints." They profess a 
new revelation from the Almighty, hold property in 
common, and practise pol^'gamy. 

Salt Lake City is the most important city of Utah. 


A l< r: C I T ^ 

Alaska. (Map, p. 80.) 

The acquisition of this Territory has extended the 
domains of the United States from the Great Manan, an 
island in the Bay of Fundy, on the eastern shores of 
America, to the middle of the Attou Pass, off the 
eastern shores of Asia, which gives us a breadth of 
border embracing 126° of longitude. (Map, p. 20.) 

It was purchased iu 1867. It was called Russian America, and was occu- 
pied by fur-traders, who hunted sea-otters, seals, martens, fo.Kes, beais, and 
wolves. Their chief settlement was at Sitka. Tlie seal fishery is very valu- 
able, and the government of the United States now lets it out by contract. 

As yet, not much is known about its geography. 
Nevertheless, let us see if already we do not know 
enough of the principles of physical geography and the 
laws which regulate climate, to form a tolerably correct 
idea of this country. 

It is in the region of westerly winds. 

It has an open sea on the west, and therefore the prevailmg winds come 
from the sea and are warm. 

Now let us search the Map of the World for some other shores in the 
northern hemisphere which, with their adjacent islands, are situated between 

the same parallels of latitude ; which have a sea to the westward, a continent 
for back country, and about the geography of which observation has fully 
instructed us. Such a country is foimd on the Atlantic slopes of Northern 
Europe, and is comprised within the limits ci Western Russia, Denmark, 
Norway, and Sweden. Here, geographical position and physical aspect cor- 
respond with Alaska. This part of Europe, you see, is not so far north or so 
cold as to be uninhabitable. 

The people in these parts 
of Europe are seafaring. 
They arc largely engaged 
in commerce and manufac- 
turing, and also in mining. 
Tlioir forests supplj ship- 
timber and lumber in vast 
quantities. The soil pro- 
duces good crops of wheat 
and bnrloy, turnips, pota- 
toes, mangel-wurzel (a root 
of the beet kind) and other 
roots. The time that the 
cattle have to be housed in 
winter is of short duration, 
and the pasturage for the 
rest of I lie year is excellent. 
Stock-raising therefore in 
these countries, with their 
long winter nights, is an 
important branch of indus- 
try. Our science therefore 
teaches that all such indus- 
tries will, in tlie process of 
time, reward the future in- 
habitants of Alaska. 

The Aleutian Isl- 
.iiids are volcanic 
and treeless ; the 
natives dwell in 
caves and live upon 
the bounties of the 
sea. They depend 
for wood from wliicli to make canoes, imi)lements, and 
utensils of various sorts, upon the drift from Asiit, 
which is cast upon their shores by the Japan cur- 
rent, anotlicr miglity river in the ocean, which an- 
swers to the Gulf Stream of tlie Atlantic, and which 
tempers the climates of these Islands and this Territory, 
as that stream does the climates of the British Isles, Ice- 
land, and Northwestern Europe. 

Mount St. Elias, 17,900 feet high, is the higliest moun- 
tain in North America. With its everhisting cap of 
snow, it stands as a landmark between this Territory 
and the British Possessions. 

Quesfions.— Who first settled California?— When was it purchased by 
the United States ?— "What caused such a rush of settlers there?— How, as 
compared to its mineral, are its agricultural resources ? — Enumerate some of 
the numerous articles that it is capable of producing. — What kind of wheat 
grows there ?— What kind of fruit is brought to the Eastern States ?— Describe 
the city of San Francisco.— Which is the largest seaport town along the en- 
tire Pacific coast of America ?— Name some of the most flourishing towns in 
this State. — For what are its forests remarkable ? 

Which is the best watered country, Oregon or California?— How do the 



climates of Oregon compare with tliose of the Atlantic States that lie between 
the same parallels of latitude ?— Does the Oregon wheat stand sea transporta- 
tion as well as that of California ? — What circumstances have tended to en- 
courage grazing in this State ? — What part of it is most thickly settled ? — How, 
as to the vegetation growing upon them, do the Alleghanies and coast-range 
ot the Pacific compare with the Rocky Mountains? (Map, p- 78.) 

What is the chief source of wealth in Nevada at present? — What is the 
state of agriculture there ? 

Describe the geogi'nphical position of Arizona, Utah, and Idalio. — Which 
of them has the severest climates ? — What are their chief industries ? 

Which has the best harbors, Washington Territory or the State of Oregon ? 
— Where are they ? 

By whom is Utah inhabited ?— What is its chief city ? 

What more can you say of Arizona ? — Of whom was it purchased ? — Who 
are its inhabitants ? 

Wlien was Alaska purchased? — What was it formerly called? — By whom 
■was it occupied, and for what purpose? — Name some of the fur-bearing ani- 
mals.— Wlierc did the Russians have their chief settlement? — How many de- 
grees of longitude arc now occupied by the United States ? — Can you name 
their extreme eastern and western possessions? — What is the area of Alaska? 
ATM. 577,390 square miles, witli a population of (i.OOO, chietiy Russians. — 
What is the country good liu? — What i)ari of Europe resembles it in 
position, as well wiili rciiJiid I'l s.-n ;is to latitude? 

Describe the Aleutian Islands and their inhahilanls — Hew do they get 
wood for their canoes, etc. ? — Can you descril)e the J ipan current ?— Which 
is the highest mountain in North America ? — Describe it. 

How far is Salem from the Columbia river ? — In what direction from San 
Francisco ? — From Virginia City ? 

What is the lengdi of our Pacific coast? — How far is it from Carson City 
to Sau Francisco? — llow would you go from one place to the other? — How 
far from Carson to Salt Lake City? — How far from Great Salt Lake City to 
Fillmore City ? 

What is the distance of Tucson from our most important seaport on the 
Pacific Ocean ? — How would you go from Sacramento to Salt Lake City ? 

Mouufalns.— Where is Mount Baker? — What and where is the higlicst 
mountain in North America ? — What can you say of the mountains of Alaska ? 

Chief Towns. — Name the chief town of California. — Of Oregon. — OF 
Nevada.— Of Utah.— Of Arizona.— Of Idaho.— Of Washington.— Of Alaska. 

Hays, Capes, and Islands. — Name the bays of California. — Its 
capes. — Capes of Washington Territory. — Capes of Alaska. — Its bays. — Its 

Miscellaneous. — Where is the Strait of Juan dc Fuca ? — Point out 
Puget Sound. — Where is the Great Salt Lake ? — Trace it on the map, and also 
on the Orograpliic View of the United States. — AVhere is the Atlou Pass ?— - 
How near to Asia and Japan docs the border of Alaska bring the United 
States ? — Where are the Aleutian Islands ? — What vast, warm current of the 
ocean sets toward them from the torrid zone? Aiis. The Japan Stream, 
called by the Japanese the Kuro Siwo [ku-ro' sc-wo') or Tl/ark ^trfiTm. 


Studies on the Map of the Pacific States and Territories. 

Extent. — How broad and how long is California? — What is the latitude 
of San Francisco ? — What is its longitude ? — How much of California is in- 
cluded in the great valley between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Moun- 
tains ? — Bound California on all sides. — Bound Oregon. — Bound Nevada. — 
Bound Arizona — Utah — Idaho — Washington Territory. — Bound Alaska. — 
Between what parallels of latitude does Alaska lie ? — Between what meridians 
of longitude ? (For Alaska, see p. 80.) 

What is the latitude of Salt Lake City?— Its 
meridian? — What is the latitude of the Aleutian 
Islands ? (See p. 80.) 

Rivers. — What two rivers are in California ? — 
Which way do they flow ? — What two rivers form 
the Columbia? — What is the shortest distance be- 
tween their head-waters? — Measure the length oi' 
the Columbia by the scale, and tell its length. 

What rivei's can you name in Nevada ? — Where 
do they rise ?— How do they flow ?— Where do they 
empty ? 

Describe the rivers of Arizona?— What rivers ri^ i 
ir. Utah?— How do they run?— Thek source ?-- 
Where do they empty ?— What rivors rise in Idaho '' 
—Point out the rivers of AVashington.— Name th ■ 
rivers of Alaska.— Point them out. 

Routes and Distances.— Bow far is it from ^§ 
Sacramento to San Francisco ?— From San Fran- 
cisco to Stockton?— To Marysville? 


British America. (Map, pp. 80, 81.) 

1. Position. — All that you have now learned of the 
United States and of the general principles of geography, 
will greatly help you in studying the geography of 
British America, wliicli, with maiii-hnid, i.shiiids, and 
inland waters, embraces an area of 3,500,000 scp miles. 

On its southern border the Domiuiou shares with the United Slates the 
magnificent scenery of the Niagara Fulls. 




With the exceptioa of Alaska, British America in- 
cludes all that part of our continent north of the G-reat 
Lakes on the one hand, and of the 49th parallel of north 
latitude on the other. The prevailing winds come from 
the Pacific side of the continent, which therefore receives 
the most warmth and moisture. 

2. Political Divisions. — The whole of British 
America is divided into Provinces, viz.. Ontario, Quebec, 
New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, Nova Scotia, 
Xewfoundland. Manitoba, and British Columbia. 

,3. Govermneitf. — These provinces or colonies are 
subject to the British crown, ns our "old thirteen" 
used to be. 

Seven of these Colonies, viz., Ontario, Quebec, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Manitoba, British Columbia, 
and Prince Edward's Island, are united in a confedera- 
tion under the title of " The Dominion of Canada." 

Newfoundland, which includes Labrador, has not j"et joined the confed- 
eration, but, by the Act of Parliament authorizing the confederation, may 
do so at pleasure. The Northwest and Northeast Territories (Map, pp. 80, 
81) are unorganized. 

This new Dominion is governed by a Congress and President somewhat 
as tlie United States are, but with this dilference, that whereas the chief 
magistrate with us is elected by vote — with them he is appointed by the 
Crown. His title is Governor-Oeneral of Canada. Their Congress is caUed 
the Parliament. 

4. Area. — The whole of the British possessions in 
America to the north of us, embraces an area about equal 
to that of the United States. Much of it is considered 
uninhabitable b}' reason of its severe climate; and so it 
is (d present. It is but thinly poi)ulated because of the 
abundance of cheaper and better lands with milder cli- 
mates in other parts of America. 

a. Comparative Geography.— The climate of Siberia is as severe 
and the winters are as long as in any part of British America; yet in 
latitudes in Siberia which are considered uninhabitable in America, we find 
large and flourishing cities and towns. 

Ill British America there is no settlement to the 
north of latitude 55° ; there are only trading-posts. 

On the north side of this parallel in Asia (see Mer- 
cator's riiart) the cities of Omsk, Tomsk, and Tobolsk, 
each with a population of 20,000 souls and upward, 
are found 

In Europe we have, very near to the parallel of 60° 
N. lat., the splendid capital of Russia, St. Petersburg, 
with more than half a million of people within its walls. 

But St. Petersburg, it may be objected, is not a fair comparison, inasmuch 
as it has a sea to the windward, with the warm waters of the Gulf Stream at 
no great distance beyond, to supply its prevailing west winds with heat and 
moisture for the mitigation of tlie rigors of winter. 

Then let us take Moscow. Moscow is too far inland to be affected by the 
sfa; it is in higher latitude tlian any white man's settlement in British 
America, and yet has a population of more tiian 350,000. 

Nay, a spot colder than any ever encountered by arctic voyagers is in lati- 
tude 64° north in Asiatic Russia. Upon that spot stauds and flouiishes the 
Russian city of Yakutsk, with its population of 10,000 souls. There, in win- 
ter, mercury freezes, and the temperature sinks down more tlian 100° below 
the freezing point of fresh water, and the ground is perpetual]}- frozen to the 
depth of 60 feet. 

Moreover, British America, up to its remotest limits, is already inhabited 
by Indians, and where the savage can live, surely civilized man, with the 
vast advantages which knowledge gives him, may also live. 

6. The Fertile Belt. — There is in the Dominion a 
belt of pine country extending from the borders of 
Lake Superior across to the shores of the Pacific. It 
is called the "Fertile Belt." 

Manitoba and the Saskatchawan river are within the 
range of this belt. It is in the mild-winter belt already 
described. (See p. 65.) 

Upon it the snow is light, and immense herds of 
buff, do find pasturage all winter. 

It is a good grass, wheat, and barley country. 

This belt extends from latitude 49° to 54*^ 40' along 
the Pacific coast, and lies between the same parallels 
as Labrador. 

In Labrador, on the east, you find treeless plains, white with snow for eight 
months every year, and, except in sheltered spots, you have the limestone 
rocks, covered simply with a skin of moss, wliicli you can pull off in large 
flakes, and then the bare surface of the rock is exposed, the soil is so thin. 

In British Columbia, on the west, and between the 
same parallels, the land is covered with soil, and for- 
ests of pine and fir which are of a height and girth 
unknown even in the Atlantic States. 

Strawberries and roses grow wild in the fields there- 
and the ground in winter is seldom covered with snow 
for more than two weeks at a time. 

If you were to travel north from the Great Lakes through the Dominion 
to the Arctic Ocean, you would remark, at the end of every day's journey, 
that the trees had become more dwarfed and the vegetation more scanty, 
until at last mosses and lichens would occupy the landscape. 

As the cold weather approaches, the bears and foxes and other animals 
in those cold countries lay aside their coats of gray, brown, and other sum- 
mer colors, and put on their winter robes of white. All the animals there 
are white in winter. 

7. The Dominion of Canada contains a population of 
3,500,000 whites and half-breeds, and the population 
of the territories is estimated at 28,700, mostly Indians. 

Qnestions. — 1. Between what parallels of latitude does the Dominion 
lie ?— From what quarter do the prevailing winds there blow V— On which 
side, the Pacific or the Atlantic, do they bring most warmth and moisture? 
2. What are the Provinces of British America? 3. Under what govern- 
ment are the Provinces ? — What title includes seven of them ? — How is the 
Dominion governed ? 4. How does British America compare in size with 
the United States ?— Where is it ? 5. Compare the climates of the Domin- 
ion with those of Europe and Asia in the same latitude, and tell your con- 
clusions as to the possible future of this part of America. — What animals 
find pasturage there? 6. Where is the "Fertile Belt?"— Of what color in 
winter are the animals in the frozen regions? 7. What is the population of 
the Dominion ? — Is it most dense on the Atlantic or the Pacific side ? 

- \ 




The Provinces of British America. 
The Dominion of Canada, 

Population, 3,500,000. Capital, Ottawa, 22,000. 

By an Act of Parliament, 1867, the Provinces of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and the two Oanadas were 
united under one confederation and called the " Dominion 
of Canada," and the names of Canada West and Cana- 
da East were changed, the former to Ontario, the 
latter to Quebec, and permission given for the other 
provinces to join the confederation. Manitoba, Col- 
umbia, and Prince Edward's Island have done so. 


The Canadas belonged to the French, and were set- 
tled by them. They founded the city of Quebec the 
year after the settlement of Jamestown, Va. 

Ontakio and Quebec. 

From the Great Lakes to the sea, the country is dotted 
with beautiful lakes, which serve in winter, while not 
frozen over, as so many little furnaces to mitigate the 
severe cold. 

Ontario is a peninsula with a climate like that of 

Michigan. It has 1,620,000 inhabitants, and is the most 
populous, productive, and prosperous of the Provinces. 
It is a fine wheat country, and its inhabitants during 
the long winters engage extensively in the lumber 

The forests abound with the sugar-maple, and the making of sugar from 
it is another important branch of winter industry. 

Coal, iron, rock-oil, copper, and gold are among its 
minerals. Toronto, with a population of 56,000, is the 
chief town. 

Tue Province of Quebec lies further north than the Province of Ontario. 
It does not get llie winter winds, while 3'et they have in them the warmth 
they derived in their passage over the lakes, and therefore it has a colder cli- 
mate than Ontario. 

In 1759 a celebrated battle, which gave the Canadas to England, was 

fought between the French and 
English before the ^alls of Que- 
bec, on the Heights of Abialiani. 
General Wolfe and the Marquis 
of Montcalm, the two opposing 
generals, both fell, each bravely 
leading his forces into battle; 
and in admiration of their 
knightly bearing and noble gal- 
lantry, a single monument now 
stands on the bloody plain, in 
honor alike of the vanquished 
and the victor. 

Til is battle wrested 
the Cniuidas from the 
French and placed them 
under the British flng, 
where they still re- 
main. It decided the 
(luestion wliich was then 
tienibling in the bal- 
ance as to which of 
these two nations 
should have the as- 
cendency in com- 
merce. That of Eng- 
land is now so great 
that it employs a fleet 
of 20,000 vessels. 
The majority of the inhabitants of Quebec are the 
descendants of the early French settlers, who still pro- 
fess the religion of their fathers, which is Koman Catho- 
lic, and use their mother-tongue, which is French. 

In consideration of this, the constitution that has just been granted by the 
Queen of En-land requires that the Parliament of the Dominion, and the 
Legislature of Quebec, shall keep their records in both the English and the 
French languages. 

Ontario was settled chiefly by English and Ameri- 
cans. They are Protestants ; and English is the lan- 
guage generally spoken there. 


Quebec, the capital of the Province of Quebec, with a population of 60,000, 
is beautifully situated on a high blutf. It is one of the few walled towns 
on this continent, and is so strongly fortified as to win for itself tlie name 
of " The Gibraltar of America." 

The scenery around this city is enchanting. The picturesque falls and 
the natural steps of Montmorenci are near it. 



Montreal, with a population of 107,000, is tlie largest city in the Dominion. 

New Brunswick. 

New Brunswick, also one of the provinces of the 
Dominion, has a population of 285,000. Its inhabitants 
are more maritime in their pursuits than those of either 
Dtitario or Quebec. 

TJK! forests of New Brunswick afford abundant sup- 
plies of ship-timber, both for the navy and the commer- 
cial marine of England. 

This y)rovince abounds in coal and iron as well as iu 
ship-timber ; but the industrial energies of its people 
are directed chiefly to the lumber business, and the sea 

St. John, with a population of 30,000, is its cliief town. 

Nova Scoti.\. 

Nova Scotia, you observe, is a peninsula. The island 
of Cape Breton belongs to it, and the two together, with 
a population of 388,000, form the fourth grand division 
of the New Dominion. 

The shores, both of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 
are scoured by the tides of the Bay of Fundy. 

These tides rise twice and fall twice, daily ; attaining at the full and change 

of the moon, the enormous height of sixty and sometimes even of seventy 
feet above low-water mark. This great rise is effected in the brief space of 
six hours. The flood rushes in with such force that it has been known to 
overtake and swallow up, ere they can escape, herds of deer, swine and other 
animals that happen to be passing or feeding along the shore. These are the 
highest tides in the world. 

Nova Scotia is on the 
way-side of the great 
thoroughfare for all 
vessels passing to and 
fro between North 
America and Europe. 
It is the most eastern 
point of our continent 
south of Labrador, and 
is the nearest to Eu- 

Many of the ocean steamers 
that ply between England and 
the United States touch at Hali- 
fax, both coming and going. 
The harbor is unsurpassed by 
any other in America. It is the 
]irincipal naval station of Great 
Britain on this side of the At- 
lantic. English men-of-war are 
constantly to be seen putting in 
there for orders, supplies, fresh 
outfits, and repairs. 

Halifax — population 
67,000— is, therefore, 
as you may imagine, a place of much importance. It 
is a flourishing town, and has a large trade with the 
United States, chiefly in potatoes, fish, coal, gypsum, 
and grindstones. 

Nova Scotia has a healthful climate, and the timber 
business is an important one. 

Herds of moose and deer are still to be found there. 

During the deep snows of winter, these animals fortify themselves against 
the wolves by ramparts, called " Elk-yards," which they build in the snow. 

Prince Edward's Island. 

Prince Edward's Island is of nearly the same size as 
Delaware. It has 95,000 inhabitants. It is nestled in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is ])rotected by Newfound- 
land from the icebergs that float in the Atlantic. It is 
sheltered by the highlands of New Brunswick from the 
west winds of Quebec. Consequently, it has a milder 
climate than either of these provinces. 

The chief industry of the island is fishing and ship- 
building, tillage and pasturage. 


Is cold and sterile ; the soil does not yield enough to 
feed the people, who number 147,000. They derive 
their means of living mainly from the sea. Fishing and 



sealing is their chief occupation. One-fifth of the inhabi- 
tants of the island reside in the city of St. Johns, which 
has a population of 25,000. 

F I s 1 1 I N ( 

l; .\ N I) BANKS OP N E K F 

The Grand Banks of Newfoundland lie to the eastward of this island. 
The depth of water upon them varies from ten to one hundred fathoms, and 
they embrace an area of more than 100,000 square miles. They are one of 
the treasuries of the ocean, for they are the most extensive and valuable 
fishing-grounds in the known w^orld. 

In the spring and summer of every year, immense shoals of cod, mackerel, 
and other fish resort there, and are taken in great numbers by the French, 
English, and Americans. 

Seal-lishiog on the icebergs, as they drift down along the shores of New- 
foundland, commences in the spring. 


In the city of St. Johns, entire acres of ground are to 
b,e found covered with sheds that are shingled over with 

codfish, split in two, and spread out there to dry ; and 
in that beautiful harbor, ships from all parts of the 
world, may be seen taking in cargoes of fish. 

The celebrated Newfoundland dog attains his 
most complete development in this island, and is 
used as a draught animal. Bears, wolves, and 
reindeer also are common. 

It is off" the shores of Newfound- 
land that the cold cui-rent which 
comes down through Davis Straits 
meets with the warm waters of the 
Gulf Stream, which flows out through 
the straits of Florida, and produces 
those dense fogs which envelop the 
shores of New England, as well as 
those of Newfoundland, and which 
often make navigation dangerous. 
Many a noble ship has been run 
on Cape Kace because of these fogs, 
and been lost. 

In late sunuiicr and in autumn the cold current 
I' • ... 

from Uie north brings down, ui immense ([uanti- 

ties, huge icebergs, some of Uiem more than one huiulred feet high, and 
measuring miles in circumference. These are also very dangerous to navi- 
gation. They reach hundreds of teet below the surface, and when a ship 
strikes against one it is like striking against a- rock. They often lodge on 
the Grand Banks, where they remain until broken up by the sea, or melted 
away by the warmth of the Gulf Stream and the rays of the sun. 

One end of the Atlantic telegraph crosses these 
banks on its way from Valentia Bay, Ireland ; it was 
successfully landed in 1866 at Heart's (^jntent, a small 

cove of Trinity Bay, New- 

There are three cables now ; one 
French and two English ; the latter 
have several times been broken. 

Labrador is under the 
jurisdiction of Ncwfoiiiid- 
land, but it is a cold and 
inhospitable country. Al- 
though in the latitude of 
.some of the fairest parts of 
Great Britain, Labrador 
has a climate too severe 
to ripen any of the ordi- 
nary cereals ; but barley 
cut when green makes 
goad fodder, and pota- 
toes and a few vegeta- 
bles sometimes do well. 
The country is resorted to in the summer by fishermen 
and trappers for the sake of its seals and other fur-bear- 




ing animals. It is peopled on the north, especially on 
the Bay of Ungava, by the hardy Esquimaux, 


Manitoba and the Northwest. 

Nearly 200 years ago the king of Great Britain 
granted a charter to a company of English merchants, 
called the Hudson Bay Company, which gave it the 
exclusive right to trap and trade in all that part of 
British America which lies north of Canada and the 
United States, and which has lately been annexed to 
the Dominion, 

The beaver, tlie marten, the muskrat, hare, wolf, fox, reindeer, and bear 
all abound here, and afford excellent furs and peltries. Tiie Company estab- 
lished various trading-posts throughout these regions, the chief of which is 
Fort York, at the mouth of Nelson's river, on Hudson Bay. 

The new province of Manitoba, which embraces the 
Red River Settlement, established in 1813 by Lord 
Selkirk, south of Lake Winnipeg, in what was formerly 
a part of Rupert's Land, has a population of 12,000 
(Census of 1871), made up chiefly of the descendants 
of the early Scotch and French settlers, and of half- 
breeds and Indians. It has a Lieut.-Governor, a nom- 
inated Legislative Council, and an elective assembly. 

The vast Northwest Territoiy is governed under a separate commission 
\>y the Lieut.-Governor of Manitoba, 

The country consists of wild prairie, unclaimed for- 

ests, and treeless wastes of moss and lichens, rocks, ice, 
and snow. 

British Columbia and Vancouver Island. 

These have been united into one province. 
They are rich in minerals, pasturage, and tim- 
ber ; Yancouver particularly in coal, and Brit- 
ish Columbia particularly in gold, but both in 
grass and forests. They are in the Dominion. 

They have a sea to windward, and though they 
comprise parallels of latitude that are included 
within Labrador — which is uninhabitable — their 
winter climate is so moist and mild that the 
= country is not only inhabitable for man, but the 
cattle in winter can face the cold without shelter, 
and can also find green pastures. 

These colonies have been recently established. Their entire 
population, including Indians, does not exceed 50,000 ; conse- 
quently, they have not yet industrial force enough to develop the 
resources of the country ; nor has there been time for industry to 
adjust itself in regular and permanent channels. 

Questions. — What provinces form the Dominion of Canada? 
— By what Act? — Describe the face of the country in Quebec and 
&s=* a? Ontario. — Which is the most populous province ? — What is its p(jpu- 
-^ _ lation? — Its productions? — Which is its chief town? — What, its 
"^ population? — Which is the colder country, Quebec or Ontario? — 
Who first colonized the Canadas? — What city did they found? — 
In what year was the great battle there fought, which decided the 
question of their commercial supremacy? — How large is England's 
fleet of merchantmen? — What religion do the inhabitants of Que- 
bec still profess ? — Why has England required the Assembly of 
Quebec and the Parliament of the Dominion to publish their acts 
both in French and English ?— Bj whom was Ontario settled? — What is the 
pievailing religion there? — Describe the city of Quebec. 

What is the population of New Brunswick ? — What are the chief branches 
of industry of its inhabitants ? — What minerals has it ? — What is its chief 
town ? — What is the shape of the province of Nova Scotia ? 

What large island belongs to it? — What is the population of the two? — 
How high do the tides rise on some parts of the shores of Nova Scotia ? — De- 
scribe the position of Nova Scotia with regard to Europe. — What makes Hal- 
ifax a place of so much importance? — What is its population? — In what does 
its trade with the United States chiefly consist? — What wild animals abound 
on this peninsula ? — What is an " elk-yard ?" 

How large is Prince Edward's Island ? — What is its population ? — What 
is the chief industry of its inhabitants ? — What is the population of New- 
foimdland ? — Desciibe its climate and soil. — How do the people live there ? — 
What are their chief occupations ? 

Tell where the Grand Banks of Newfoundland are. — Describe them. — 
When is the fishing season? — Wliat do they "fish" f(u- on the icebergs ?— 
Where do tiie Newfoundlanders dry their fish? — What is the cause of the 
dense Newfoundland fogs? — Of M'hat inconvenience are these fogs? — What 
else besides fogs endangers navigation there ? — How large are some of these 
icebergs ? — What is the season for them ? — What inconvenience sometimes 
occurs from the grounding of icebergs on the Grand Banks? — What Province 
has jurisdiction over Labrador? — Why is it so thinly inhabited? 

When was Hudson's Bay Company chartered? — For what purpose? — 
What animals did they hunt and trap ? 

What is the new name of Winnipeg? — Of whom does this population 
consist ? — What is their religion ? — Describe the general character of the coun- 
try? — Of what two provinces does British Columbia consist? — What are 
their natural resources? — They are in the same latitude as Labrador; why 
are their winters so much milder? — What is their present population ? 

LcngltuJe Weat ift) tcum Greenvriuh. 




Studies on the Map of British America. 

boundaries and Siibdivisions.—Bound British America on all sides. 
— What great Bay iuterwashes Britisli America ? — Where are the seven pro- 
vinces of the Dominion of Canadi\: Nova Scotia; New Brunswick ; Quebec; 
Ontario; Manitoba; British Columbia? — Where is Newfoundland"? — Prince 
Edward's Island ? — Cape Breton ? — Labrador ?— Between what meridians and 
jiarallels does British America lie ?— How far is it from Cape Race to Queen 
Charlotte's Island V — How far, measuring by the scale, is Melville Sound from 
the 49th parallel of north latitude? — What is the latitude of Newfoundland ? 
Mountains and Watersheds, — What mountains traverse British 
America on the West?— What are their highest peaks? — How high is Mount 
St. Elias ? — Where can j^ou find an}- watersheds in British America ? — Ton can 
always find the icater sheds of a country by lookinrj for the sources of the rivers 
and tracing the outlines of tfie country draifudby tfiem. (See Wall Map.) 

Rivers. — What river separates Quebec from Ontario? — Where are the 
sources of the St. Lawrence? — Its mouth? — In what direction does it flow? — 
What purpose does the St. Lawrence serve ? Ans. As a waste-gate stream : 
f/ram of the Great Lakes.) — Name all the principal rivers of British 
America. — Where are the head-waters of the Mackenzie ? — Describe its course 
and tell its tributaries. — Describe the Red river from source to mouth. — What 
do you know of the Saskatchawan ?— The Churchill ?— The Nelson?— Tlie 
Severn? — The Great Fish river? — AVliere does the Columbia river rise? 
What river rises in British America and runs through Alaska? 

ILahes. — What lake lies between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay ? — 
Where is Lake Winnepeg ?^vLake of the Woods ? — Lake Athabasca ? — Great 
Slave Lake? — Great Bear Lake? — Lake Nipissing (nip'iss-ing)^ — From what 
lake does the St. Lawrence river issue? — Name the Great Lakes in order. 

Gulfs, Bays, and Sounds. — Where is the Gulf of St. Lawrence?— 
Where is the Bay of Fuudy? — Where is James Bay? — Find Coronation 
Gulf— Gulf of Boothia.— Where is Baffin Bay ?— Melville Sound?— Lancas- 
ter Sound ?— Fox Channel ? 

Straits and Capes.— BeWe Isle Strait ? — Davis Strait ? — Hudson Strait ? 
—Strait of Prince of Wales ?— Cape Sable ?— Cape Rjxce ?— Cape Chidleigh ?— 
Cape Bathurst ? 

Islands. — What islands are in the Gulf of St. Lawrence? — What islands 
border it? — Where is Anticosti Island? — Melville Island? — Vancouver 
Island? — Queen Charlotte? 

Cities. — Quebec ? — Montreal ? — Ottawa ? — Toronto ? — St. John's 
(Newfoundland)?— Halifax?— St. John?— Where is New Westminster? 

Motites of Travel and Trade.— What is the course and distance 
from Toronto to Ottawa? — Toronto to Detroit? — Toronto to Kingston? — 
To Montreal? — To Quebec City?— What is the route and distance from 
Quebec to Portland in Maine? — Which way is St. John from Frederick- 
ton? — Course and distance from St. John to Halifa.v? — How far is it from 
the head of the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of St. Lawrence ? — How far is it 
from head of the Hudson river to St. Lawrence river? — How would you go 
from Halifax to Pictou? — How far from Newfoundland to Labrador? — How 
far is Prince F.dward's Island from New Brunswick ? — From Nova Scotia ? 

Miscellaneous, — What is the area of British America? — Where is Fort 
York ? — Where is the Northwest Passage f (Refer to the Trade and Voyage 
Chart, the last map in the book ) — How is Nova Scotia separated from Cape 

Breton? — Describe the location of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. — 
What is their area ? — Where was the Atlantic cable successfully lauded in 
18G6 ? — How would you go by ship from Toronto to Cleveland ? 


Danish Amorica. 

Danish America consists of Grrecnland, Icclant], and 
three small islands in the West Indies. 


Of the geography of G-reenland little is known, ex- 
cept as to the Western and Southern coasts. 

It lies just in the midst of the great icy and ice- 
bearing currents tliat come out of the Arctic Ocean. 
It stretches from the i)arallel of G0° north to an un- 
known extent toward the Polo. The western shores 
are rugged, mountainous, indented with numerous fiords 
and creeks, and fringed with islands. 

The lofty interior seems like one immense glacier, and 
some have supposed that Grrecnland was made up of a 
multitude of ice-islands frozen perpetually together. 

No trees flourish there. A few culinary vegetables 
are occasionally raised, but the hardiest cereals have 

The population consists of about 1000 Danes, with a 
native and mixed element numbering 9,000. 

The commerce consists mainly in the exchange of the 
skins of seals, reindeer, and other animals, with eider- 
down, train-oil, whalebone, and fish, for the comforts of 
European life. 

Godhavu (god'hown), situated on a small island, 
is the principal place toward the North. Upernavik, 
in latitude 73°, is, as far as we know, the most north- 
erly permanent abode of man. 

Frederickshaab is famous as the place where Otto 
Fabricius spent the long winter nights translating the 
Scriptures into the Greenland language. 

Greenland, it is supposed by geographers, extends 
to within a few hundred miles of the Pole. In 1854, 
Dr. Kane's expedition, after forcing its way over the 
ice barrier of Smith's Strait, amid intense cold, reached 
nearly to the high and mild latitude of 83° north. 

There they discovered an open and iceless sea, having a temperature of 
four degrees above the freezing-point of fresh water. 

The waves of the sea dashed on the beach with the swell of ocean, and 
the tides ebbed and flowed. Seals were sporting, and water-fowl were feed- 
ing in the open waters. 



kane'8 open polar sea. 


Iceland contains an area of 30,000 square miles. Its 
inteiior is marked by vast plains of cracked and frac- 
tured lava; deep, yawning crevasses; swollen, unbridged 
streams; deep bogs, and natural steam and vapor baths. 


The ice-mountains 
called Yokuls are 
volcanoes, occasion- 
ally in violent erup- 

The loftiest of these, the 
Oeraefa Yokul, on the south- 
east coast, is 6,42(5 feet 
above the sea. Mount Hecla, 
in the interior, is 5 110 feet. 

The Geysers (gMsers), 
or Boiling Springs, are, 
however, the most striking 
physical feature of Iceland. 

The vegetation of 
Iceland, though 
dwarfed and scanty, 
is far better than 
that of Greenland. 
Grain will not ripen 
in Iceland, but 
garden vegetables 
are raised, and, 
along the coast, grass 
grows in quantities 
sufticient to sustain 
the cattle. 

Iceland-moss is a 
valuable article of* food, and is exported. Sea-fowl, in- 
cluding the eider-duck, abound ; splendid trout are 
found in the streams, and important fisheries are con- 
ducted on the sea-shore. Reindeer run wild in large 
herds, and the polar bear is occasionally lodged on the 
island by a cake of drift-ice from the North. 

The animal is said to be easily killed, being exhausted for want 
of food during his voyage from distant shores. 

On the easiern coasts, much drift-wood from 
the Tropics is obtained for fuel ; it is washed 
there by the warm Gulf Stream. 

Reikiavik {re'ke-a-viJc), the chief town, is a 
small hamlet. 

The population of Ireland is (50,000. The language is Norwe- 
gian. The people are fond of lileratiire, and have made from their 
ancient .mguK vahiable contributions to the history of America, 
claiming its discovery by them 500 years before Columbus. 

Qtiesfions.^Of v,h;\\ docs Danish America consist? — Is much 
known of Greenland V— Where does it lie ?— Its extent ?— Bound the 
three known sides. (Se<- ISIercator's Chart of the World.)-De- 
scril.e its vegetation— Its population— Commerce— Some of its 


Wliat is the area of Iceland ? (Refer to Mercator's Chart of the 
World.)— Describe its interior.— What are YOkuls ?— Describe the 
Gevsers.— Vegetation.— For what is Iceland-moss used?— What is 
saidofgame?— Of drift-wood?— Name a town in Iceland.— When 
do the Icelanders claim to have discovered America? 





1. Mexico, before the Discovery of America.— 

Before America was discovered by Columbus, Mexico 
was the seat of a most civilized and powerful empire. 

Montezuma was its king ; the Aztecs were his sub- 

His splendid Capital, adorned with statues and paint- 
ings, stood where the City of Mexico now stands. In it 
he had groves and fountains, temples, baths, and palaces. 
His fish-pools, his zoological and botanical gardens wei'o 
better stocked and filled than any at that time in Europe. 
Indeed, the idea of a garden of plants, in which the 
capitals of Europe now boast themselves, was borrowed 
from Mexico. 

The Mexicans of that day had laws, common-schools, 
institutions of learning, and an academy of science and 
art. In astronomy they were almost as far advanced 
as the Europeans. 

Their calendar-stone, which has been dug up from the 
public square in the City of Mexico, showed the move- 
ments of the heavenly bodies, and divided the year into 
months and seasons. 

Tliou"h not so tall, tin- base of the Pyramid at Cliolula covers four tiiiies 

the space of the grand Egyptian Pyramid of Cheops, which occupies 11 acres 
of ground. 

2. Soil and Productions. — Under that fine cli- 
mate, the rich soil of Mexico was, when Cortez first 
went there, in a high state of improvement. The chief 
agricultural staples were the banana, Indian corn, and 
the vanilla bean, with the celebrated cocoa, and the 
lordly maguey or pulque (pool'kd) plant, now called the 
Mexican aloe. 

From tlie cocoa we get chocolate, a beverage borrowed by Europe, and 
called to this day by the name chocolall, vvliich the Mexicans gave it. 

The maguey is peculiar to Mexico. Its leaves served the natives for a 
natural parchment, upon which the national records were preserved. Its 
juice, when sutiered to ferment, becomes " pulque," the national beverage of 
the Mexicans. It is like cider, and when sullieiently " hard" is intoxicating. 

The plant is beautiful. Its leaves, six or eight fieet long, supi)ly the 
natives with weather-boarding and shingles for their hinnble dwellings ; 
its thorns supjily them with nails, jtins, and needles; its fibre, with strings 
audc'ords; and its juice with sugar as well as pulque. Nor is this all. In 
some parts its leaves are used in iee eiillmitioii. The iei; gardens are covered 
with the leaves, which in the evening are filled with water, like so many little 
troughs, each holding about a quart. They are porous ; also powerful radia 
tors. The radiation from them and the evaporation of the exuded water, 
bring down the temperature at night to freezing, and in tlie morning the ice- 
crop is ready for market. 

S. CoHt/Hcsf of Mcjico. — In 1519, Cortez invaded 
the domains of Montezuma, and on his death, he took 
possession of his kingdom in the name of the King of 

Thus Mexico became a f)ossession of Spain. The 
Spaniards are still the dominant race there, and their 
language is the language of the country, and their le- 
ligion is its religion. They are Roman Catholics, as are 
all the nations in North Aiuciica except the United 
States and the British colonies. 

In 1813 Mexico threw off the Spanish yoke, and declared herself inde- 

4. Chief Staples.— Sugar, coffee, cotton, hemp, to- 
bacco, cocoa, chochineal, pimento, indigo, wheat, corn, 
grapes, and olives all find genial climates in this mag- 
nificent country, and, when well cultivated, the yield 
is enormous. 

On the plains of Mexico violets are in bloom, straw- 
berries are ripe, and green peas in season all the year. 

In the orchards and garden.^ are gathered the most 
delicious fruits. The forests abound in ornamental woods 
and dye-stufis, and the groves with gums and spices, 
drugs and medicines of much value. Among them may 
be enumerated the india-rubber tree, the vanilla bean, 
licorice, sarsaparilla, and jalap — so called from the city 
of Jalapa {/la-lah'pah), where it grows wild. 

In Yucatan there is made from a variety of the 
celebrated Maguev, called heiiopiii, a superior kind of 



hemp, known in commerce as Sisal {si-sal) hemp, from 
the place of export. 

In the Tierra Caliente of the Gulf coast, and in the 
folds of the mountains to the south of Tampico and 
Vera Cruz, the new textile called Ramie grows finely. 
The Mexicans call it Pochote (po-cho'-id). It is very 
white, with a long, lustrous, and silky fibre. 

o. Climate of Tiet'ra Caliente. — By looking at the 
map of Central America you will see that in Mexico 
there is a range of mountuins on both sides of the 
country, which is separated from the sea by a belt of 
low-lands, varying in breadth from a few miles to a 
hundred or more. 

This low-land belt is the tierra caliente, or hot coun- 
try, rank in vegetation, and rife with the pestilence. 
Its diseases are terrible ; the yellow fever is the most 
common and fatal among them. 

In tliis belt is the city of Vera Cruz, whose citizens, during the sickly 
season, often resort to Jalapa, which is near but on high and healthy ground. 

a. The Table-Land.— A?,cQmVmfr, this coast-range of 
ujountains, j-ou reach, at the height of from 5,000 to 
8,000 feet above the level of the sea, the table-lands 
already described. They extend entirely across the 
countrv from coast-range to coast-ransre. 

This table-land is nothing more than a broad mountain top, which you 
climb as you go west from the Gulf of Mexico ; upon wliich you travel many 
miles, and then descending, find yourself again in Tierra Caliente, upon the 
shores of the Pacific Ocean. 

This broad mountain-top, or table-land, is the Tierra 
Ternplada, or the temperate land of Mexico. The cli- 

mate is delightful. It is never cold enough to pinch with 
frost, nor hot enough to oppress with heat. 

The city of Mexico is situated upon this table-land, at the height of 7,500 
feet above the sea. The houses there are built without chimneys, as the win- 
ters are not cold enough to make fires necessary. 

The descent from the table-land to the low-land is very precipitous on all 
sides, but especially on the east, where, if seen from a distance, it appears like 
a range of mountains. Tliere are only two carriage-roads to it from the Gulf 
of Mexico, by passes 500 miles asunder: one at Jalapa, near Vera Cruz, 
and the other at Saltillo, west of Monterey. The table-lands extend to the 
Arctic Ocean. 

7. Mountains. — Its top is not a smooth or level surface, as might be 
supposed from the word " table-land," but it is diversified with hill and dale, 
mountain and valley, like other parts of the earth's surface. It has other 
mountain ranges on the top, some of them shooting up peaks, as Orizaba and 
Popocatapetl, to the height of 17,800 feet above the sea, and far enough up to 
reach the regions of perpetual ice. Both cf these are slumbering volcanoes, 
though they are capped with snow. 

Orizaba is in sight from the sea, and Popocatapetl 
from the city of Mexico. 

The latter is a solfatara, down into the caverns of which Cortez, during his 
conquest of the country, sent one of his followers to gather sulphur for the 
manufacture of gunpowder. 

When a volcano ceases to emit flames, and is in the process of extinction, 
it sends out fumes and gases which deposit sulphur in large 
quantities ; it then becomes a solfatara. 

The solfataras of Italy and the Mediterranean supply 
commerce with most of the sulphur used in the manufacture 
of gunpowder. 

8. Tlie Seasons.— In Mexico, as in all 
the inter-tropical countries in the world, 
the seasons are marked by the rains. These 
commence in Jupc, and last till November. 

In Tierra Templada the rainy season is the most delight- 
ful, but in Tierra Caliente it is the sickly season. 

9. Mines.— This table-land in Mexico, 
as it is in the United States, is rich in mines 
of gold and silver, copper, lead, tin, quick- 
silver, zinc, and iron. Indeed, from Pata- 
gonia, all the way up into British Colum- 
bia, and in Alaska too, as far as miners have 
explored, minerals abound, and the riches.t 
mines in the world of their kind have been 
found in this range. It is the metalliferous 
treasury of the earth. 

Silver is the chief article of export from Mexico. 
Sonora, Chihuahua {che-ioah'v)ah), and Guerrero {ger- 
rd'ro), are the provinces richest in minerals. 

10. Important Cities. — Vera Cruz and Tampico 
{tam-pee'ko) arc the chief seaports on the Gulf coast ; 
Guaymas (c/wi'mas), Mazatlan, San Bias, Acapulco, 
on the Pacific. 

The city of Mexico is encircled by a range of mountains, from which rise 
two snow-clad peaks — viz., Popocatapetl, 17,800 feet high, and Iztaccihuatl 
(eeH-ldhk-se-hwaVl'), or the woiium in white. These two giant sentinels stand 



side by side, lending glory to the landscape, while they impress and charm 
the beholder. 

its boundaries on all*sides? — What Gulf indents its western coast? — What 
peninsula between Mexico and the Pacific Ocean V 

How far is it from Yucatan to Cuba? — From Yucatan to 
Matamoras? — From Yucatan to New Orleans? 

Where is Tiburon Id.? — Cape San Lucas ?— Cape Corri- 
entes? — Cape Roxo? — Cape Catoche? — Where is the Bay of 
Campeche? — Where is the Gulf of California? — Of Mexico? — 
Where is the Gulf of Tehuantepec ? 

Where is the table-land of Mexico?— What mountains run 
through Mexico ? — Name some of the volcanoes of Mexico. — 
What river forms the northern boundary of Mexico ? — Name the 
other chief rivers of Mexico. — Where is the City of Mexico? 
— Wlicrc is San LuisPotosi? — Monterey? — Presidio del Norte? 
— Guanaxuato (gicah-nah-wah' to) ? — Merida ? — Chihuahua ? 

How fixr is it from the City of Mexico to Galveston, 
Texas?— To Vera Cruz?— To Tehuantepec ?— How far from 
the City of Mexico to San Francisco V — Point out in Mexico 
the Tierra Caliente. — AVhich are the best mining regions of 
Mexico ? 


In the climes of perpetual summer, tlie sight of snow-clad mountains is 
'idescribably grateful. As objects of contemplation they are as pleasing as 
running water, and as suggestive as the sea. 

About two miles from the city of Mexico is Lake Tezcuco, which is con- 
nected with the city by a canal, and is the largest and lowest of five lakes in 
the v-cinity. It is salt ; the others are fresh. 

11. Fojmlation.— Tho population of Mexico, by 
tbo official returns of 1869-70, was 9.170.000. 

Questions. — 1. Where, at the time of the discover}^ of America, was the 
mightiest empire in the New World ? — Who was its ruler ? — Where was its 
capital •' — Describe it. — Of what public establisliments did the capitals of 
Europe borrow the idea from Mexico? — What facts can j-ou mention as 
showing the degree of civilization that existed among the Mexicans? — Wliat 
was their calendar-stone? 2. What was the agricultural state of their coun- 
try? — What their staple productions? — What bever.nge do we get from the 
cocoa? — Whence the name? — What plant thrives in no other part of the 
world except in Mexico ? — What is pulque ? — What use is made of the pulque 
plant and its various parts? 3. When did Cortcz invade Mexico? — Who 
was the reigning monarch there? — What became of him ? — AVhat is the lan- 
guage of Mexico ? — What, the religion ? 

4. Name the chief staples to which the climate and soil of Mexico are 
congenial. — What fruits and flowers do you find in season all the yer.r on 
the plains of Mexico ? — Name some of the most valuable drugs and medicinal 
plants which are indigenous to Mexico. — From what does the medicine called 
jalap derive its name? — What is henepin? — Where is it grown? — What does 
it produce ? — What is the pochote of Mexico ? 

5. Howls the table-land of Mexico separated from the sea? — Where is 
Tierra Caliente ? G. How high is the table-land of IS[exico ? — How broad is 
it ? — Where is Tierra Templada ? — Contrast the climate of Tierra Caliente with 
that of Tierra Templada.— On which " Tierra" is the City of Mexico ? — How 
many carriage-roads on the east of the table-land ? — Where are they ? — How 
far does this table-land extend ? 7. Is the top of it a level country ? — What vol- 
canoes have you upon it ? — What is a solfatera ? — Where are the great sources 
which supply sulphur for gunpowder ? 8. How are the seasons divided in 
Mexico ? — When does the rainy season commence? — How long does it last? 
— Which is the sickly season in TieiTa Caliente ? 9. Where is the metal- 
liferous treasury of the earth ? — What is the chief article of export from Mex- 
ico ? — Name some of the principal cities in Mexico. 10. What are the chief 
seaport towns on the Pacific coast ? — Which is the largest city in Mexico ? — 
Name some of the principal towns? 11. Population of Mexico? 

Map Studies. (Refer to Map of Mexico, p. 89.) — Within what pa- 
rallels of latitude is Mexico included ? — Within what meridians ? — What are 


The States of Central America 

The States of Central America all belonged once to 
^^pain. Spanish is the language spoken, and the domi- 
nant race is of Spanish blood. Their religion is the 
Roman Catholic. 

These States, with Mexico, occupy the central portion 
of our continent ; they lie between the United States of 
Columbia, in South America, and th(> United States of 
America, in North America. 

They derive their importance, not so much from the 
value of the commerce we have witli them, as from 
their vast natural resources and from their geograi)h- 
ical position ; for across their borders lie the shortest 
routes that can be constructed, cither by rail or water, 
between the two oceans. 

It was here that Columbus placed the Gates of Ocean which he longed to 

Central America is situated in a belt of volcanic fires that girdles tlie 
Pacific Ocean. Izalco, a burning mountain, in San Salvador, was formed in 
1770, and has been active ever since. Coseguina is noted for its eruption in 
1885, when tlie air was so darkened by its ashes, even at places TjO miles dis- 
tant, that friends could not recognize each other, and the fowls went to roost. 

These States consist of five Republics and the Bali/.e, 
a British Province. The Republics, exclusive of Mexico, 
are Guatemala {guah-te-mah'-Iah), Honduras, San Salva- 
dor, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica {ree'Icah). These are 
all small States both as to area and population. 

The smallest of them in population (Costa Rica) has 
not as many inhabitants as the city of New Orleans, and 
the largest of them in area (Nicaragua) is smaller than 
the single State of Georgia, with only a little more, in- 
cluding Indians and all, than one-third its population. 



Guatemala 40,777 

San Salvador 7,334 

Hnnduras 47,091 

Nicaragua 58,1G7 

Costa Rica 21,494 

Area. Population. 

sciuare miles 1,180,000 

" 600,000 

" 350.000 

" 400,000 

" 135.000 

Total, 5 Republics . . . .174,863 

Balize (British) 17,008 

Central America 191,871 


. 25.635 

These five Central American Eepublics, all taken to- 
gether, are not so large as the State of California, nor as 
populous, in the aggregate, as the single State of New 

Their mountains are filled with useful minerals, and 
richly stored with the precious metals. Their climate, 
like that of Mexico, is superb ; their soil is generous, and 
their harvest-time lasts the live-long year. Yet these 
countries are not prosperous. 

The soil and climates of Central America are admi- 
rably adapted to the production of tea and coffee, cocoa 
and sugar, cochineal and indigo, colton and corn, hemp 
and flax, tobacco and vanilla. Cochineal is an insect. 

Tlic forests, like those of Tierra Caliente, in Mexico, 
abound in ornamental woods, dye-stuffs, gums, spices, 
drugs, and medicines. 

Mahogany of fine quality comes from the forests of 
Central America. 

Cattle of all sorts thrive well. 

Numerous mines of silver and gold in the hill-country, 
lie there ready to be wrought with profit whenever 
|)i()per energy and skill are brought to the work of 

These States export a few hides and a little cochineal ; 
some coffee and cocoa, but no tea or sugar, cotton, rice, 
or hemp. 

The largest city in them all is New Guatemala, with 
an estimated population of 40,000 souls. 

The geogra[)liical position of Central America is both instructive and 

Turn to Mcrcator'a Map of the World and study this country. 

You obsci-ve it connect.? North and South America, and separates, by a 
narrow strip of land, the waters of tlie Pacific from tlie waters of the Atlantic 

A ship-canal across the istlmuis would do away the necessity of vessels 
eiiira^'cd in tiie coasting-trade of th(; United States between the two oceans, 
:ind save tiiem more than 10,000 miles in the distance to be sailed. 

Oltserve on the map the lakes and rivers of Nicaragua; they seem to offer 
■' I ivorable route for a ship-canal, (p. 89.) 

A railway has l)een established across the Isthmus of 
Punama, and it is used as a thoroughfare for passengers 
and emigrants going to Califoi-nia and China. 

Quf'stionfs. — From what do the Central American States derive their 
iiiil)ortance?— Name tiiem.— To whom does the Balize belong? — Which of 

these Republics is the smallest in population? — Which the largest? — How 
large is it? — Mention some of their natural resources. — Are these countries 
prosperous? — Name some of the productions for which these countries are 
adapted. — What do their forests yield ? — What do the people there export? — 
What is the population of the largest city ? — In which of the Republics is it ? 
— Describe the importance of their geographical position. — How much would 
a ship-canal across here, for vessels in the coasting-trade between the Atlantic 
and Pacific ports of the United States, save?— Where does the most favor- 
able route for a ship-canal appear to be ? — What makes it so ? — What improve- 
ment has been completed? 


The West Indies. 

These islands are like stepping-stones across the ocean 
from Florida to the Orinoco; they are in sight from one 
to another, almost all the way. 

They embay the shores of Central America, and form 
the dividing line between the Caribbean Sea and Grulf 
of Mexico on one hand, and the Atlantic Ocean on the 
other. They keep out the tidal-wave, and make both 
that gulf and sea all but tideless. 

None of these islands, except Hayti, are independent. 
Those near the coasts belong to the neighboring Repub- 
lics; but all the West Indies proper, that is, all the 
islands in the group that lie between Florida and the 
mouth of the Orinoco, or south of the Bahamas, belong 
to some European power, and are ruled by governors 
sent out for the purpose. 

Cuba is the largest of them all, and belongs, with Porto Rico, to Spain. They 
are governed by the Captain-General of Cuba. Martinique and Guadaloupe 
belong to France; St. Thomas, the islandof San Juan, and Santa Cruz to Den- 
mark ; Curacoa (cu-ra-so) and St. Eustatia to the Dutch, St. Bartholomew to 
Sweden, and the whole of the Bahamas, with Jamaica and the greater por- 
tion of the lesser Antilles, to Great Britain. 

The West India Islands, with the exception of the 
Bahamas, are all intertropical. They will produce almost 
anything that the inhabitants choose to cultivate, but 
their chief staples for export are coffee, sugar, and to- 
bacco, with summer fruits and garden vegetables for the 
markets of our northern cities. 

They have other industries and other sources of wealth besides those which 
spring from the soil. The sea and the mines, and their cigar foctories, are 
very profitable. 


Cuba is called the Queen of the Antilles. It is 720 
miles long and averages CO miles in width. In extent 
it embraces half the area included within all the islands ; 
it is in size equal to Tennessee. 

Havana, with a population of 150,000, is the chief 




It is the largest and most wealtliy city in tlie West Indies, and has one of 
the finest liarbors in the world. The entrance to it is narrow, and is guarded 
by the celebrated Moro Castle. 

The cathedral in Havana contains the remains of Christopher Columbus. 


Once belonged to France and Spain. The island is now 
inhabited chiefly by negroes and mulattoes, and is 
divided into the Republics of Hayti and San Domingo. 

The town of San Domingo is the oldest of the cities founded by Europeans 
in the New World. It was established in 1504, and contains 13,000 inhabitants. 
This island, like Central America, is unsurpassed in its agricultural re- 
sources, and is rich in minerals. 

The exports of Hayti consist of mahogany and other woods in the rough, 
a little cotton, and some coffee. 


Is the third island in size, and belongs to England. Its 
exports are sugar, molasses, rum, coifee, tobacco, cocoa, 
allspice, and indigo. 

The Bahama Isl.-^ds belong to Great Britain. Nassau, the capital, is 
the chief town. 

The coral rocks and reefs which skirt these islands on the west are dan- 
gerous to navigation. Sponges, sea-shells, and corals are also collected in 
considerable quantities, and sent to New York and <nher places for sale. 

Turk's Island is noted for the manufacture of salt by 
solar evaporation. 

St. Thomas derives its importance from its fine har- 

bor. It is a free port, 
where vessels pay no 

In consequence of this the 
West India mail-steamers ol' 
England and France have mack^ 
it their place of rendezvous, 
where they meet the smaller 
steamers and exchange cargoes 
and passengers. 

BARBADOEsis the cen- 
tre of another English 
colonial government. 

The colored men of Barba- 
does {J)(tv-ha dCe) make excellent 

Trinidad almost 
joins South Ameri(;i. 
It is the largest ishind 
in this part of the grouj), 
and ])roduces sugar, 
rum, coffee, cocoa, and 

It is celebrated for a lake of 
pilch, from which immense 
quantities are annually taken and 
canied abroad, and yet there is 
no perceptible diminution of It. 
It rises up from the earth as fast as it is taken away. The streets and side- 
walks of Paris are paved with it. 

The inhabitants of the West Indies arc generally of a 
dark color. They are either brDwn, lilce the Moor; red, 
like the Indian ; black, like the Negro ; or yellow, like 
the mixed l)reeds. 

Spanish is the language most generally spoken in all 
parts of America south of the United States. 

The area of the whole group taken togetlier is about 
twice that of Mississippi, and its population more tiiaii 
four times as great. 

There are various clusters of small islands. Ciiief among these are I lie 
Bahamas, pop. 40,000. Of the smaller islands, the most populous are Bar- 
badoes l.j;j,000, Trinidad 80,000, Granada ;J7,000. The islands owned by- 
Spain, embrace, square miles 4!),4T7. P(.|>ul.uion 1,080,000 

England " " \nmy 

Hayti " " 2^-0- 

France " " 1.0b"). 

Holland " " ■'>^'~>- 

Denmark " " 120. 

Sweden " " l-^- 

Note. — The population of San Domingo 

Questions. — Between what places, on the shores of North and South 
America, do the West India Islands lie?— Between what sheet.s of watei- do 
they form the dividing line ?— Wliich of these; i.slands are independent V— To 
whom did they belong? — Which is the largest of them ? — Point out those that 
belong to Spain — To France — To Denmark — To Holland — To Sweden — 
To England.— Compare Cuba with Tennessee. — Tell its population. — Wliich 
is the largest city in the West Indies ? — For what is it noted ? — Name some of 







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A N I M A I. AND VEGETABLE L 1 J' E c J E >( I I ' T II A M E li I <^ A . 


South America. (Map, p. 102.) 

1. Shajye and Bxtent. — South America is triarifjn- 
lar in shape and lies partly in botli hemispheres, but by 
far the largest part of it is included within the tropics 
and in the southern hemisphere. 

The narrowest part ot North America and tue broadest 
part of South America lie between the tropics. 

As you recede from the Troi)ic of Cancer toward the 
North Pole, our continent gets broader and broader ; as 
you recede from the southern tropic toward the South 
Pole, South America gets narrower and narrower. 

The area of South America is 0,961,864 square miles, 
and the area of North America is 8,851,728 square 

2. Comparative Geof/i'aj^Jiy.—The great river of 
North America runs from North to South ; the great 
river of South America runs from west to east 

The Mississippi is extra-tropical. "With every degree 
of latitude in its course from north to south, it changes 
its climate; and with climate, production and industry 

The Amazon is inter-tropical. It runs from west to 
east. It marks no change of climate, and the variety of 
production and industry along its banks is such only as 

is due to the change of height above the sea, as it 
flows eastwardly from the mountains to the ocean. 

Consequently, these two rivei-s already present conditions for striking con- 
trasts in their geographical relations and commercial aspects. 

The lessons of our science teach us to expect that when tliese two, the most 
magnificent river-basins in the world, shall be occupied, eacJi according to its 
cai)acity, the Mississippi will excel in way-business — the Ai'jazon in throurjh- 

3. Mountains and Rivers. — The Andes skirt the 
shores of the Pacific all the way from Patagonia to 
Panama, and give to the Atlantic slopes of South America 
a breadth of area that comprises 15-16ths of the whole 

Consequently, all the great rivers of South America are diained toward 
the east and empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The waters tiiat are diaiiicil 
off into the Pacific are only mountain-streams that are fed by the meliinj; 
snows on the western slopes of the Andes. (See p. 96.) 

4. Early Civilization. — What Montezuma and the 
Aztecs were to Mexico, the Indians, under Atahuali)a. 
were to Peru. 

What Cortez did to the former, Pizarro did to the 
latter. He claimed the whole of South America, as 
Cortez did of North America, for their master, the King 
of Spain. 

The Peruvians had beasts of burden, as the llama; the Aztecs had none, 
nor any other domestic animal. The Peruvians had i>ublic highways and paved 
roads. The remains of the great road from Quito to Cuzco, and thence along 
the plateau of the Andes to Chili, like tlie Appiaii Way to Ilome, arc still to 
be seen. This road was cimstructed, for nearly 1000 miles, over paililess 
heights buried in snow ; galleries were cut for leagues through the living rock ; 


ravines were crossed by suspension bridges ; precipices were scaled by means 
of stairways hewn in their steep sides ; stone pillars were set up as mile-stones 
by the wayside to mark the distance. The breadth of this magnificent road 
was 20 feet ; it was paved with heavy flags, and covered in some parts with 
bituminous cement. 

The Peruvians had also temples, fortresses, terraced 
gardens, and aqueducts ; superb palaces and splendid 

In Cuzco was their great temple of the sun, the most magnificent struc- 
ture in the New World, and in its day far sui'passing, for the costliness of 
decoration, any edifice in Europe. For the royal baths the water was con- 
ducted into bisins of gold through subterranean channels of silver. 

Cuzco, like the city of Mexico, on a table-land, is overlooked by snow-clad 
mountains, and stands 11,800 feet above the level of the sea. 

o. TJie Three Great Inland Basin S' — It is worthy 
of the geographer's notice that there are but three great 
inland basins in the New World: that of Cuzco, with Lake 
Titicaca ; that of Mexico, with Lake Tezcuco ; and the 
Lii-eat inland basin of North America, which includes 
L'tah, New Mexico, and Nevada, with the great Salt 
Lake. Of all parts of the continent, these inland basins 
most abound in the ruins of empires and in the memorials 
of ancient civilizations. 

6*. I*hfjsical Geof/rajjJit/ of Intertropical America. 
— The physical geography of all of intertropical America 
is alike. 

Witliin this region soil and climate are found that are adapted to all the 
great agricultural staples of the world. Cotton, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, 
tea; the poppy, the banana, and potato ; hemp of several kinds, flax, cochineal, 
indigo, wheat, rice, corn, incense, gums, spices, perfumes, drugs, medicines, 
dye-stuiTs, and ornamental woods; with boundless pastures for herds and 
cattle of all sorts ; all these abound in this favored country as they do no- 
where else. Cochineal is a dye ; the insect feeds on cactus plants. 

Therefore, in telling of the agricultural i)roductions of 
one of these intertropical States, we describe the agricul- 
tural resources of them all. 

Quest ions. — 1, What is the area of the two Americas? — Of their Islands? 
— Compare North and South America. — Show their points of reseniblanc(! and 
contrast. 2. Compare the largest rivers.— Describe the influence which 
the course oi a river has upon its commerce. — Why should you expect the 
river traffic on the Mi.ssissijjpi always to surpass that of the Amazon? 
.'{. On wliicli side of Uie Andes are its largest rivers? — Into what ocean do 
fliey flow ? 4. How did the Peruvians compare in civilization with the 
Aztr-cs of Mexico?— Had tlie aborigines of America any beasts of burden? 
— Who was the ruling Inca when Pizarro invaded Peru ? 

.5. Describe tlie three American Inland Basins, and tell for what they 
lie remarkable. (I. What is said of the physical geography of intertropical 
America ?— What are the productions of the soil ? 


Equatorial South America. (Map, p. 102.) 
The United States of Colombia. 

These States have a population of 2,900,000, and an 
area of 357,000 square miles. They are, in size, equal 
to Texas and New Mexico combined. 

The United States of Colombia, like British America 
and the United States, extend from sea to sea, ind em- 
brace Panama, with its railway, which is one of the chief 
sources of revenue to the State, and which, by treaty 
with the United States, is bound to be neutral in war. 

The farmers there grow corn, sugar, coffee, cocoa, and 
tobacco ; but they produce not much more of these than 
is required for the scanty home consumption. 

C;ii'tagena {car-ta-jeena) was once a great commercial 
mart of Spain. 

A few miles back from it, in the interior, is a group of those curious phe- 
nomena, the air volcanoes. They are truncated cones, about 25 feet high, 
filled with water. The plain on whieh they stand is about 10,000 feet above 
the sea. 

This city is the principal seaport of the Colombian 
States. In the colonial times it was a place of consider- 
able importance, but now its tenantless houses and deso- 
late streets show that not much business is done on its 

From Panama we get straw hats and grass hammocks, 
and these, with a little chocolate, are the chief manu- 
factures that come from these States. 

There are no manufacturing establishments of consequence in any part 
of intertroi)ical South America, except in the fiistmjsses of the mountains, 
where transportation of merchandise from the sea becomes very costly. 

Bogota, with a population of 45,000, the capital of the 
United States of Colombia, is situated 8,700 feet above 
the sea-level. It has two rainy seasons annually, so its 
climate all the year round is as charming and delightful 
as the month of May is with us. 

Persons at Bogota have only about three-fourths as much atmosphere 
above them as we have. The diminished pressure caused bj' this is often, at 
first, very distressing to strangers. The feeling is like that caused by a short- 
ness of breath. Indeed, owing to the diminished pressure, at great eleva- 
tions, the blood often gushes from the eyes, mouth, and ears of travellers 
who ascend the neighboring snow-capped peaks. 

In these mountains are found the two natural bridges 
of the Icononzo, which span a foaming torrent — one at 
the distance of 250, and the other 300 feet above. 

Silver, gold, and precious stones are found among the 
mountains in these States. 


Venezuela is about three times the size of the Islands 
of Great Britain and Ireland ])ut together. It contains 
2 200,000 inhabitants, including 50,000 Indians, and has 
an area of 368,220 square miles. 

The early Spanish explorers, observing that the natives had built their 
houses on piles along the shores, called the country Venezuela or "Little 

It is traversed by the Orinoco river. It does not extend as far back as the 
crest of the Andes, and is therefore less mountainous than the United States 
of Colombia. 



Venezuela is a prairie country. More than two-thirds 
of it, it is computed, consists of llanos (prairies), upon 
which immense herds of cattle constantly feed. 

These llanos (lyah'rws) lie mostly on the left bank of the Orinoco ; forests 
occupy the right bank, and extend tlience toward the south, where they min- 
gle with the selvas of the Amazon. 

A vast extent of these plains is annually overflowed. In the rainy season 
the low flat country of the Orinoco becomes, like the borders of the lower 
Nile, a boundless sea. Tliese waters teem with creepinij things: with alli- 
gators, reptiles, and the curious fish known as the electrical eel. Horses, when 
fording the pools, are sometimes knocked down by the latter. 

In the dry season verdant plains become barren wastes. The cattle 
wander for pasture off to the hills ; the ponds dry up, and the alligators 
bury tliemselves in the mud to hibernate till the coming of tlie next rainy 
season, when they may be seen coming up like hideous spectres from the 
bowels of the earth. 

The tides ascend the Orinoco to the distance of more 
than 200 miles ; above that, for a considerable distance, 
it is navigable. 

It was somewhere on the banks of the Orinoco that the vivid imagination 
of the early discoverers placed the gilded king, El Dorado, and his golden city 
of Manoa. 

The flora of Venezuela is wonderfully rich and varied. 
A species of mimosa grows wild there, which spreads 
out its umbrella-shaped top until it attains the enormous 
l)roportions of se¥eral hundred feet in circumference. 

Tlie "cow-tree" is also found in Venezuela; the natives Uip it and draw 
from it a milk-like beverage. 

Growing wild in its forest and U|)()n its llanos, there are iT} kinds of 
medicinal plants, 3G that yield gunis and resins, and 240 kinds of trees that 
yield excellent dye-stuffs or atford fine timber. In addition to these, 180 
kinds of useful plants and vegetables are cultivated for food and domestic use. 

The inhabitants produce for export, but in (luantities 
by no means large, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, cotton, 
and indigo ; and their herds yield for the West India 
markets jerked beef and hides. 

Caracas, the capital, with a population of about 
40,000, is a city famed for its elegant hospitality. 

It stands on the seashore, 3,000 feet above the water, and immediately in 
the rear is the "Silla"' (tlw saddle), which, with it^ two peaks, readies the lieight 
of 8,600 feet. They may be seen many miles out at sea, and are well known 
landmarks to the navigator. 

Caracas was the birthplace of Bolivar, sometimes called the Liberator, the 
Washington of South America. Varinas is noted for its tobacco. 

All this part of the countrj', as indeed are many other 
parts of America, is subject to earthquakes. 
Caracas was visited and well-nigh destroyed by one in 

Maracaybo is a fine old town, with 20,000 inhabitants. 
It lies within the air-volcano region spoken of in a 
former paragraph. 

Asphaltum and petroleum in large quantities have been cast up, and the 
" Lantern of Maracaybo" is a volcano lit up with petroleum prepared in the 
laboratories of nature. It serves as a lighthouse. 

Cumana was the most ancient city in South America. 


It declined with the industry of the country, and in 1853 its ruin was com- 
pleted by an earthquake. 

Ciudad Bolivar is situated on the Orinoco, 240 miles 
above its mouth, and is an active place of business. 

It was there that this standard-bearer in the Spanish Revolution assembled 
the first Venezuelan Congress. 

The Three Guyanas. 
These three provinces belong respectively to the 
ish, French, and Dutch. They are the only por- 
tions of South America that remain in the possession of 
any European power. 

Together they are about the size of California, with an aggiegate popu- 
lalion of 246,000 ; viz., Hritisii Guyana, 103,000 ; French, 58,000 ; Dutcli, 
25,000. Here the rainfall is greater than it is in any oth(;r part of the world, 
except on the Khasia Hills and at Cherrapungee in India. The Great Kaie- 
teur Waterfall is on a tributaiy of the Essequibo in British Guyana. It was 
discovered in 1870. It makes a clear leap of 822 feet where the river is 123 
yards broad and 15 feel deep. The surrounding scenery is unique and pic- 
turesque, nuide so by a succession of long, flat-topi)ed mountains lising 
abrujitly from the plain, with precipitous sides like walls of masonry. Of, Mt. Horaima is the most remarkable. It is 18 miles long and 7,500 
feet high. The Essequibo, Orinoco, and Amazon, all have tributaries which 
take their rise on these singular elevations. They gather strength as they 
go, and, dashing down the mountain-sides, form a succession of the most 
beautiful cascades and waterfalls, some of which accomplish a leap of 1,500 
feet at a bound. 

The coast country is low and flat. It is a continuation of the swamp-belt 
which skirts the seaboard all tlie way from tlie Dismal Swamp in Virginia 
through Mexico and Central and South America, till you pass the Delta of 
the Amazon. In all parts of this belt, but especially here, the air is filled with 
insects, vegetation is rank, and the forests teem with wild dogs, tiger-cats, 
armadilloes, deer, sloth, ant-eaters, wild boars, raccoons, opossums, etc. ; the 
tree-tops are lively with songsters, gay witli jjarasites, air-plants, and flowers, 
and noisy with howling monkeys, preaching monkeys, weeping monkeys, 
and monkeys of various other species. 

In lowlands of intertropical America, as in the jungles of India, the 
forests are so thick set with trees and undergrowth, and so interwoven with 
vines, parasites, and air-plants, that the only way of getting through Uiem 
is to go by the watercourses in a canoe, and, unless you use the axe, you 
may travel a whole dsy without finding room on the banks to land, or a 
place among the trees large enough to light a lire upon. The interior is un- 

It was on the upper waters of tlie Berblce (hcrlx-.i) River tliat the mag- 
nificent water-lily (Victoria Regia) was first discovered in 1837. Its leaves 
lie on the water like broad and shallow dishes ; they are large enough to 
float a child ; the flower is fragrant, white, and beautiful. 

Tlie Guyanas are inhabited by Negroes, Indians, and Europeans. 

The streams and rivers in the tide-water region of this country are deep 
and shiggisii— a sure sign that the country lies low, is flat, and has but little 
fall fiir drainage. 

The products are sugar, cocoa, and coffee, most of 
which is consumed in Europe. 

The capitals are the largest towns ; they are- 
Georgetown Population 25,000 

Paramaribo " 20,000 

Cayenne (from which we get the pepper) " 8,000 

Ecuador is the Spanish for Equator. The Equator 
passes through this Republic, hence its name. 



Ecuador, with Venezuela and New Grenada, once 
formed the Republic of Colombia. Torn by faction 
and civil war, they separated about 30 years ago, and 
set up each a nationality of its own. 

The climates and capacity for production are similar to 
those of the United States of Colombia. 

Ecuador, with a population of 1,300,000, of which 
one-third are Indians, 8,000 negroes, and 37,000 mixed 
breeds, is fine for fruits and flowers. It is not so large 
as Texas. 

Quito, its capital, having a population of 80,000, is situ- 
ated 9,528 feet above the level of the sea. It lies at the 
foot of Pichincha, a volcanic mountain 18,976 feet high, 
with a crater half a mile deep. 

No less than eleven peaks, all white with their snow-caps, are in full view 
from the Plaza, or great public square of tliis city. 

Guayaquil, having a population of 18,000, is the port 
of Quito, and the principal seaport town of the Republic. 
From it are exported hides, straw hats, grass hammocks, 
timber, cacao, Peruvian bark, and tobacco. 

It is situated on the Guayaquil river, which is navigable thence to the sea 
for large vessels. The watere and shores of this stream, wliere there is no 
winter to freeze or to chill, are very prolific. The branches which hang in 
the river are often loaded with oysters, whicli cling to them as they do to tlie 
rocks — hence it is said that in Guayaquil " oysters grow on trees." Iguanos, 
alligators, and reptiles abound. Tlie natives on the banks of this river build 
tlieir liutson piles, to prevent tiieir children from being devoured by these 

It is here that you see the bud, the blossom, and the delicious fruit on the 
orange-tree all at the same time. 

There is a famous old University at Cuenpa ; and 
Loxa, which is 6,760 feet above the sea, was once famed 
for its cinchona forests. 

The bark of the cinchona-tree is the well-known 
" Peruvian bark" of commerce, and yields to the phar- 
maco[)ia of our times the valuable medicine of quinine. 

Instead of cutting down the tree, stripping all the bark from the trunk, and 
leaving the stump to put out a new growtli, tlie custom among those thrift- 
less people was to strip the tree as it stood, as high as they could reach, and 
then leave it standing with most of its bark still upon it. All trees left in 
tliat condition are attacked by a worm that destroys tliem root and branch. 

This tree is indigenous to the eastern slopes of the 
Andes, from Bolivia to the United States of Colombia, 
and to no other part of the world. 

The cinchona forests are nearly all destroyed. 

The hamlet of Antisana, at the height of 13,500 feet, 
was long thought to be the highest human habitation on 
the earth ; but there are in Peru inhabited places much 
liigher, such as the village of Tacora, which is 196 feet 
higher, and the Relay House of Rumihuasi, in Peru, 
15,540 feet. This station is situated at the edge of the 

At the Equator the snow-line is 16,000 feet above 

the level of the sea. Beyond that height the air is too 
attenuated for long-continued human existence. 

There is about the Equator in this Republic a group 
of remarkable mountain-peaks. 

Among them is the dome-shaped Chimborazo, one of nature's most impos- 
ing structures, standing at the enormous elevation of four miles in perpen- 
dicular height above the level of the sea. The Andes also have higher peaks 
than Chimborazo. 

Mariners have descried this mountain at the distance of more than one 
hundred miles out at sea, and by moonlight the author has seen it at the 
distance of ninety miles. 

Last in this wonderful arra}"" of burning mountains, 
with their layers of colored snow, we come to the terrific 
and awfully grand Cotopaxi, the loftiest volcano of the 


It is near the Equator, and stands in perpendicular 
height 18,870 feet above the surface of the sea. 

In its eruptions, and with a noise that is said to have 
been heard at the distance of six hundred miles, it shoots 
out a column of flame into the upper air half a mile 

All the way from the Straits of Magellan up, theie is, arranged along on 
the tops of the Andes, like a line of sentinels, a succession of these snow- 
capped volcanoes. 

The Galapagos Islands, situated -under ''the /u/e,"* 
belong to Ecuador ; they are the only inhabitable group 
of islands in the Pacific Ocean that were uninhabited at 
the time of their discovery. 

Quesfious. — What are tlie area and population of the United States 
of Colombia? — In wlial country does the Panama railway lie? — What do 
we get from Panama? — What are the chief agricultural staples for which 
the climates of these States are adapted? — Wliere are the chief branches of 
manufecture in South America? — Describe the air volcanoes. 

What is the capital of the United States of Colombia? — What is iis 
I)opulation ? — What is said of Bogota and the ascent of its surrounding 
peaks ? 

Describe their climate. — What inconvenience do travellers experience 
when they ascend high mountains? 

What are the mineral resources of the United States of Colombia ? 

What are the area and population of Venezuela? — What large river has 
it? — How does tlie face of the country compare with that of the United 
States of Colombia ? — What are its chief sources of wealth ? — What are tiie 
Llanos? — Describe tlie seasons. — Tlie overflowing of the Orinoco. — The 
aspect of the country in the rainy season, and then in the diy. 

Describe the flora of Venezuela, with the mimosa and the "cow-tree." — 
What does Venezuela export? 

What is the population or the capital? — Describe the sUla of Caracas. — 
Wliat place in Venezuela is celebrated for its tobacco? — For what is Caracas 
celebrated? — Tell about the ancient city of Cumana, and the celebritji of tlie 
Ciudad Bolivar. 

What are theGuyanas?— Describe the Guyinas and tell their size.— What 
is their population ?—TIieir climate and productions ?— Describe the rivers 
and the rainfall of that part of this country.— Describe the forests and rivers 
of these countries, with the beasts, birds, fish, and reptiles that are found in 
them. — Wliat celebrated flowering-plant was first discovered in the Berbice ? 
—Can you tell anything about the Victoria Kegia? — By whom are the Gui- 
anas inhabited? — What is the population of their capitals? — What do we 
get from there ? 

* The Equator is called by pailorg " the line." 



How does Ecuador derive its name? — What is tlie port of Quito? — What 
paradox does the Guayaquil river present? — Which city is situated at tlie 
greatest height above the sea, Mexico, Bogota, or Quito? — Describe tlie situa- 
tion of Quito. — Describe the situation of Guayaquil. — Tell its exports. — Tell 
about the river and the country-houses on its banks. — What is the chinchona- 
tree ?— Describe these Stated in their orographical aspects.— (The scholar 
may examine, at this point, the Orograjjhic View of the Valley of the 
Amazon, p. 9G). 


Equatorial South Amoxica. 


The chief magistrate of Brazil is the only ruler in 
America that wears a crown. 

This empire lies between the parallels of 4° north 
latitude and 30° south latitude. For geniality of cli- 
mate, breadth of border, and capacity for production, it 
is surpassed by no country on the globe. 

With an area (3,230,000 square miles) ,arger than 
that of the United States without Alaska, Brazil has a 
little more than one-fourth as many inhabitants as we 
have. It is a limited monarchy. 

Brazil was accidentally discovered by a Portuguese navigator in the year 
1500. He was bound to India, and, much against his will, was drifted to the 
westward by the trade-wind, and found himself on a lee-shore near Cape St. 

Owing to this circumstance Portugal asserted her rights as a discoverer, 
and Brazil became a Portuguese po-ssession, and was colonized by Portugal. 
Its inhabitants are of ditferent races and of mixed bloods. 

The " King of Rivers," as the Indians call the Amazon, diains the largest 
imrtion of Brazil. 


This river has tributaries that in their course traverse more parallels of 
latitude than the Mississippi does. The La Plata, too, has its head-waters in 
this empire. There is a gentleman iu the province of Matte O rosso who has 
in his garden two never-failing springs. One flows northwardly, into the 

Amazon, tlie other soutliwardl3% into the La Plata, and the distance between 
the navigable waters of these two rivers is only some three leagues, so that 
if a canal were cut across tliis portage, inland navigation would be possible 
from Buenos Ayres, up the La Plata into the Madeira, thence into the 
Amazon and the Rio Negro, thence through the Cassiquiare into the Orinoco. 

The language of the country is Portuguese, and the religion, like that of 
all Sjjanish America, the Roman Catholic. 

Its principal industries are agricultural, pastoral, and mining. 

Coffee, at present, is the great agricultural staple, and the United States 
the principal consumer of it. Both Europe and the United States are sup- 
plied with this berry mainly by Brazil. 

Indigo, sugar, mandioc, and cotton are by no means unimportant articles 
of cultivation and export. 

The cotton of Brazil ranks, in the Liverpool markets, with our own, wiiicli 
is the most esteemed ot any. 

Cattle, as in the La Plata country, are raised chiefly 
for their horns and bones, hides and tallow, large quan- 
tities of which are brought to the United States. 

The richest gold-mines in the world are in Brazil, 
which also has diamond-mines, and precious stones of 
rare beauty and great value, with exhaustless treasures 
of the baser metals, such as copper, zinc, lead, iron, etc. 

The diamond-mines are in the province of Miuas Geraes. 

Besides cattle, the plains and forests of Brazil abound in birds and insects 
of the most brilliant casques and beautiful plumage. 

The catching of them, for ornament;il work, is a special branch of indus- 
try. The feather-work from the convents of Brazil is famed for its elegance. 

From the forests of Brazil we get our chief supi)lies of 
india-rubber. The best comes from the Amazon. 

Other gums, spices, nuts, perfumes, drugs, ))alsams, 
and medicines, such as rhubarb, sarsaparilla, jalap, 
sassafras, holy wood, dragon's blood, licorice, and 
ginger, amounting to a large sum in value, are likewise 
exported from Para. 

-- -- — — —- Brazil, consider- 
ing its extent, is one 
of the most abun- 
dantly watered 
r " ^ countries in the 

world. Tlie num- 
ber and length of the 
rivers indicate this. 

The waters of the Ama- 
zon abound in a species of 
turtle tliat is highly es- 
teemed as an article of food, 
and valued on account of 
tlie oil obtained from its eggs. 
At the laying season it 
scrapes a hole in the sand 
in which a single terrajiin 
will deposit a half-bushel or 
more of eggs ; it then fills up 
the hole with sand and 
leaves them to hatch by the 
warmth of the sun. The egg-hunters collect many millions of them annually. 

On the banks of the Amazon the boa-constrictor and 
alligators are abundant, and all along its borders vines 




and parasites cover the trees and make the woods gay 
with the most beautiful flowers. Parrots build their 
nests, and other birds sing among the branches of the 
trees, which are so closely matted together that the 
monkeys may travel for days on the tree-tops without 
ever coming to the ground. 

The valley drained by the Amazon contains an area 
of 1,796,000 square miles. 

The Cassiquiare (cah-see-kcc-ah're) forks, one branch flowing; north into 
the Orinoco, the other south into the Amazon. It unites these two river 
systems, and brings the valleys drained by them into one hydrographic basin. 

If, therefore, we include the valley of the Orinoco, 
we have, in South America, a river basin that contains 
more than two millions of square miles. 

Belgium has a population of 440 persons to the square mile. According 
to this rate, there is room in this maguiticum livur basin for more than 
800,000,000 of people. 

There is a line of steamers on the Amazon that ply 
regularly between Para, at its mouth, and Nauta in Peru. 
(See Map, p. 96.) 

The Madeira is its largest tributary. Its navigability 
is interrupted by rapids at the distance of about 1000 
miles from its mouth. Above these falls it is again 
navigable for five hundred miles or more. 

Rio (le Janeiro, generally called Rio— tlic capital of tlic cnii)iie, and 
its cliief city— with a population of 420,000, aud a harbor unsurpassed, is 
the largest city in the Southern Hemisphere ; and, with its museums, its 
institutions of learning, its operas, prados, public promenades, and botanical 
gardens, is the most splendid capital in the New World. 

Bahia, with a population of 150,000 ; Pernambuco, of 
120,000; and Para, of 10,000, are the other chief towns 
in Brazil. 

The United States have a large trade with Brazil. 

Questions. — Between what parallels of latitude does Brazil lie ? — De- 
scribe it. — When and how was it discoverd ? — By wlioni was it settled ? — By 
whom is it now peopled ? — What is its form of government? — Describe the 
climates and productions of Brazil. — Describe the garden springs of Matte 
Qrosso. — Suppose a voyager should undertake to go in a canoe, by inland nav- 
igatiou, from the mouth of the La Plata to the mouth of the Orinoco, what 
route would he take, and what portage would he make? — Wliat are the lan- 
guage, the religion, and the chief industries of Bn<zil ?— What are its staple 
productions ? — What do we get from there ? — Where are the richest gold- 
mines in the world? — What other metals and precious stones are found there? 
— Where are the diamond-mines ? — Name the principal articles that we get 
from Brazil. — What reptiles do you find in this warm and moist countr}' ? — 
Describe the forests.— How large is the Valley of the Amazon ? — What river 
unites it with the Orinoco ? — Ho^^• large is the hydrographic basin thus 
formed ? — Sui)pose it to he as thickly settled as Belgium, what would be its 
l)opulation ? — How far is tlie Aniazon navigated by steamers ? — What is its 
largest tributary? — Describe the face of this country. — What is the capital of 
Brazil? — Describe the harbor of Rio. — Name some of tlie chief towns, with 
their population. — Have we much trade with Brazil? 



The Andean States of South America (See Map, p. 102.) 

Ecuador, like the United States of Coloml)ia and Peru, 
lies on both sides of the Andes. Each of the three con- 
tains, as Bolivia does, a large area of table-land, which 
is dotted with volcanoes and snow-capped mountains. 

The base of these 
mountains rests on 
this table-land, which 
is itself from 6,000 
to 12,000 feet above 
the sea. 

Of course, then, all four 
of these countries have every 
variety of climate that can 
be found in other parts of 
tlie world, between the re- 
gions of eternal frost and 
everlasting spring. 

In our country 
these Climates are 
spread out horizon- 
tally, and extend 
along the seaboard 
all the way from the 
Gulf of Mexico to 
the icy regions of the 



In these four countries, they are not stretched out, 
but piled up one above the other. 

People here who want to go to a warm climate are sure to find it in the 
plains below ; those who desire a more bracing air have but to climb the 
mountain-sides a little way, and they find it 

The Amazon rises in Lake Lauricocha, on the top of 
the Andes. It, with its tributaries, the Huallaga [Jiwal- 
yaJi'gali) and the Ucajale {oo-ki-ah'ld), rises each in a 
valley of its own ; they then take a northerly course 
for sevei'al hundred miles before the}" come to a gap 
in the Cordilleras ; here they break into falls and 
rapids which obstruct navigation. The}" then unite 
into a gentle but mighty stream, fertilizing the plains 
below and conveying to the sea food for its inhabitants. 

The Ucayale, with its windings, is said to be navigable for 1,200 miles 
above its junction with the Amazon, thus showing how gently this mountain- 
valley, which is drained by it, slopes toward the north. 

These three streams show that the Andean pla- 
teau is laid off by nature into a series of parterres and 
terraces, each containing areas of hundreds of square 
miles, and rejoicing in a climate singularly equable. 

[The following is a list of names corresponding to their respective num- 
bers, as found ou the Orographic view of the Amazon Valley : 

1. Bogota. 

2. Quito. 

3. Ctiimborazo. 

4. Laku Lauricocha. 

5. Lima. 

fi. Lake Titicaca. 

Arrows show oceiiu currents. 

7. Cii7,C0. 

S. Paramaribo. 

9. Cayenm;. 

10. Para. 

11. Pernambuco. 

12. Bahia. 

13. Rio. 

14. Llanos of Orinoco. 

15. Tablelands of Brazil. 
10. Itambe. 

17. Nauta. 

Note. — Let the pupil be required to pause and without the aid of tlie 
numbers, point out each and every i)lace indicated in tlie above view. Es 
pecially let him endeavor to .ascertain Uie gradation of ascent he would make 
in going from the mouth of Uie Amazon to Lakes Lauricocha and Titicaca. 

A clear understanding of the orography of a country is a prerequisite to 
any knowledge of its general geography, as also to the first attempts at Maj) 

Tlius, a traveller ascending the Amazon would leave the hot climate of 
the main stream, and find in the valley of the Ucayale a spring-climate all 
the year long. Climbing the next step and passing on into the valley of llie 
Huallaga, a milder climate still would await him. Ascending thence into llie 
valley of this Upper Amazon proper, he would find himself in a superb wheat, 
corn, cattle, hemp, and tobacco country, with cool nights, rare frost, bright 
skies, and pleasant days at all seasons. 

In ascending the Amazon from its mouth, you um <i 
with no falls or I'apids until 3'^ou pass Nauta, in Pern. 

From latitude 30° north to latitude 30" south the 
prevailing direction of the winds all around the world 



is eastwardly. Between these parallels the trade-winds 
blow : north of the Equator, they are from the northeast ; 
south of the Equator, they are from the southeast. 
! Examine the map and you will see that, owing to the 
shape of the Atlantic coast of South America, the north- 
east trade-winds which thus come from the sea strike the 
coast perpendicularly ; so also do the southeast trades. 
Both systems of winds, when they reach the land, being 
fresh from the sea, are reeking with moisture. As they 
pass on into the interior, they ascend the great Ama- 
zonian watershed, and deposit their moisture. 

The rivers show by their number that all the way from the sea up to 
the Andes this is a well-watered country. (See Orographic View, p. 96.) 

These winds, as they ascend, get cooler and cooler, 
and as they cool they drop down their moisture in the 
shape of rain, hail, or snow, and finally reaching the 
snowy heights of the Cordilleras, they pass over to the 
western slopes completely robbed of moisture. Every 
drop of water has been wrung from them while crossing 
the Andes, and you see it returning back eastwardly to 
the sea in the shape of mountain streams, winding 
brooks, and majestic watercourses. 

These winds, passing the Andes as dry winds, have no moisture for the 
western slopes, which are therefore rainless, and quite different from the 
eastern slopes in climate and physical aspects. 

The eastern slopes are clothed with trees and verdure. 
The western slopes in Peru are parched and dry : they 
are as bare and as naked as the rock. 

The Peruvians who dwell between the Andes and the shores of the 
Pacific depend upon the mountain-streams, formed by the melting snows of 
the Cordilleras, for water, both for drinking and for irrigating their fields. 
Cultivation is carried on there entirely by irrigation. 

This rainless country of Peru is, wherever there is 
water, like a conservatory without glass. It produces 
[he most beautiful flowers and delicious fruits, and has 
a climate that for health and comfort is unsurpassed. 

Wherever there is the scent of water, eveiy plant, fruit, and flower that 
the most skilful gardener can cultivate in the greenhouse flourishes here. 

Sweet potatoes require to be planted only once in 
seven years ; beans, once in six. They produce con- 

The cotton and tobacco-stalks are perennial ; they 
grow, and bud and boll all the year, and the cotton- 
plant stands on the banks of the streams like bushes in 
the wood. 

Thus you observe the physical relations between 
mountains and rivers, shore-lines and winds. 

Had the Andes been placed by the Creator on the east instead of along the 
west coast, the whole of intertropical South America to the westward of 
them would have been an arid desert. 

Had they been placed so as to lie east and west, instead nf north and 

south, there would have been no Amazon ; and the physical aspects of this 
beautiful country would have been quite different from what they are. 

Oysters abound in the Guayaquil {gwi-ah-keel') river; but south of that the 
situation of the Andes with regard to the winds and the sea-shore is such as 
to deny thfe sea fresh water enough to make brackish bays, and creeks where 
the oyster can live. Therefore the fish markets of Peru, Bolivia, and uorlhern 
Chili are without oysters. 

South of latitude 40° the prevailing winds are from the 
west, and there the condition of things is reversed ; there 
the western side is the rainy,and the eastern the dry side. 


Peru is more than twice the size of Texas. It has an 
area of 510,000 square miles, and a population of 

All of Peru west of the Andes is rainless. 

The sea along this rainless part of the coast is also 
the most gentle part of the ocean. It is never ruffled by 
a storm. Therefore remember that rainless shores are 
washed by stormless seas. 

The mines of Potosi and Pasco, with others in Peru, 
yielded in colonial times a fabulous amount of silver. 

Silver was then used there as the baser metals are with us : tires of car- 
riage-wheels, horseshoes, and the commonest household utensils were of 
solid silver. 

I have seen there, in the early days of independence, clouted Indians 
sitting at dinner on the dirt floor of their hut, around a massive silver dish, 
all dipping and eating without the aid of knife, fork, or spoon. 

The Andes of Peru are exceedingly rich in silver, 
quicksilver, copper, lead, and iron. 

Guano, in the abundance and quality of which Peru surpasses all the 
world, has recently come extensively into use as an agricultural manure. 
The Chincha Islands, which lie in sight of the coast, are covered with it. 
Nature has piled it up there in a merchantable form, all ready for market. 

The government now derives a clear revenue of some $10,000,000 or 
$12,000,000 annually from the sale of this fertilizer, and the quantity con- 
tained on these islands is worth, at present prices, nearly $400,000,000. 

On the Andes of Peru and Bolivia are found in 
great numbers what is called the " Peruvian sheep." 
It is not really a sheep, but a species of camel. It con- 
sists of four varieties, the llama, the alpaca, the vicugna 
{ve-koon'yah), and the guanaco. 

The exports of Peru consist first, of guano, which is 
the largest and most valuable item, to which may be 
added the wool and hair of the " Peruvian sheep ;" bul- 
lion, cotton of excellent staple ; a few gums and drugs; 
a little sugar, cocoa, coffee. 

Lima, the capital, has a fine library, a noble cathedral, 
and 54 churches and convents, all Roman Catholic. It 
was founded by Pizarro, in 1534, and contains his re- 
mains. It is seven miles from Callao, its port. 




Lima is a fine old Spanish city, with a population of 

Cuzco, with its 47,000 inhabitants, renowned for its 
Temple of the Sun, and its ancient glory as the capital of 
the Incas, is the second city of importance ; and Arequi- 
pa [ar-e-ke'pah)f with a population of 20,000, is the next-. 

AREQUXtA IN 1868. 

The great volcano of Arequipa, a truncated cone, rises 
on the outskirts of the city to the height of 20,320 feet. 

In August, 1868, a fearful earthquake visited the 
City of Arequipa, and nearly destroyed it. 

Pasco is celebrated for its silver mines ; Pisco for its grapes and whisky ; 
and Huasco lor its white and transparent raisins. 

The inhabitants of Peru, like those of most of the 
Spanish American Republics and Brazil, consist chiefly 
of Indians and mixed breeds. 


The physical geography of Peru is 
repeated in Bolivia, which, with a popu- 
lation of 1,987,000, and an area of 
536,000 square miles, is six times the 
size of Great Britain. (Refer to Oro- 
graphic View, p. 90.) 

It was named in honor of the South 
American "Liberator," Bolivar. 

Most of Bolivia that lies on the east- 
ern slopes of the Andes is a wilderness. 
It is above the falls of the rivers that 
are tributary to the Amazon and the La 
Plata, and of course is cut off from the 
Atlantic. The climates and productions 

of this part of Bolivia may be said to include those of all 

the habitable portions of the globe. 

Here, one seated at the foot of a mountain, and surrounded with the luscious 
fruits of the ti-opics, may, casting his eyes up toward the snow-capped peak 
above him, take in at one view the whole range of the vegetable kingdom. 

You can see, by looking at the map, that Bolivia has 
only a narrow strip of sea-coast, which practically is of 
no value. It is at the head of the great Desert of Ata- 
eama {a-ta-ca'mah), and forms a part of it. 

To avoid the })ort-dues and custom-house charges of 
Peru, Bolivia resorted to the expedient of making Coblja, 
which is an open roadstead, a free port. 

A free port is a port where there is no custom-house, and no duty to pay. 

Coca is })roduced in Bolivia and Peru, and is found 
nowhere else. 

This plant is used by the natives somewhat as the betel-nut is used in the 
Eiist Indies, and as tobacco is used with us ; but it is said to possess virtues 
which are not claimed for either of the others. 

The leaf is chewed with unslaked lime, as the betel is, and those « lio use 
it can go several days witlioul fatigue, thirst, hunger, or sleep. 

In Cochabamba, we find a number of manufactories 
of cotton fabrics and glass-ware. In La Paz, the largest 
city in the Republic, there are manufactories of hats 
and woollens from the fleece of the Peruvian sheep. 

Sucre, the capital, standing 9,300 feet above the sea, 
has a splendid cathedral, a school of mines, and excellent 

Potosi, in its palmy days, when the mines in its 
vicinity were so profitably worked, numbered 130,000 
inhabitants. It is 13,314 feet above the sea. 

No city was ever before built at an elevation so high. Bince the miiic-s 
have ceased to be worked it lias sadly fiiUen off, and now it is estimatert to 
contain not more than 30,000 inhabitants. 



Lake Titicaca reposes, with its brackish waters, at 
the height of 13,000 feet above the level of the sea. 

Here the atmospliere is so attenuated and its pressure so diminislied, that 
the lifting-pump, which will raise water from the wells along the sea-shore to 
the height of 32 feet, will not raise it from this lake more than 20 feet high. 

The temperature at which water boils is used to de- 
termine the height of mountains. The higher you go 
the more easily water boils ; so that on the top of the 
highest mountains, water that is boiling-hot is not much 
more than milk-wann. 

Under this diminished ])ressure evaporation is enor- 
mously active. It takes up and carries off the water 
from the lake as fast as the rivers pour it in. 

The lake, with its islets, its shores, and surroimdiiigs, is a picture of silver, 
embossed with emeralds, and .set in a mouiitaiii-framc tipped Mith frosted 

Lake Titicaca is navigable by large vessels, and it is 
subject, as all these high table-hinds are, to furious 
storms of wind and rain, snow, thunder, and lightning. 


Among the rugged heights of the Bolivian Andes the condor builds his 
eyrie. He is the largest ])ird of fliglit in the world, and for strength of wing 
and force of l)eak no other can come near him. He can carry off young 
calves, sheep, and goats in his talons. 


(Miili, with a population of 2,085,000 souls, and dis- 
tributed over an area of 133,000 square miles, is about 
half the size of Texas. 

It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Andes and the .sea. It 
is beyond the Tropic of Capricorn, but it.s northern borders come \/ithin 
the rainless region. Further to the souUi it reaches those latitudes where, 
during certain seasons of the year, the west winds are the prevailing winds 
— where the land receiving these winds fresh from the sea wrings their 
moisture from them. They then pass over upon the plains of Patagonia as 
winds without rain. 

In consequence of this change in the direction of the 
dominant winds, vegetation and sterility change sides. In 
Bolivia and Peru the western slopes of the Andes are 
barren — the eastern clothed with verdure ; but in South- 
ern Chili the western slopes are ever green, and their 

fertility makes Chili the granary of all South America 
on the Pacific Ocean. 

The wheat iu Chili has the largest grains I have ever seen, and I have 
seen ship-loads of it piled up on the wharves of Callao, lying there for months 
at a time in the open air, with no more protection from the weather in that 
rainless port, than if it liad been a pile of paving-stones. 

Chili is a fine cattle country. The climate of Chili 
is the duplicate of that of California. The two countries 
are equidistant from the Equator, but on opposite sides 
of it ; consequently the seasons are opposed, for when it 
is the rainy season in one, it is the dry season in the 
other, and the winter of one is the summer of the other. 

Chili and Paraguay have been less afflicted with revolutions and civil 
wars than any of the other Spanish American Republics. Within their bor- 
ders, industry is less timid and more energetic than in any other of their sister 
Republics. No nation on tliis continent enjoys better credit in the money- 
markets of the world than Chili. 

A railway is in process of construction from Chili 
across the Andes, to connect with the Argentine railway , 
its eastern terminus is in the City of Buenos Ayres. 

Chili is also a mining country. Its copper and silver mines are energetic- 
ally and profitabl}' worked. 

Between Patagonia and Panama there is not a single 
liver emptying into the Pacific ocean that is navigable 
for more than a few leagues from the sea. The moun- 
tains are too near the coast, and the watersheds are too 
steep to allow the drainage to gather into large streams. 

Aconcagua, an extinct volcano, 23,944 feet above the 
sea;-level, is the highest mountain of the New World. 

Juan Fernandez, the scene of Robinson Crusoe's adventures, is an island 
in the Pacific belonging to Chili. 

The northern end of Chili lies on the dry side of the 
Andes; it is included in the desert of Atacama. 

About thirty years ago, an Indian, being benighted in this waste, gathered 
up such materials as he could lind and built his fire against a rock, as he 
thought. In the morning he found the back of his fireplace all silver, which 
proved to be worth not less than .$20,000. This led to the development oi 
the mines in the vicinity of Caldera. 

Chili, like Mexico, and most of tiie Spanish American Republics, has good 
common schools, that are supported out of the public treasury, and to winch 
all who will may send their children. 

Santiago, the capital, with a population of 115,000, situated 90 miles inland 
from Valparaiso, is the most elegant capital in Spanish America. Its society 
is refined. The city is situated among the Cordilleras of the Andes. 

"Valparaiso," the Vale oj Parndue, the port of Santiago, is delightfully 
situated on the sea-shore. It is the largest and most flourishing seaport along 
the whole coast of Spanish America, from Patagonia up to the Gulf of Cali- 
forni;i. It has a population of 80,000. 

Valparaiso has a large trade in wheat, wool, hides, and copper. 

Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. 
Patagonia, mi\\Tierra del Fv£go, is thinly peopled. 
Their inhabitants are savages of a low order. 

Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn— the Inml of fire, and ihefuruMe cape, so 
called because of the fiery furnaces (ornos) and burning volcanoes which the 



Spanish discoverers fancied they saw there — are both islands, the former 
being separated from Patagonia by the Strait of Magellan {ma-jeV Lan), which 
bears its name in memory of the bold old navigator who first discovered 
it. His name has also been carried up among the stars, for he was also 
the first to observe, and to call the attention of astronomers to those curious 
nebulous clusters in the sky— the Magellanic clouds — which, in those latitudes, 
are almost directly overhead. (See Map Studies of Africa.) 

To avoid the dangers of Cape Horn, small vessels and steamers generallj' pass 
through the Strait of Magellan. Its shores are bold, its waters deep, the rise 
and fall of the tide considerable, the currents are strong, the winds batfling, and 
the weather squally. In places the water is matted over with ke^p, a long and 
cord-like seaweed, which is liable to foul the rudder or disable the propeller. 

Nevertheless the prudent navigator, with steam to help, prefers to take 
his chances through this Strait rather than encounter the fierce winds and 
heavy seas off Cape Horn. The m(Tcury -in the barometer, even in fine 
weather, off Cape Horn, is remarkably low. 

The Falkland Islands belong to Great Britain, and 
contain a settlement of not more than 1,000 persons. 
Vessels doubling Cape Horn, both coming and going, 
must pass them. 

The geographical position of these islands, therefore, 
makes them, in the hands of a great naval power, a 
niilitary outpost of importance. 

They are almost treeless, but their tall and picturesque tussock-grass is 
sometimes mistaken by mariners, as they sail along the shores, for palmetto 


They are a favorite resort for the penguin, albatross, cape-pigeon, and 
other sea-birds which go there to lay, hatch, and breed. 

The albatross of Cape Horn, though but little larger than a goose as he 
sits the water, yet of all the aerial tribe unfolds the greatest spread of wing. 
I have seen one taken there that measured 16 feet from tip to tip. 

Questions. — Describe the table-land of the Andes. — (See Orographic 
View.) — Describe the climatesof the table-land. — Are they spread out there as 
they are here, or are they piled up?— Where does the Amazon rise ?— By 
what two tributaries is it first joined ? — Describe the valleys drained by them. 
— To what town is the Amazon navigable? — "What crops thrive on the fable- 
land? — How far, by the map, would j'ou judge it to be from Naufa to the 
mouth of the Amazon ? — Between what parallels and from what quarter do 
the trade-winds blow ? — What are the winds that bring the rains to South 
America ?— What part of it lies within the trade-wind region? — Can you ex- 
plain whj' the trade-winds bring no rain for the western slopes of the Andes ? 
— Where does their water come from ? — Describe the climate, the vegetables, 
the fruits and flowers there. — Suppose the Andes had been placed near the east 
instead of the west coast, what would be the consequence ? — What is tlie vege- 

tation along the shores of Peru? — South of latitude 40°, wliich is the rainy 
side of the Andes? 

Describe the rainless region, the mines, and the wealth of Peru. — What 
of guano? — The Peruvian sheep? — The exports? — Lima? 

Which is the largest, Peru or Bolivia?— Whence the name of Bolivia?— 
Describe its situation with regard to commercial outlets. — What is coca? 

Name the chief towns of Bolivia. — Their elevation above the sea. — Why 
does water at great heights boil before it gets hot? — What advantage is taken 
of this circumstance ? — Describe Lake Titlcaca. 

Name the largest seaport town on the west coast of South America.— 
Why are there no large river.s between Patagonia and Panama?— What is the 
highest mountain in America?— How high is it?— To whom does Juan Fer- 
nandez belong?— Can you repeat the law about the snow-line ?— Are there 
any common-schools in Chili?— What part is desert?— What can you tell 
about the climate of Chili?— Compare it with that of California. 

Describe Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn.- Why is Ine doub- 
ling of Cape Horn .so diflicultV- To whom do the F;ilUland Islands belong? 
—In what aspect do they have importance ?— What is said of the Cape Horn 
albatross ? 


The States of the La Plata (Map, p. 102), 

And the Eepublics of Uruguay and Paraguay, all lie 
in the valley of the Rio de la Plata, and their ])hysical 

aspects are the same. Like Venezuela, they 

are agricultural and pastoral. 

Wliat we call our western plains and prairies are there 
called " pampas." With occa.^ional strips of woodland in 
sheltered places, the pampas reach from the sea to the moun- 
tains, and support enormous herds of wild cattle. 

At the time of its discovery. South America had no ani- 
mals answering to our elk and iiuffalo ; neither had we any 
l>irds answering to their ostrich and condor. 

The wild cattle of ihe pampas are chiefly descended from 
cattle brought from Europe. They became so numerous that 
immense herds of mares were slaughtered solely to obtain 
grease for the soap-boiler. 

Instances have been known in which, owing to the scar- 
city of wood, carcasses of sheep were used for the brick-kilns 
of Buenos Ayres. 

Great numbers of cattle are still slaughtered for their 
hides, hair, horns, and bones, which are brought to our coun- 
try to be dressed and prepared for use. 

This country is at present attracting more 
immigration than any other part of Spanish America, and 
its government has decided upon a liberal policy to 
encourage it, exempting the immigrant from military 
conscription and his farming implements from custom- 
house duty, at the same time making liberal concessions 
with regard to lands. Thus encouraged, a tide of immi- 
gration is setting thitherward from Itah', France, Eng- 
land, and the United States. 

The La Plata with its valley is the Mississippi of South America. Its 
coui-se, unlike that of the Amazon, is not along parallels of latitude, but like 
that of the Mississippi, across them. With every bend in the river you reach 
a different latitude, and with eveiy new latitude there is a change of climate, 
and with change of climate there always follows change of human wants and 
change of productions. 



The course of the La Plata, with its tributaries, 
from north to south traverses 23° of latitude. 

The valleys drained by these two rivers embrace these areas : — the Mis- 
sissippi, 982,000 square miles, and the La Plata, 886,000 square miles. The 
La Plata crosses more degrees of latitude; the Mississippi drains the broad- 
est but the La Plata the longest valley; and within this long valley are soils 
adapted to the cultivation of wheat, corn, coffee, tobacco, sugar, rice, cocoa, 
hemp, flax, indigo, and mandioca. 

Land is cheap and abundant, and the pampas for 
pasturage are boundless commons. 

There is a large exportation of horns, hair, hides, 
jerked beef, etc., from this country to Europe. 

The climate of this river-basin is free from frost and remarkably healthy. 

Furious tornadoes, calletl pamperos, sweep across the pampas to the sea. 
They are sometimes accompanied by those fearful dischai-ges of thunder and 
lightning which engender the " fulgurite." In the absence of pinnacles the 
lightning often strikes the ground. It then makes a hole in the earth, melts 
the sand, and leaves around the hole a vitrified funnel-shaped mass. 

As in all the other parts of Spanish America, the Spaniards, though in the 
minority as regards numbers, are in the ascendant as to control and manage- 
ment. Theirs is the language of the country. The majority of the inhabit- 
ants consists of Indians and cross-breeds, and is Roman Catholic in religion. 

Those that live on the pampas are most expert horsemen. They have the 
liabit, when going to the charge in battle, of throwing the heel across the 
horse's back and riding under his belly. These are the Gauchos. They are 
very dexterous in using the lasso. Armed only with this, they chase over 
tlie pampas the ostrich, the wild horse, and the bullock, and they throw the 
lasso with such precision that they can catch the biid or the beast by the 
f(j()t while it is yet lifted in flight. 


Tli(! governments of all the fifteen nations of Spanish 
America are republican in form. 

The Argentine Confederation. 

This Republic, sometimes called Argentina, contains 
only 1,465,000 inhabitants, though it has an area of 
820,000 square miles. It has a larger area than that 
of any nation in Europe except Russia. 

Buenos Ayres, the capital, is also the chief town of 
the confederation, and has a population variously esti- 
mated at from 120,000 to 200,000. 

You observe that the La Plata has no delta. Its mouth is an estuary of 
the sea, which as high up as Buenos Ayres is still 30 miles broad. The 
water as you approach the shore is shallow, so that vessels have to anchor 
several miles out and use lighters for loading and unloading. 

All this part of the country is stoneless and treeless. 

There is a line of railway in process of construction 
by way of Rosario and Cordova, which is designed, at 
no distant day, to connect Buenos Ayres, on the At- 
lantic, with Valparaiso, on the Pacific. 

The Salado is remarkable for its brackish water. 

Tucuman, with its 11,000 inhabitants, stands in the " Garden of Argen- 
tine ;" 8dn Juan, at the foot of the Andes, is a flourishing new town of 
20,000 people. 

The first congress of the La I'lata States was held there in 1816. 


Has an area of 126,000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 1,337,000. 

Though called a Republic, Paraguay has been goveined by three dicta- 
tors ever since the loss by Spain of these colonics. First by Doctor Francia 
who would allow no foreigner to come within his dominions; then by 
Lopez, and afterward by his son ; and of all the Spanish American countries, it 
1ms had tlie most stable government and prosperous industry. Paraguay 
jiroduces a holly, which the inhabitants call yerha (the vegetitble), and of 
which mate is made. Mate is a tea, and is a favorite beverage in Brazil and 
throughout all the La Plata country, Bolivia, Chili, and Peru. 

It is the only nation in America without a sea front. 

Asuncion, the capital, is also the chief town. It is estimated to contain 
between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants. 

The La Plata, with the Parana and Paraguay, is 
navigable for steamboats far above Asuncion. 

Is the smallest of the South American Republics, and is 
not quite as large as Missouri. It contains a population 
of only 241,000. 

Its capital, Montevideo, with a population of 100, 000, 
is situated near the mouth of the river, where it is GO 
miles wide, and has an extensive commerce both with 
England and the United States. Lines of steamers now 
ply regularly up and down the La Plata. 

Questions. — Where is the La Plata country ? — By wliat States is it occu- 
pied? — What are the chief industries of these States V— Describe the pampas. 
— Is there any immigration to the La Plata country ? — Why is the La Plata 
called the Mississippi of the southern hemisphere ?— Compare the valleys of 
the two rivers, their length, and the direction .in which they run. — Describe 
the climate, productions, and exports of the La Plata country. — Its lan- 
guage and religion.— What are fulgurites ? — Pamperos ?— Who are the Gau- 
chos ?— What is the form of government?— What is the area and populalion 
of the Argentine Confederation ?— Of Uruguay ?— Of Paraguay?— Descrilie 
the Argentine Confederation. — Its capital and chief towns. 

Describe Tucuman, and the route of the proposed I'ailway from Valpa- 
raiso to Buenos Ayres. — How has Paraguay been governed ? — What are its 
area and population ?— What is mate, and where does it coine from ?— What is 
the population of Uruguay? 




Studies on the Map of South America. 


How is South America bounded ? — Through, and near what countries 
does the Equator pass ? — Between what nieridians of longitude does South 
America lie ? — What parts of South America are traversed by the Andes ? — 
By the Amazon river? — By the Rio de La Plata? — What countries lie south 
of the Tropic of Capricorn ?— Upon what parallel of latitude does Cape Horn 
lieV — Through liow many degrees of latitude does South America extend? 

How do you bound the United States of Colombia ? — How do you bound 
Venezuela ?— The Guyauas '—Ecuador ?— Brazil ?— Peru ?— Bolivia ?— Chili ? 
— The Argentine Confederation ? — Paraguay ? — Uruguay ? 

Islands. • 

Where are the Falkland Islands? — Chiloe? — Juan Fernandez? — The 
Chincha Islands ?— St. Felix ?— Barbadoes ? — Staten ?— Tierni del Fuego ? 


Name the chief range of mountains. — In what direction do they run ? — 
Wiiat moimtains can you name in the northeastern part of South America? 
— What, in Brazil? — Tlie highest peak of the AndcT? — Wlicre is Pichincha? 
— Cotopaxi ? — Chimborazo ? — Aconcagua ? — Illimani ? 


What is the course of the Magdalena river? — Of the Amazon river? — Of 
the Orinoco ?— Of the Rio de La Plata?— Of the Madeira?— The Ucayalc? 
—The Huallaga?— Tlie Tocantins?— The Cassiquiarc ?— The Parana ?—Tiic 
Para? — The Paraguay? — The Uruguay? — Does the Amazon receive most of 
its tributaries from tlie soulli or from tiie north ? — Name the largest tributaries 
of the Amazon— Of tlie La Plata.— Where does the Magdalena river empty? 
—Into wliat ocean is Soiitli America chiefly drained ?— Where is tlie Piirus? — 
The Pilcomayo?— The Mamore?— Tell where Uie Essequibo river is. ^ . 

Gulfs and Bays. 

Begin at the Isthmus of Panama, and nanu' the chief bays that indent 
the coa-st of South America. — Name, in the same way, the chief gulfs. 


What ari! the chief capes of South America ? — Name them, in order, from 
Panama around the continent? — Where is Cape St. Maria? — Cape St. Roquc? 
—Cape Frio?— Cape San Antonio ?— Cape Horn ?— Cape Blanco ? 


Name the principal lakes of South America. — Where is Lake Titicaca? — 
Where is Lake AuUagas? — Guanac ulic? — .\I;\racaybo ? 

Political Divisions. 

Name the political divisions of South America. — Which is the largest? — 
Which is the smallest? — How far, in an easterly direction, do the United 

States of Colombia extend ? — What two important cities on the isthmus, con- 
nected by railway, lie within these States ? — Does the greater or less part of 
Ecuador lie east of the Andes ? 

Chief Cities. 

Where is Aspinwall ? — Panama ? — Bogota ? — Caracas ? — Georgetown ? — 
Quito ?— Paramaribo ? — Cayenne ? — Rio de Janeiro ? — Montevideo ? — Buenos 
Ayres ? — Sucre ? — Asun^on ? — Lima ? — Callao ? — Santiago ? — Valparaiso ? 

Where is Maracaybo ?— Triaxillo ? — La Guayra ? — Cumana ? — Cuzco ? — 
Arequipa ? — Guayaquil ?-Conception? — Villa Rica ? — Nauta ?— Para ? — Mar- 
anham ? — Pernambuco ? — Bahia ? — Diamantino ? ^ Cuyaba ? — Victoria? — 
Caldera?— Cobija? — La Paz ?— Where is Coquimbo ? — Copiapo? — Potosi?— 

Routet^ and Distances. 

In what direction and what distance (always, of course, using the scale of 
miles) is Bogota from Cartagena? — From Panama? — From Quito? 

How far is Quito from Lima? — Prom Guayaquil ? — From Valparaiso? 

How far is Quito from the mouth of the Amazon? — How wide is South 
America on the Tropic of Capricorn ? 

How far is it from Rio to Asuncion? — To Montevideo? — How far is 
Asuncion from the sea ? — How far, from Rio to Bahia ? — To Para ? — How 
far are the Galapagos Islands (Map, p. 20) from the coast of the continent ? 


Which of the countries of South America has the greatest extent of sea- 
coast? — What extent of sea-coast has Ecuador? — Can you point out on the 
map where the chinch;)na-tree grows ? — Can you point out on the map the 
famous old road of the Incas (see page 90) ? — Can you find the hamlet of 
Antisana (13,453 feet above the sea)? — Point out the Cumbre Pass. It Imds 
_from Valparaiso to Mendozn, mider (he shadow of Aconcagua. The summit of 
Aconcarjua is several thovsund feet above the snow-line. 

16,000 ft. 


At the Equator tJie snow-line is \{\fi()0 feft high, and the furtlier you go from 
the Equator, eitli^r to the north or the south, the lower is tlie snow-line, until, nboni 
the 70th parallel of latitude,it touches tlie earth's surface. This is a geographical 
law which you ought to remember. 

Where is Hermit Island ? — Trinidad ? — The desert of Atacama ? 





Europe. (Map, p. 124.) 

1. Political Geoifraphy. — Europe is an oM country, 
and its nationalities count their ages by centuries. 

The States of Europe are four Republics, four Em- 
pires, and fourteen Kingdoms, besides a number of 
Duchies, Principalities, and free States which belong 
chiefly to Grermany, and arc not recognized among 
nations as separate and independent powers. 

The new Gei-mau Empire includes the kingdoms of Prussia, Saxony, Ba- 
varia, and Wiirtemberg — all of wliicU. are one power. 

Sweden and Norway are under one king, and the 
Emperor of Austria is king of Hungary also. These 
four countries, therefore, make but two powers. 

Of the nations of Europe one is infidel, and the rest 
are either Roman Catholic, Greek, or Protestant. 

Europe is well developed and overflowing with popu- 

Two of the States of America are each nearly as 
large as Europe. But Europe contains seven times the 
population of the United States, and more than twenty 
times that of Brazil. 

Europe lies chiefly in the North Temperate Zone. 
The habitable portions of America lie in the Torrid 
Zone as well as in the two Temperate Zones. 

In Europe, land is dear and labor abundant. 
In America, land is cheaj) and labor scarce. 

From such points of resemblance and contrast between tliese two coun- 
tries, we arrive at conclusions of high import to the political gcograi)her; for 
the facts just stated show that it is easier for the working-man to make a 
living in a new country, as America, where land is cheap and labor dear, 
than it is in an old one like England, where land is dear and labor clieap. 

Hence the great migration of men from the Old 
World to the New. 

^. Social Features. — To an American who visits 
Europe for the first time, the most striking features in 
its political geography are the high state of improvement 
i)f the country, the absence of fences, the vast extent of 
cultivated or improved lands in proportion to wood- 
lands, the number of villages and lordly mansions and 
spacious barns and outhouses, which such an extent 
of highly cultivated fields suggests. He is surprised 
also, at the number of female laborers that he sees in 
the fields, especially on the continent. 

In America, particularly in the Southern States, both 
farmers and laborers generally reside on the farms ; but 
in England, France, and Germany they usually reside 
in towns and villages. 

The excellence of the country roads, the size of the carts, and the im- 
mense loads that he meets, drawn by one or two horses, also attract tlie at- 
tention of the American in Europe. 

3. Population. — Europe is so thickly settled that there is one person 



to every eight and one-half acres of land, whereas in America there is one 
only for every one hundred and twenty acres. 

4. Occupations. — You may observe by the map that 
Austria and Prussia have a small extent of sea-coast ; 
consequently, they have never had a large seafaring 
population. It is the seafaring population of every 
countrv that furnishes it with sailors for its navv. 
Hence Austria and Prussia, though ranking as first- 
class powers, have never been ranked among the great 
naval powers of Europe. On the other hand, Greece, 
Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, England, Holland, and 
Denmark are on the sea, and are regarded as the mari- 
time States of Europe. 

Spain and Portugal are called the Peninsula. 

5. Xfitui'fil Peculiarities. — The Volga is the largest, 
but the Danube and the Rhine are the two most impor- 
tant rivers in Europe, and the Alps the highest moun- 
tains. The highest peaks of the Alps are about 15,000 
feet above the sea-level. 

Do you remember that you have been told to consider, 
in your geographical studies, the slopes of the mountains 
and hills in every country as watersheds, and the rivers 
as gutters for carrying off the water and emptying it 
into the sea ? Now j^ou can tell why, in Europe, we 
have no such rivers as the Amazon, the Mississippi, 
and the La Plata. You observe that the continent of 
Europe is not one-third the size of America. The 
mountain-ranges of Europe lie, some east, some west, 
some north and south, and some obliquely to these : they 
therefore divide it out into a great number of river- 
basins or watersheds, each of which (as you will see by 
studj'ing the Orographic Yiew of Central Europe, p. 
119), is drained directly into the sea. 

In South America there is but one grand range of mountains — in North 
America but two, one of which, the AUeghanies, runs to the northeast, and 
the other, the Rocky Mountains, to the northwest, with a great valley and 
immense watersheds between them. 

The highest peaks of the Alps are always covered 
with snow. 

Immense fields of ice, called Glaciers, are formed on 
the sides of the mountains, and are always sliding from 
the top toward the bottom. They bear to the moun- 
tains very much the same relation that snow-slides do 
to the roof of a house. There are about 400 glaciers 
between Mont Blanc and the Tyrol in Germany. 

0. Climates and Productions. — Stretching from 
the heated waters of the Mediterranean up to the frozen 
ocean of the north, Europe has every variety of cli- 
mates and productions except those of equatorial lands. 

7. Natiofialities. — Only one-third of the Russian 
and Turkish empires lie in Europe ; they are, neverthe- 
less, classed among the European powers. 

The European powers, in the order of their respective 
population, consist of — 

Fow Empires. — Russia, Germany, the Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire, and Turkey. 

Foiirtee)i Kingdoms. — Great Britain, Prussia, Italy, 
Spain, Holland, Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Portu- 
gal, Belgium, Bavaria, Saxony, Wiirtemberg, Greece, 
and Hungary. 

Four Republics. — France, Switzerland, Andorra, and 
San Marino. 

Five Grand Duchies, Eigid Duchies, Four Free Cities, 
Nine Principalities, One Landgraviate, One Electorate. 

All that part of Europe that extends from the North 
Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic, to Switzerland, Italy, 
and the Adriatic on the South ; from Belgium, Holland, 
and France, to Russia, Galicia, and Hungary on the 
east, is called Germany, not because it is one power, 
but because it is inhabited by the "yellow-haired" 
races who speak German, and who have agreed to 
maintain a certain community of interests. These peo- 
ple, numbering at least 57,000,000, occupy an area of 
332,000 sq. miles in the heart of Europe. 

But tills country, as the map shows, lacks sea-front, except upon what 
are called " closed seas," and therefore, though a mighty nation and power- 
ful on land, the Germans have never been ranked as a naval power. 

Questions. — 1. Is Europe an old country? — How many nations are 
mere in Europe V — How many kingdoms are there in Europe ? — -Emijires ? — 
Republics? — Which countries have the same king? — What is the religion of 
Europe ? — Which is the most densely populated country, Europe or America ? 
— What two American nations are each nearly as large as Europe ? — Can 
you explain why there is such a large tide of immigration flowing from 
Europe into America ? 

2. When a traveller from America visits Europe for the first time, what 
geographical subjects most (excite his notice? — Do the farmers and planters in 
the South generally reside in town or country ? — Where do those of Europe 
reside ? 

3. How many acres of land in Europe to the inhabitant ? — How many in 
America ? 

4r, Why cannot Austria and Prussia boast of a large seafaring population ? 
— Are they first-class powers ? — Have they never been ranked among the 
great naval powers? — Which are the maritime powers of Europe? — What 
nations occupy the Peninsula ? 

.5. What are the most important rivers and the highest mountains of 
Europe ? — How high are the tallest peaks of the Alps? — Why do you see no 
such rivers in Europe as the Amazon, La Plata, etc. ? — What are glaciers? 

(i. What is said of the cliuiates and productions of Europe? 

7. Are Russia and Turkey classed with the European powers? — How 
much of their territory lies in Europe? — Name the Empires of Europe in the 
order of their population. — Name the Kingdoms. — Which is the largest in 
size? — Name the Republics, and point them out on the map. — How many 
Free Cities are there? — How many Principalities? — What nations constitute 
Germany? — Why are they called Germany? — What is their i)opulation? — 




The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

1. JPolitical Geoffraphy. — ^Tn okleii times, England, 
Ireland, and Scotland were separate and independent 

About 250 years ago they were brought together 
under the rule of King James I., and were called the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The United Kingdom consists of two principal islands 
and a number of smaller ones in the adjacent waters. 

The island of Great Britain includes England, Scot- 
land, and Wales. 

Ireland and Scotland are in size each equal to Maine ; 
Wales to Massachusetts, and England to Alabama. 

The government is monarchical, but liberal. The 
majorit}' of the people profess the 
Protestant religion, and the Episcopal 
church is the Church of the State. 

This small country has ruled the :^ 
seas and spread her name in all parts ^ 
of the world. She has carried her 
conquests and established her col- 
onies so widely that the sun never 
sets upon them. Hav colonial posses- 
sions have an area of 8,500.000 sq. 
ms. and a population of 165,000,000. 
She rules one-seventh of all the 
people, and owns one-sixth of all the 
land in the world. She is the richest 
nation, and excels all others in tlic 
extent of her manufacturing, sea- 
faring, and commercial industries. 

We and the English have the 
same literature and speak the same language. We de- 
rive our notions of law and liberty from the same 

We carry on more commerce with the English and are more closely al- 
lied to them than to any other people or nation, and therefore, to an Ameri- 
can, the geography of England is almost as interesting and as important as 
the geography of his own country. 

Moreover, it is instructive for you to examine into the geographical con- 
ditions that are peculiar to England, and which have helped her to ascend so 
high in the scale of national greatness and renown. 

2. Early and Stibsequent Development. — Four hundred years 
ago, neither the existence of America nor the passage round the Cape of 
Good Hope was known. In the ignorance then existing as to the science of 
navigation, commerce was carried on chiefly by caravans overland. Ships 
dared not launch out upon the broad ocean because they could not find their 
way ; the instruments of navigation were so rude that voyages were confined 
to closed sheets of water like the Black and Mediterranean Seas. 

In this state of things England found herself excluded, in a groat meas- 
ure, from the commercial circle of the world, wiiich at that time consisted 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Trade was carried on chiefly by caravans. 

3. Positioti. — But after the discoveries of Columbus, and after Vasco dc 
Gama doubled the Cape of Good Hope, conunerce began to unfold its wings 
and spread them over the seas. It abandoned the backs of camels and asses, 
and, instead, took to ships. 

From that moment England began to occupy a new commercial position. 
iVs ships began to do the cariying business of the world, the insular position 
of Great Britain told immensely in her favor, and in more ways than one, for, 
besides giving her the lead in the conunercial race, which all the maritime 
nations of Europe at once commenced to run, it protected her oftentimes from 
hostile invasions to Mhicli her competitors were liable. 

From having occupied the utmost verge of the world's commercial circle, 
England now stood in its very focus. 

From the white chalky cliffs on the south coast of 
the island, near the Strait of Dover and the city of 
that name, England obtained, in early times, the name 
of Albion. 


4. Plttpilcal aeof/rap/n/.—VihQn you study Physi- 
cal Geography (and there is no branch of knowledge 
more interesting and instructive) you will understand 
how that, the very moment Colnmbus reported the ex- 
istence of "the New World," the winds and currents of 
the sea conspiring, England at once became the outpost 
and half-way house for Europe. 

You will understand how that, in consequence of the 
great discovery of Vasco de Gama, vessels trading to 
India from England could oftentimes pass the (Aipe of 
Good Hope even before their competitors from Venice, 
Genoa, and other Mediterranean ports could clear the 
Strait of Gibraltar — and how that England thus became 
the entrcpnt between the " Old World'' and the " New.'" 

5. Ttiflusfri/ and Itesources. — The position of England being in- 



sular, her population, as commerce increased, became more and more sea- 
faring, and thus tlie elements of naval strength and power were placed within 
her reach. 

Her hills and valleys were richly stored with iron and copper, tin, lead, 
and coal, and other minerals. They became the source of a great mining 

In modern times, another agent has arisen which the 
geographer is bound to take knowledge of in its influ- 
ences upon his science. It is destined, in a measure, to 
compensate other nations for the advantages which 
England derived from her position with regard to the 
winds and currents of the sea. The modern steamship 
is to a great extent independent of these natural agen- 
cies, and has served to diminish, rehi lively, the naval 
and commercial superiority of England. 

Questions,— J. Why do you call the kingdom of Great Britain the 
United Kingdom V — Describe tlie means by which England acquired her 
importance. — Why should the geography of the British Isles be so interesting 
to us ? 2. How was the commerce of the world earned on before the dis- 
covery of America and of the passage around the Cape of Good Hope? — Why 
•was England geographically excluded from that commerce? 3. Enumerate 
the advantages which England derived from lier insular position. 

4, What may we learn upon this subject from physical geography? 
.5. In what industry did tlie people engage ? — What is said of the English 
mineral resouices ? — What is said of the modern steamsliip? 


The United Kingdom — Continued. 
England and Wales. 

The island of G-reat Britain is in the region of west 
winds. Its shores are bathed by the warm waters of the 
Gulf Stream and consequently its win- 
ter climates are mild — milder thanfS 
the winter climate of South Carolina. 
Look at Mercator's map and see the 
difference in latitude between South 
Carolina and the British Isles, and 
tlicn you will be better able to ap- 
preciate the modifying influence oJ 
this stream and of these winds upon 
the climate. 

In consequence of her geographical 
po.sitiou, the fields of England are 
green all the winter through. The 
country is highly pastoral as well 
as agricultural. Wheat, hay, pease, 
hops, and the root crops, are the chief 
agricultural staples. 

But, as great and important a^ 

these branches of industry now are, and, unlimited as 
her capacities now are to sustain population, yet 300 
years ago, in the time of Elizabeth, she could not, with- 
out the frequent visitation of the most severe famine, 
sustain a population of 4,000,000. 

London, the capital of the United Kingdom, is situ- 
ated on both banks of the Thames, and a few miles be- 
low the head of tide-water navigation, above which the 
river becomes an insignificant stream. 

Parliament sits, and the Queen holds her Court, in London. It is the 
largest city in the world ; it covers an area (122 sq. ms.) twice as large as the 
District of Columbia, and contained, April 1, 1871, 3,880,000 inhabitants. 

In England the railroads have double tracks. They are not allowed to 
cross each other on the same level, as they do with us, but they are com- 
pelled to cross by going under or over. In London the cars on some lines 
run over the house-tops, and on others under ground and below the cellars 
and basements of the houses. 

There are 28 tow-ns in England and in Wales, 4 in Scotland, and 3 in Ire- 
land, with a population of more than 50,000 each. Among these are Livci-- 
pool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Newcastle, Stokc- 
upon-Trent, Hull; in Scoiiaiul, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Aberdeen; 
and, in Ireland, Dublin, Belfast, and Cork. 

Liverpool is the grand cotton market of the world. 
Manchester, only 37 miles distant, is the chief place for 
its manufacture. Next to London, Liverpool is more 
extensively engaged in commerce than any other city. 

Birmingham is in the "Black Country'' — made so by 
its number of coal and iron mines. It is the great iron 
mart of England 

Leeds is widely known for its woollens, Nottingham 
for its laces and stockings, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
for its coal trade, glass bottles, and chemicals. 

Sheffield is celebrated for its cutlery and shot-proof 
iron plates for men-of-war. 


Meridi&n of Qreeuwich. 



Portsmouth and Chatham are among the chief naval 

The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are the 
most famous in England. 

Wales is a hilly country, and its high state of im- 
provement makes some of its landscapes most lovely. 
Wales is celebrated for its mines, especially those of 
coal and copper, a tunnel in one of which has been car- 
ried out some distance under the sea, where it is still 

Merthyr-Tydfil, with a population of 97,000, is the 
largest town in Wales. 


Is the most mountainous part of the island. Its geo- 
graphical position makes it also the most dreary and 
bleak. In winter the winds are cold, and the nights 
long. In the extreme northern parts there is at the 
time of the summer solstice no night. The sun sets, 
but a twilight, bright euyUgh to read by, lasts until 
sunrise again. 

The chief agricultural staples in Scotland are oats, 
barlej', and the root crops. 

The hills afford fine sheep-walks, and good pasturage 
for cattle. 

Among the hills of Scotland are found those beautiful lakes which histoiy, 
soiiLr, and story have made so famous. Many tourists visit the llii^hlands of 
Scotland annually, merely to enjoy the beautiful scenery and to indulge their 
fancy in associations around which history and romance have thrown their 

Tlie Scotch are a steady and thrifty people, fond of 
learning, and given to hospitality. 

In religion they are inclined, for the most part, to the 
Presbyterian form of worship, as the Irish are to the 
Roman Catholic, and the English to the Episcopal form. 

Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, but Edin- 
burgh, on account of its traditions, its institutions of 
learning, and the eminent men that it has sent forth 
into the world, is the most illustrious. 

Scotland, with a population of 3,369,000, has four 
large cities, viz., Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and 

Glasgow is the chief manufacturing town. Its indus- 
try is directed mainly to the manufacture of cotton 
goods, and to the building of ships and marine engines. 
The largest chemical works in the world are here. 

Dundee is extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
linens, and Paisley in the manufacture of shawls. 

The famous Caledonian Canal is in Scotland, and 
Fingal's Cave is in the island of Staflfa. 

The inhabitants of Scotland call themselves Lowlanders or Highlanders, 
according to the part of the country in which they live. Those who live 
near the Border resemble the English in manners, and are the Lowlanders. 
Those who live beyond the Grampian Hills are called the Highlanders. 

Note. — For questions on this lesson, see end of Lesson LVIH. 


Studies on the Map of the British Isles. 

Bound England. — Scotland. — Wales. — What is the shortest distance from 
England to Ireland ? — From Scotland to Ireland ? — What sheet of water scp- 
arates Ergland from France? — How wide is it? — What strait between Eng- 
land and Ireland? — How wide is it? 

Point out and describe 'the position — with regard to the coast — of Lon- 
don, Liverpool, Portsmouth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Edinburgh, Dundee, 
Aberdeen, Glasgow, Paisley, Belfast, Dublin, Queenstown. — Which of these 
cities are upon rivers? 

Describe the course of the rivers. — In what part of the island, and how 
far from London, is Birmingham? — Leeds? — Sheffield? — Oxford? — Cam- 
bridge? — Where is Manchester? — How long, from north to south, is the 
island of Great Britain ? — Name and describe all the rivers of the island. 

Mention its lakes. — Its mountains. — Channels. — Straits. — Seas. — Friths. — 
Bays. — Capes and headlands. — What is its greatest breadth from east to 
west ? — What islands lie along the west coast ? — What, along the north and 
south? — On which coast are the most islands? — Where is the Caledonian 
Canal ?— Where is the island of Staffa ? — What is it noted for ?— Name and 
describe the rivers, capes, lakes, bays, and islands along the coast of Ireland. 

On which coast are the islands most numerous ?— Where is Rathlin island ? 
— Where is Cape Clear? (These two are famous landmarks in navigation.) — 
Wliere is Holyhead? {The Innh mail is carried between Dublin and Holy- 
hcad by the fasted sea-Htcamers known.) — Where are the Grampian Hills?— 
Name all the seaport towns on the south coast of England, and tell which 
way each <me is from Portsmouth. — Name all the seaport towns between 
Beacliy Head and Flamborougli Head, and tell which way each one is from 
Yarmouth. — Name the seaport towns in England north of Whitby, and tell 
which way each is from Sunderland. — Name all on the east coast of Scot- 
land, and tell which way each is from Murray Frith. 

Where is John O'Groal's House ? — Which way, and how far is it from 
Land's End? — From the Orkney Islands? — How far, and which way is it 
from Carlisle to Newcastle? — Fiom Glasgow to Edinburgh? — From Dum- 
fries to Liverpool? — Name the seaport towns of Wales. — Tell their direction 
from Milford Haven. — Which way from Cape Clear to the Scilly Islands ? 
—From the Isle of Arran to Valentia Bay? (The Atlantic Telegraph ex- 
tends frfim Valentia Bay to St. .John's, Newfoundland.) 






The United Kingdom — Continued. 

Ireland, unlike Scotland, is for the most part flat and 
boggy. It is the first to catch the west winds as they 
come loaded from the sea with the warmth and moisture 
of the Grulf Stream. It is said to rain in Ireland three- 
fourths of the year, and the climate is very damp and 
mild ; so much so, even in winter, that its green fields 
have won for it the name ot the "Emevald Isle " 


g£ N. LAT. 



In the above diagram the aiTows fly with the wind. They show you the 
prevailing winds in different parts of the globe. By ascertaining the latitude 
of a country and locating it on the diagram, you may form an idea of its winds 
and its moisture, and hence of its climate. 

Between the tropical circles all the winds blow from the eastward. They 
are called the Northeast Trade-winds, on the north side of the Equator; and 
the Smitheast Trade-winds, on the south side. The region or belt of Southeast 

Trades is broader than the region of Northeast Trades. Examine tlie 

There is near the Equator and each of the tropical circles a belt more or 
less marked by a calm and tranquil atmosphere. The Equatorial Calm Belt 
is a place of incessant rains. 

The arrows crossing each other in the light spaces represent the air from 
the Equator and the air from the poles exchanging places as upper and 
lower currents, as travellers find on the Peak of Teneriffe. 

Beyond either tropic, in the temperate zones, the prevailing winds arc no 
longer easterly but westerly winds. They are the Counter-trades, and in the 
Southern Hemisphere are called " the Brave West Wiiids,^' they arc so strong 
and steady. Maury's Sailiug Directions taught navigators how to take ad- 
vantage of them, and by so doing, the voyage for sailmg-vessels bound from 
England to Australia and back, has been shortened several montlis. (Sec 
the dominant winds in Chili, p, 99.) 

The numbers on the semicircumference of the diagram give the heights 
of the barometer at the corresponding latitudes of the globe. This diagram, 
made from more than a million observations, if duly studied, will prove a 
golden key to many mysteries of geography. (Refer to p. 69, Section 4.) 

Ireland lacks the mineral resources of Great Britain. 
Coal is wanting, and peat is often used for fuel. 
The chief article of food among the laboring classes 
is the potato. 

The "Ever Green Isle" is a fine stock country. The 
cattle upon its hills find abundant pasturage in winter, 
and the most important articles of cultivation arc oats 
and potatoes. 

The population of Ireland is 5,400,000. 

Even to the present generation in Ireland famine is 
not unknown, and there is, among those who lack bread, 
a large emigration annually to the United States. 

DiibliD is the capital, and a fine, flourishing city, with 
a large commerce. 

Belfast manufactures more linen goods than any other 
town in the British empire. 

Queenstown, in the harbor of Cork, is the i)lace where 
the mail-steamers that ply between Great Britain and 
the United States touch, to receive and land passengers 
and mails, both coming and going. 

Qncsfious.—Descnhe the situation of the British Islands, and the influ- 
ence exercised by the Gulf Stream upon their chmate.— Which lias often- 
times the coldest weather in winter. South Carolina or Great Britain?— How 
do you account for it ?— What is the difference of latitude?— What are the 
chief industrial pursuits of the people ? 

Describe London, and the railways of England —How many cities are 
there in England having more than 50,000 inhabitants each V— Where is the 
great cotton-market of the world, and where the most extensive n\aniifacliue 
of cotton goods?— What arc its chief iron and coal markets?— For wlial 
branches of industry are Liveipool, Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, 
Leeds, and Nottingham chiefly noted ?— Where are the principal naval sta- 
tions ?— Describe Wales; its minerals and industries.— What is the largest 
town in Wales? — Where is it? 

Describe Scotland and its inhabitants.— Their religion.— Wli at are the chief 
staples of cultivation in Scotland ?— What, besides their natural beauty, at- 
tracts tourists to the Highlands of Scotland?— Describe the chief towns of 
Scotland; their industries and population.— What is the population of 

Describe Ireland.— Explain the Diagram of the Winds.— The chief agricul- 
tural productions of Ireland.— Its population and chief towns.— Their in- 
dustries, and the resources of the country. 


1 1 1 



1. Climates.— The climates of France and Western 
Europe depend not so much upon distance from the 
Equator as upon distance from the warm waters of the 
Gulf Stream. Thus the Gulf of Fiuland is closed with ice 
annually, from late in the fall till early in the summer ; 
whereas, ice never forms at all in the harbor of Ham- 
merfest, which lies 12° of latitude farther to the north. 

Bearing in mind this fact, and connecting it with what 
you have learned about the climate and productions as 
affected in England by the Gulf Stream, and in America 
by latitude, you have at once the geographical key to 
the agricultural staples of almost all parts of Europe. 

France has a larger population than Great Britain, 
but not so large as the United States. It is in area 
larger than California, but not so large as Texas. 

It lies between the parallels of 43° and 50°. Its cli- 
mate (except in so far as it is modified by the west winds 
which come fresh from the Atlantic Ocean, and by the 
south winds, which come from the Mediterranean) an- 
swers, in a measure, to the climate of Michigan, Western 
New York, and the Province of Ontario. 

Owing to its situation with regard to these two sheets 
of water, the winter climate of France is not so cold as 
that of American countries in the same latitude ; but 
the length of day and night, the inclination of the sun's 
rays, and the intensity of summer heat, are the same. 

ti&lArJ£ CAllii 


2. Productions. — The winter climate of France being milder than the 
winter climate of Michigan or New York, many out-docn- plants wliich can- 
not endnre the American winter will stand the cold in France very well. 
Hence, France will produce everything '.hat grows in Michigan, and more 
besides. It is a good grain and grass country. 

In the south of France, along the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, and under the climatic influences of that sea, 
the vine, the olive, the orange, the pomegranate, the fig, 
and the silkworm all thrive. 

In the middle and north of France the beet-root, for 
sugar, is an important article of cultivation. 

The breeding of fish and the raising of fowls also receive much care and 
attention. Those who are engaged in these little branches of industry earn, 
from the productions of eggs, fowls, and fish, a revenue of fifty millions annually. 

3. Meliffion.— The people of France are allowed re- 
ligious freedom ; but the majority profess the Roman 
Catholic faith. 

4. Cities.— Paris is the finest capital and the most 
splendid city in the world. It gives the fashion in dress 
for Europe and America, and the French tongue is the 
language in which the potentates of Europe converse 
with each other. 

As designers of patterns, and in the arrangement of colors for dress, the 
milliners of Paris and the artisans of France excel all others. 

The workshops of Paris will turn out in a mechanical 
and workmanlike style, anything from the finest cambric 
needle to the stoutest locomotive or most powerful steam- 

Paris excels in the manufacture of jeweliy, mock and real, of gloves, per- 
fumery, and fancy articles of all soi-ts. All those articles in our stores known 

as French goods come from Paris. This 
city is famous also for its schools and acad- 
emies, its scientific societies institutions of 
learning and public places. 

Lyons is the second city in 
France, and the foremost of all 
in silk manufactures. It employs 
100,000 persons in this indus- 
try alone. 

Marseilles is the largest sea- 
port town in France. 

It is extensively engaged in 
the manufacture of various ar- 
ticles, from soap to steam-en- 
gines. It also has a large trade 
in human hair. 

Marseilles is on the Gulf of Lions, or 
Gulf of the Lion, so named, not from the 
city of Lyons, but from the exceeding 
storminess of its waters. 

Bordeaux is noted for its 
wines : Lille for its manufacture 

I 12 


of flax and cotton goods, beet-root sugar, and of rape- 
seed and linseed-oils. 

Toulouse is famed for its steel-works, cannon foun- 
dries, and its woollen-factories, and Rouen for its cotton- 
mills. It is the Manchester of France. St. Etienne is 
in the midst of coal-mines. It manufactures about 
twelve millions of dollars' worth of ribbons annually. 
It is also extensively engaged in making fire-arms, bay- 
onets, and cutlery. 

Toulon is the great naval dockyard of France ; about 
6,000 hands are emploj'ed continually in it. 

The winters at Tonlon are so mild that the fig, date, orange, aloe, and 
pomegranate flourish in the open air. 

Strasbourg derives its importance from its geograpliical position in a 
military point of view. The cathedral in Strasbourg has tlie tallest spire in 
Europe, and is celebrated for its colossal clock, which, as it tell* the hours, 
amuses the people with its puppet-shows. (Now included in Germany.) 

Amiens is noted for its cotton and woollen goods. 

Nismcs is commercial and manufacturing, producing silks and woollens 
and exporting them to foreign markets, together with the oil and wine of 

Rheims is noted as the scene of the baptism of King 
Clovis, in 496. Here all the sovereigns of France 
were crowned. It has a famous old cathedral. It is 
now largely engaged in the manufacture of woollens and 
in the sale of wines. 

Cherbourg, with its fine breakwater, is the most im- 
portant naval station of France, on the Atlantic. 

Montpelier is celebrated for its chemical works. 

In Bayonne the first bayonets were used, hence their name. 

Nantes [naniz'), where the famous edict in favor of the 
Protestants was signed by Henry IV., in 1598. is largely 
engaged in commerce and ship-building, also in sugar- 
refining and the manufacture of glass, cotton goods, and 
machinery of various kinds. 

Questions. — 1. Describe the climates of Western Europe, and tell the 
influences which modify them. — What is said of the population of France? — 
Its area? — Its climate? 2, Productions? ,'i. llcligion of France ? 4. De- 
scribe the chief city and capital of France — Industries in Paris. — What is 
said of the French language? — Describe Lyons — Bordeaux — Toulouse — 
Cherbourg — Rheims, and other town*. 

^'ote, to the Teacher and SchoUir. — Hereafter, no (piestions except those on 
the man will be appended to the lessons. It is believed that, after the scholar 
has ailvanced as far as this point, the queslioua are unnecessary and may Ic- 
come tedious. licvietc Quextioiix, however, will he foimd at the und of t!i'; 
lessons on Europe, .\sia, and Africa. 



Austria, Hungary, and European Turkey. 

1. General Geof/rajiJij/.— These countries lie be- 
tween the same parallels with France. They are, how- 
ever, farther removed from the sea. Their climates are 
continental, like ours, and resemble the climates in cor- 
responding latitudes of the United States 
and Canada more nearly than they re- 
semble those of France. These countries 
lie between the parallels of 40° and 50°, 
and are identical in latitude with the 
States of Pennsylvania, New York, Michi- 
gan, and parts of the province of Ontario. 

These countries embrace together an area of 443,000 
square miles, and a population of 55,000,000 inhabitants. 

Excepting their capitals, they have only ten cities 
which contain a population of over 50,000. 

This part of the continent, with the Black Sea basin, 
is the granary of Europe. It produces corn, wheat, to- 
bacco, and everything else that is produced between like 
parallels in the United States. 


2. The inhabitants of this empire are 
Sclaves, Germans, and Magyars {mad'jars). 

The Gcrujaiis, though in the minority, 
are the dominant race. Theirs is the hm- 
guage of the empire. The emperor of 
Austria is king of Hungary. 

The Germans are remarkable for their blue eyes, yel- 
low hair, and fair skins. In old times they were often 
spoken of as " the yellow-haired Germans." 



Austria is richer in minerals than any other conti- 
nental nation of Europe. 

— ^>< 


"Wielicza, in Galicia, is famous for its salt-mines, which have been worked 
for more than 600 yeare. There is a chapel in tlie mine dedicated to St. An- 
thony. It was built more than 400 years ago. Its walls, ceilings, and floors ; 
its columns, with their ornamental capitals; its altars, and images, and chan- 
cel, are all carved out of the natural salt. Lemberg, the capital of Galicia, 
is noted for its fairs. 

The quicksilver-mines 
of Idria, in the neigh- 
borhood of Lajbach, are 
second only to those of 
Almaden in Spain, the 
most celebrated in the 

The hills of Austria, which 
abound in almost every kind of 
metallic formation, are rich in 
mineral waters also. Those of 
Carlsbad, Toplitz, and Seidlitz 
are of world-wide celebriety. 

During the great Earthquake 
at Lisbon in 1775, the waters of 
Toplitz and Carlsbad became 
turbid, then ceased temporarily; 
afterward they gushed out in 
blood-red color-it is said. 

Bohemia is also famed for its 
mines, its waters, and its fruits. 
Forests of damson and plum- 
trees arc found there. 

You have, no doubt, heard of 
the Bohemian glass. 

The Jewish population of 
Austria, Hungary, and Poland 
is very large. They, for tlic 
most part, Cixny on the trade 
of the country. 


Vienna, on the Danube, with a population of 607,000, 
is the capital, and the chief seat of the manufacturing 
industry of the Austrian empire. It is the 
principal focus of its inland trade, as Trieste 
is of its foreign trade. 

The workshops and artisans of Vienna. send 
forth annually large quantities of hardware, 
porcelain, silks, jewelry, gold and silver em- 
broideries, and musical instruments elaborated 
with much taste and skill. 

Prague, with a population of 142,000, has the oldest University 
in Germany. It was the birthplace of John Huss, Kepler, and 
many other eminent men. It is extensively engaged in manufac- 
tures, which are of the coarser sorts, and are intended chiefly 
for the inland markets of Germany and the neighboring States. 

Gratz, the capital of Styria, with 63,000 in- 
habitants, is in a rich country, and affords the 
cheapest living of any place in Europe. 

Briinn, with 58,000 inhabitants, is to Austria 
what Leeds is to England for woollens, and 
Lyons is to France for silks, Belfast to Ire- 
land for linens, and Pittsburg to Pennsylvania 
for glass. 

Pesth, with a population of 131,000, on one side of the Danube, and Buda 
(sometimes called Ofen, the oven, from its hot springs) on the other, with a 
population of 55,000, form Buda-Pesth, the capital of Hungary. The cele- 
biated crown of St. Stephen, which was given to hiui by the Pope in the year 
1000, is kept here. 



-~ — 



The nobility sometimes own, as in feudal times, immense estates. From 
the banks of the Danube all the way up in the direction of Brlinn toward 
the head-waters of the Vistula and the Oder, the country, almost without 
interruption, for the distance of 200 miles, is the private property of a siogle 
Austrian nobleman. 

Turkey in Europe. 

3. The Turkish empire lies, a part in Africa, a part 
in Asia, and a part in Europe. 

Turkey in Europe, 
Turkey in Asia, - 
Turkey in Africa, 







Total, 1,7;}0,703 35,213,702 

Turkey in Europe is semi-peninsular. It has a sea 
on the east and on the west, and, at no great distance, on 
the south. This modifies the climate. See p. 62. 

The Turks, like the Arabs, have dark complexions. 

Constantinople, the great Turkish emporium, was 
founded by Constantino the Great in 328, on the site of 
old Byzantium. He was the first Roman emperor pro- 
fessing Christianity. Eleven centuries and a quarter 
afterward it fell into the hands of the Turks. They 
have held this city ever since. They have converted 
the splendid Christian church of St. Sophia into a mag- 
nificent mosque. The seraglio {se-ral'yo) of the Grand 
Turk adjoins it. 

The geographical position of Constantinople confers 
such advantages upon it, in a military point of view, as 
to make it, in the eyes of the great powers of Europe, 
" the Key to the East:' 

Generally, the streets of this city arc narrow and filthy, and the private 
nouses are mean, and built chiefly of wood ; hence the frequency and de- 
Etructiveness of fires in Constantinople. It is said to be burnt down on the 
average once in every fifteen years. The city is given up to idleness and 

li is computed that there are no less than 80,0b0 wherries plying daily for 

hire on " the Golden Horn " and its adjacent waters. " The Golden Horn " i.- 
an inlet of the Bosporus. Its chief manufacturing industry is directed to 
meerschaum pipes and leather. (The word meerschaum means the foam of 
the sea. It is really a kind of soft chalk.) 

The population of Constantinople is 1,075,000. 

Adrianople is in the land of roses ; plantations of 
them are cultivated for their essence. Like Constan- 
tinople, and most Turkish cities, Adrianople is beautiful 
in the distance, but when the traveller enters it, the 
enchantment which distance lends is gone. 

Bucharest, the capital of Roumania, exports vast quantities of grain, wool, 
timber, salt, wa.\, and other raw produce. 

Salonika, with 90,000 inhabitants, is also beautiful in 
the distance, with its mosques, minarets, domes, and 
towers. It, too, has a large trade based on the expor- 
tation of raw j)roduce. Bosna Serai has 122 inos(|ues. 

The celebrated Mount Athos stands on a peninsula to the east of Sal- 
onica. It has been occupied from time immemorial by a community of 
Greek monks, who pay the Sultan an annual rental of about $20,000. Tiiey 
are governed by one of their own order styled " the tirst man of Athos," and 
one of the rules of this order is, that no woman or anj' other female creature, 
not even a cow or a hen, shall enter their domains. Tlieir villages are in 
habited entirely by bachelors. 

The government of Turkey is styled the Sublime Porte, and its sovereign 
the Sultan or Grand Seignior. Many of his subjects are Jews. 

The Danubian provinces of Scrvia and Roumania, and the mountain 
principality of Montenegro, by the treaty of Berlin (1878), were made inde- 
pendent of Turkey. The new provinces of Bulgaria and Ivist Roiunelia luivc 
Christian Governors, but are partially dependent on Turkish lule. In Servia 
there is no distinction of classes. Nearly every fiunily has a freehold. There 
are no paupers. They have trial by jury ; no established church, but tolera- 
tion for all. The country abounds in natural resources. 



Greece and Italy, Spain and Portugal 

1. General Geof/rajihy.— These three peninsulas 
lie between the same parallels of latitude. They 
have corresponding climates, and, consequently, 
similar industrial pursuits. They have an ag- 
gregate population of 40,480,000. 

There is no city in Greece with a population 
as great as 50,000. 

2. Cities of the Spanish Peninsula. — In the 
])cninsula of Spain and Portugal there are, be- 
.^idcs the cai)ital of Spain, only four inland townr, 
with more than 50,000 inhabitants, and two 
Granada and Saragossa owe their present, though 
declining, proportions, rather to their ancient re- 
nown, their traditions, and the prestige of their 
former glory, than to present industries or any 
living spirit of enterprise among their inhab- 



Each was once the capital of a powerful empire. 
Saragossa — a corruption of its Eoman name, " Ceesar 
Augustus" — was in the days of Rome a noble city. 

In 1808-9, when the French made an aggressive war upon Spain, this 
city was made iUustrious by the noble stand whicli the inhabitants made for 
its defence. 

It was the capital of Aragon, of which the patroness of Colmnbus — Isa- 
bella — was the queen, at the time of the discoveiy of America. 

The glory of Granada has also departed. The splen- 
did alabaster monuments of Ferdinand and Isabella arc 
there. It was the last stronghold of the Moors in Spain. 

3. The AlJifttubra was the great Moorish palace, and it is the finest 
si)ecimen of arabes(iue architecture in Europe. 

4. Gibraltar is a celebrated fortress cut out of the 

solid rock. It commands the passage between the 
Mediterranean and the Atlantic. The town is inhab- 
ited by people of all nationalities. It is a free port, 
and belongs to England. 

.5. Alpine Passes. — One of the best passes across the Alps leads 
tlirougli Milan, the entrepot of trade from Genoa and Northern Italy with 
Central Europe. 

There is a considerable Swiss trade with Italy across 
Lake Lucerne and over the pass of the St. Gothard. 
The Great St. Bernard (crossed by Napoleon and his 
army in 1800), the Grimsel, the Cervin, and the Splugen 
are the other passes most frequented. 

Turin, like Milan and most of the cities in this part of the country, live 
upon their ancient renown. Its manufacturing industry is chiefly in silk. 

6*. TJie 3font Cents Tunnel. — By means of the 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, which is cut through the Alps, 
and is the grandest work of the kind in the world, Turin 
is connected with all parts of France and Germany. 


7. Staples — The staple productions of these three 
peninsulas are the same. Corn, wheat, the olive, and 
the vine, the silk-worm and fruit, all thrive equally well 
in them. 

Spain and Portugal. 

8. Spain and Portugal are both mountainous coun- 
tries, many of the peaks being high enough to be always 
covered with snow. In the last century they were both 
ranked among the first-class powers of Europe. They 
failed to catch the spirit of progress and improvement, 
however, which mark the age, and have consequently 
dwindled down into second and third rate powers. 

Both of these countries profess the Roman Catholic religion. Their in- 
habitants are of a dark complexion, with black hair and eyes, quite different 
from the yellow-hai)-ed, blue-eyed Germans. But like the Italians, and all 
other people who live in mild climates and under bright skies, they are lively 
and gay ; prone to out-door amusements, fond of bright colors, and much 
given to music and dancing. 

The clii(;f articles of export are wine and oil, olive, aloes, and other fruits, 
both fresh and dried. Tlio Andori-a R('i)nbliolias 150 scj. ms. ; pop. 13,000. 

Our merchants have quite a number of vessels employed especially tr oring 
raisins, grapes, and oranges from Malaga, and there is a large trade also with 
England in these fruits. 

Madrid, with a population of 476,000, is the capital 
and largest city of Spain. Barcelona, with 252,000 
inhabitants, is next in size. 

Spain is rich in minerals, and among the most famous 
mines in the world are the quicksilver mines of Alma- 
den — famous for their yield, and the centuries for which 
they have been worked. 

Lisbon is the capital of Portugal, with 225,000 in- 
habitants. It was the scene of a fearful earthquake 

in 1755. 


9. Italy was the seat of ancient Rome. It was the 
land of Galileo, Dante, and Tasso. 

I From her peninsular position, Italy, as did Eng- 
land in her insular position, stood comparatively 
secure from outside attacks in olden times. 

Italy now contains Piedmont, Lombardy, Tus- 
.,,(,1 cany, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the States of 
the Church. 

The ruins, the traditions, and the as.sociations 
connected with Rome make it famous, and contin- 
uallv crowd it with students, scholars, learned men, 
and tourists. 

Rome is on the classic Tiber. It has been lately seized by the Italians 
and occupied as Ibeir capital. This renowned city is in hUilude 41° 50', 
and lias now n population of 220,000. 
'■*"' NoTi;. — Let the pupil compare the latitude of Rome with that of 

- some oflhe capitals of the great nations which have made their mark in 
histoiy, and note their difference in climate. 

Italy is also Roman Calholic in religion. The Pope still holds his 
court in Rome; though his temporal power is limited to the Stales of the 
Church, with a population of 733,000, and an area of 4,550 square miles. 

The Pontine Marshes are in the southern part of the pontificial territory. 
They were once so poisonous, tluU to sleep in them for a single night was 
considered fatal. 




Venice, with 120,000 inhabitants, occupies 72 small 
islands, connected by bridges. The streets are navi- 
gated in gondolas. 

Naples, with 420,000 inhabitants, is the largest city 
of Italy. 

Italy grows the mulberry, the olive, and the vine ; riee, cotton, and the 
cereals are also cultivated there. ^ 

Lombardy is the best-cultivated part of the country. Its system of irriga- 
tion is perhaps unsurpassed. It is also a fine cattle country and famed for the 
produce of its dairies. 

Iron and sulphur, boracic acid, and marble are the chief mineral produc- 
tions of Italy. 

The climate of Italy is mild, and oranges and lemons 
ripen, in some parts, as early as March. 

From the marble-quarries of Greece and Italy the 
artists of all ages have cut their finest statues. The 
picture-galleries of Italy are very famous too, and they 
attract young artists from all parts of the world. 

The volcanoes of Etna, Stromboli, and Vesuvius arc 
in the domains of Italy. 

The cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were swal- 
lowed up in the lava and ashes from Vesuvius hundreds 
of years ago. 

The government of Italy is causing these cities to be excavated, and the 
■svorkmen find the bodies of tlie bakers at their ovens, of the potter at liis 
wheel, of the servant in the kitchen, of the mistress in the parlor, and all the 
inhabitants at their various occupations, just as they were at the moment of 
the great catastrophe. 

San Marino is a little republic set on the top of a 
rugged mountain over 2,000 feet high. 

Grenoa, famous as the birthplace of Columbus, manu- 
factures the finest of silks and velvets. 

The peninsula of Grreece, with its islands, is about 
half as large as South Carolina. It contains 1,097,000 
inhabitants, mau}^ of whom are brigands. 

Greece suffered under Turkish misrule for many generations. At last, in 
its struggle for independence forty years ago, it was assisted by the great 
powers, and erected into a sejjarate kingdom under their guarantee. 

It has a large seafaring population. Greek merchants 
and Greek sailors are to be found in all the ports of the 
Mediterranean. Its industries are chiefly agricultural. 

We get from Greece, currants, figs, and other dried fruits. Attention there 
is paid to the cultivation of the vine and the mulberry, and to the making of 
wine and the manufacture of silk goods. But the country is intested with 
highway robbers and brigands, and the laws are badly administered. 

Athens, with a population of 40,000, is the capital of 
Greece, and is unrivalled for the fame of its ancient 
philosophers, poets, i)ainters, and orators. 

The Ionian Republic comprises seven islands. 

Corinth was in ancient times famed for its wealth, its 
s])lendid edifices, and its moral corruption. 

10. — Greece, like Rome, was also once the seat of 
an empire that ruled the world. 


The New German Empire and the Smaller Powers. 

/. General Geo{ft'((ithtf. — The smaller Powers are 
the Kingdoms of Holland, Belgium, and Denimirk. 
These three Kingdoms form no part of Germany. The 
new German Mnpire consists of the Kingdoms of Prus- 
sia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Saxony, 13 Duchies, 
6 Principalities, 4 Free Cities, an Elec- 
torate and a Landgraviate, with the 
newly-acquired provinces of Alsace and 
Lorraine ; but all these States, with Bel- 
gium, Holland, and Denmark, embrace 
an area of 205,000 scpiare miles, with a 
population of 51,000,000. 

It is worthy of note, that these 
51,000,000 people all inhabit a region 
of country not quite so large as Texas. 

The total population of the New Ger- 
man Empire is 41,000,000 ; its area is 
225,000 square miles. 

These 51,000,000 people have built up 
31 cities, each with a population of 50,000 
and upward. 

There is a large emigration annually from these coun- 
tries to the United States, chiefly from the ports of Bre- 
men and Hamburg, from wliich tlicre are lines of steamers to America, as 
there are from Havre, South.uupton, and Liverpool. 

2. Hamburg and Bremen.— Hamburg, with a population of 



305:000, is the chief seaport of the North German states. It is on tlie Elbe, 
about 70 miles from its mouth. 

Bremen has a population of 75,000, and is a rival of Hamburg for German 

Lubeck, another of the Free Cities, next in importance to Bremen, has a 
population of 51,000. The crust of the earth at Lubeck has been, in the course 
of a few centuries, perceptibly raised out of the sea. 

3. Intellectual C/tar«c^c>\— The inhabitants of these 
countries are highly intelligent, and very industrious, 
ingenious, and thrifty. 

To promote trade, great commercial fail's are held at stated periods and at 
various places. Among the most famous are those held at Leipsic. This 
town is celebrated for its tj-pe-foundries, printing establishments, and the 
cheapness, variety, and numbers of its publications in all languages. 


4:. Prussia is the master-spirit of Germany. 

Berlin the capital of Prussia and also of the German 
Empire, has a populationofl,000,000, and is one of the 
finest cities of Europe. 


At Berlin resides Williuni, the first emperor of the 
new Geniiau Empire. 

In the war of 1800, which lasted hut seven weeks, Prussia completely ab- 
sorbed the Kingdom of Hanover, the Electorate of Hesse-Cassel, the Duchy 
of Nassau, the free city of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and tlie Landgraviate of 
Ilesse-Homburg. At the same time, the Duchy of Holstein and the Duchy 
of Schleswig, once Danish, were annexed to Prassia; twelve States, free 
cities, viz., the Kingdom of Saxony, the Grand Duchies of Mecklenberg- 
Schwerin, Mccklenhcrg-Strelitz, and Oldenberg, the northern half of the 
Grand Duchy ot Hesse-Darmstadt, the Duchies of Brunswick and Anhalt, 

the principalities of Lippe and Waldeck, the six Thuringian States, and the 
Reuss States, all entered into most intimate and dependent relations with 
Prussia. Bavaria, Baden, Wurtemberg, and the southern portion of Hesse- 
Darmstadt, entered into a treaty witli the King of Prussia, agreeing, in time 
of war, to put their armies under his control. 

These States have fine climates and a productive soil, 
under which is stored away mineral treasures of great 
value and abundance. They are rich also in mineral 
springs and medicinal waters of various sorts and tem- 
peratures. The most famous watering-places are the 
hot springs of Baden-Baden, the warm springs of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, and the boiling springs of Wiesbaden. 

The most famous mineral production of Prussia is the zinc of Silesia, with 
which the markets of India are supplied. But the most singular production 
is amber, wliich is cast up by the waves of the Baltic, and the collection of 
which is the prerogative of the crown. 

Konigsberg and Stettin are important seaports. 
Cologne, with 126,000 inhabitants, is the most popu- 
lous city of Prussia, on the Rhine. Ehrenbreitstein, 
opposite Cologne, is one of the strongest 
Prussian citadels. From Dantzic, large 
.^^ quantities of grain are shipped. 

^^ Frankfort, with a population of 80,000, 

J^ was the capital of the old Germanic Con- 

federation. It stands on the right bank ol 
the Main. Munich, the capital of Bava- 
ria, is renowned for its literary institu- 
tions and its galleries of art. 

5. Saxony is celebrated for its breed 
of sheep, and its wool. 

G. Belgium is the best cultivated and 
most densely populated country in Eu- 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium, on the Senne, with 
190,000 inhabitants, is widely known for its race and its 
carriages. Ghent nearly equals Brussels in population, 
but Antwerp is the great commercial emporium of Bel- 
gium, and has 125,000 inhabitants. 

Leige, with 97,500 inhabitants, is the seat of the Bel- 
gian iron-works. Ostend is an important seaport on tlie 
North Sea. 

7. Holland has literally been re- 
claimed from the sea, the waters of which 
are kept out by means of embankments called dykes. 
It is a low and flat country, intersected with canals as 
others are with roads. 

Holland is a sort of a dairy-farm, from which the 
markets of Hull, London, and other English towns are 
chiefly supplied, especially with cheese, beef, cattle, and 

The Dutch are a sober, provident, and industrious 



people. They are fine sailors, and are extensively en- 
gaged in the sea-tisheries as well as in commerce and 

Holland used to be a great naval and commercial power. She has large 
possessions both in the East and West Indies. 

The chief branches of indusliy licrc are connected with the soil and llie 
sea. The most celebrated lapidaries are in Amsterdam. 


Amsterdam is the largest and mcst important town in 
Holland, with 265,000 inhabitants. 
The Hague is the capital of Holland. 


Switzerland, Norway and Sweden, and Denmark. 


1. The Republic of Switzerland, though only one- 
third larger than Maryland, consists of 22 separate 
States or "Cantons," which are as distinct from each 
other as are the States in the American Union. 

Their independence dates from 1307, and the affairs 
of the Republic are, as with us, managed by a Congress. 

Regarding Europe as a watershed that is drained, as 
its rivers show, off to the north, south, east, and west 
(study the Orographic View of Central Europe), Switzer- 

land, with its Alps, is at the top of the roof, for you see 
that the great rivers, as the Danube, Rhine, Rhone, and 
Po, rising in these mountains, empty into the Black 
Sea, the North Sea, the Mediterranean, and the 
ii, Mont Blanc, 15,740 feet high, is the highest 
peak in Europe, and, though situated 
within the borders of France, belongs to 
the Swiss Alps. Mont Cervin, or " Tlie 
Matlerliorn,^'' the rival of Mont Blanc 
and Monte Rosa, is an imposing obelisk, 
and has defied every attempt to scale 
its ice-clad pinnacle. 

These mountains are celebrated for 
their snow-clad peaks, beautiful lakes, 
grand scenery, and their glaciers, which 
are immense masses of ice and snow 
tluit are always sliding down from the 
mountains into the valleys below. As 
they move, rocks, soil, trees, and every- 
thing are overwhelmed and carried down 
before them. Some of the most cele- 
brated philosophers of Europe have spent 
much time there in studying these curious 

More than 1000 square miles are 

covered by the glaciers, and they are 

estimated to vary in thickness from 200 

to 5000 feet. 

Switzerland is the most mountainous country in 


The celebrated institution of charity, the Hospice of Mount St. Bernard, is 
m Switzerland. It is situated 8,185 feet above the level of the sea, and is tlie 
higiiest place of human habitation in Europe. 

The Hospice of St. Bernard has been occupied for ages by Benedictine 
Monks, whose business it is to refresh and relieve travellers. They teach the 
celebrated dog of St. Bernard to hunt and relieve wayfarere who get lost in 
the snow. 

These sagacious animals are always sent out during a snow-storm with 
baskets of provisions and wine tied around their necks to relieve and revive 
those who are perishing in the bitter cold of these mountains. 

In the dead-house are contained the frozen and unrecognized bodies of 
travellers who have perished in the snow ; they never thaw, and lie there like 
so many statues of marble. 

The Swiss are said to be the Dutchmen of the moun- 
tains ; they are phlegmatic, industrious,and liberty-loving. 

Owing to the mountainous character of their country, which is better 
adapted to grazing than to tillage, they do not produce breadstuffs enough 
for tlieir own use, and their industries are devoted chiefly to cattle-raising, 
dairy-farming, and manufacturing. 

5. We get from there Swiss muslins, ribbons, toys, 
and carved work. They excel in the manufacture also of 
watches and musical-boxes. Geneva is famed for these. 



[List of names answering to numbers on Orographic View of Ct'iitral 

9. Stockliolm. 

10. Copenhagen. 

11. Oldenburg, 

12. Bremen. 

13. Berne. 

14. Florence. 

15. Rome. 

16. Turin. 

17. Paris. 

18. Madrid. 

19. London. 

20. Edinburgh. 

21. Dublin. 

22. Athens. 

1. St. Petersburg. 

2. Moscow. 

3. Constantinople. 

4. Vienna. 

5. Berlin. 

6. Prague. 

7. Dresden. 

8. Munich. 

Note. — Let the pupil carefully find all of these places and observe their 
comparative elevations.] 

Switzerland is classed among Protestant nations. 

There are 22 Cantons in Switzerland, of which Berne, with a population 
of 30,000, is the capital. 

4:. Are two goveraments under one king. Each country makes its own 
lews. They form a mountainous peninsula, often called ScANDrsAvr.A.. 
They lie between the parallels of 55° and 72° north latitude. 

This country is so rugged, and the rays of the 
sun strike so feebly into the deep glens, that the 
cultivation of the soil is not very remunerative. 

In the northern part of Norway, during several weeks in summer, 
the sun does not set at all, and travellers often go to the North Cape 
there just to see the midnight sun. It is a very curious and most in- 
teresting sight. 

The chief branches of industry are connected with 
the forests, which are very extensive and furnish 
timber for the navies of Europe ; with the mines, 
which furnish our markets with the beautiful Swe- 
dish iron ; with navigation, that furnishes the 
navies of the world with the best of sailors ; or 
with the sea-fisheries, which furnish the chief sup- 
plies of fish for Europe. 

The Swedes and Norwegians are Lutherans in religion. They there- 
fore belong to Protestant Europe. The Mormons of Utah are recruited 
chiefly from Norway and Wales. 

Lajjland, a cold region of Sweden, Norway, and Russia, is inhab- 
ited by the diminutive Lapps. 

Hammerfest, within the Arctic Circle, the most northerly town o/ 
Europe, consists of a single street of detached, one-storied frame-houses 
An obelisk on the outskirts marks the end of ihc meridian line of 25° 
20', measured ^^^_ 

by the geome- g^aSP" ^|^^^i_- 

ters of Norway, _^ ^=- 

Sweden, and 
Russia, from a 
point on the 

It is common 
for the poorest 
Lapps to pos- 
sess a dozen 
reindeer, while 
occasionally a 
herd of a thou- 
sand is owned 
by a single in- 

The Lapps 
are highly 
intelligent, are 
not lacking in 
literary cul- 
ture, and are 
remarkable for a lapp lady. 

their sweetness of expression. 

Stockholm, with a population of 140,000, is the capi- 
tal of Norway and Sweden. It is built on a few small 
islands near Lake Malar. 

Gottenburg, and Carlscrona, the naval arsenal of 
Sweden, are commercial cities. 

The Norwegian city of Christiana has 40,000 inhab- 

Frederickshall. with 7,500 inhabitants, stands on a 
bav of the Christiana fiord, and has an obelisk to mark 



the spot where the famous Charles XII. fell, in 1718, 
■while besieging the fortress. 

Bergen, with about 26,000 inhabitants, is chiefly en- 
gaged in the Lofoden fishery. 


Denmark is one of the oldest States in Europe. It 
consists of a peninsula projecting towards the southern 
coast of Norway, and comprises Jutland and several 
important islands near the entrance of the Baltic Sea. 

At no very remote period the peninsula was largelj- 
covered with forests, and wolves were common and in 
great numbers. 

The coasts of Denmark are in some places low, and 
dykes are necessar\' to keep out the waters of the sea. 

To its peninsular form its climates owe their humidity, 
evenness, and mildness. 

The government is a monarchy, and the religion of 
the people is Lutheran. 

The Duchies of Schleswig Holstein and Lauenberg 
once belonged to Denmark,- but were wrested from her 
in 1864. and in 1860 ceded to Prussia. 

Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, with a popula- 
tion of 160,000, is an elegant and important city. Its 
University library contains 100,000 volumes. 

It was on his way to attack Copenhagen in the winter 
of 1658, that Charles X. of Sweden, against the warn- 
ings of his ablest generals, marched his whole army, 
horse, foot, and artillery, over the frozen Baltic. 

Elsinore, on the Danish Sound, is an important naval 


Russia (Map, p. 124.) 

1. Russia inchides all of northern Europe not here- 
tofore treated, and the whole of northern Asia. 

Russia in Europe lies chiefly between the parallels of 
45' and 70°, and Russia in Asia, between those of 50° 
and 78°. In the two continents it embraces an area far 
greater than that of the United States. 

Its climates are cold and inhospitable ; its geograph- 
ical position is such as to exclude most of its inhabitants 
from navigation and the pursuits of the sea. 

Throughout the vast area included within the domains 
of this empire only five cities of 100,000 inhabitants 
and upward are to be found. 


2. The chief industries of Russia are connected with 
the land rather than with the sea. They are mining, agri- 
cultural, and manufacturing. But the productions of 
her factories are intended chiefly for home consumption. 

S. Russia in B^irope is, for the most part, a level 
country, sloping as the rivers flow. (See Orographic 
View.) That part of it which lies south of 60°, and 
borders on the Caspian and Black Seas, is agriculturally 
very rich ; the soil is black and warm. It forms the 
country known as the "Black Lands of Russia," and 
resembles the prairies of Minnesota and other Western 
States. This section of Europe is very fertile ; the soil 
is inexhaustible, yielding annually, without manure, 
two crops, a green crop and a cereal. Its wines are 
also very fine. 

4. This part of Russia, with European Turkey, and Eastern Asia, is the 
granary of Europe. The corn from tliese regions meets in the marl^ets of 
Great Britain and Western Europe the grain and breadstufFs from tlie United 
States, and thus tlie farmers of the far West find in tlie markets of London — 
wliich is the greatest grain-market in the woild— competition from tlie far 

Russia also sends to Great Britain hemp, tallow, 
leather, skins, and furs in large quantities. 

J. Russia has the largest population of any State in 
Christendom. In Europe and Asia together she has a 
population of 77,000.000, and an area of 7,862,585 
square miles. Russia, Great Britain, and the United 
States, exercise dominion over one-third of the land 
surface of the earth, and one-fourth of its inhabitants. 
The English possessions lie cliiefly in warm climates, 
the American in temperate, and the Russian in cold. 
Russia has but fourteen cities of more than 50,000 in- 
habitants ; thus indicating that her peoi)le live rather 
by tillage and i)asturage, than by manufacturing and 
ocean commerce. 

St. Petersburg, Uie capital, has a popiiladon of 550,000; Moscow 360,000; 
Warsaw 245,000; Odi'ssa 120,000; Rig:i 100,000. 

6*. The Steppes of Russia extend along its southern 
borders all the way from the foot of the Carpathian 
Mountains, in Europe, to the borders of China, in Asia. 
This is a prairie countrj^, and but for its distance from 
the sea and its summer droughts, would be as smiling 
as ours is. 

7. Russia has a considerable inland trade with the 
bordering States both in Europe and Asia, and it is car- 
ried on by caravans, and disposed of by means of fiiirs, 
the most famous of which are held at Nijnii {mzK-ni) 
Novgorod. Merchants from China, Mongolia, India, Af- 
ghanistan, Persia, Turkey, and from all parts of Europe 
attend this fair. The annual concourse ranges between 




two and three hundred thousand merchants with their 


<S. Russia is rich in minerals of all sorts, from gold, 
silver, platinum, and precious stones down. There is no 
malachite more exquisitel}^ beautiful than that of Russia. 

0. Until lately about one-third of the people in Rus- 
sia were slaves, called serfs. But the present emperor, 
yielding to the spirit of the age, has emancii)ated them. 

10. Moscow is celebrated for a vast structure — comi^rising forts, barracks, 
palaces, churches, and cathedrals all in a group — called the Kremlin. 

It has also been made famous bj' Napoleon I., who, in 1812, marched his 
grand army into Moscow for winter-quarters. Tlie inhabitiints of tlio city 
set fire to their houses, the whole place was laid in ashes, and the invading 
ai-my was compelled to make a winter retreat, and was completely destroyed. 

Moscow lies four hundred and eighty-five miles ^ _. 

south by east of St. Petersburg. Peter the Great made 
the journey in winter, in an open sledge, in forty-si.x 
hours; the Emperor Alexander more than once made 
it in forty-two hours ; the express railway train now 
accomplishes it in twenty-two hours. 

The Suez Canal gives Russia a new route to "the 
East." Tue Oilessa Company has already 80 steamers 
in thai trade. 

Kazan has a populalioii of 58.000. 

Sebaslopol, famous for its siege and capture b}' the 
French, assisted by the English, in the Crimean war, 
1854, has a reduced population. 

Warsaw, the ancient capital of Po- 
land, is the emporium of trade for Rus- 
sian Poland. 

Archangel, with a population of 20,000 
inhabitants, is the great shipping port of 
Northern Russia, as Odessa, on the 
Black Sea, is of Southern Russia. 

Archangel is situated close to a geo- 
graphical line which marks the northern 
limit of cereal and garden culture ; all 

its grain and vegetable supplies, as well as fodder for 
cattle, are transported from a distance. 

Astrakhan, with a popu- 
lation of 45,000, is an island 
city on the Volga river. 
Through it passes the trade 
of Russia with Western 

The Russians adopt the 
Greek form of worship, and 
the emperor is the head of 
the Church. 

11. The government is 
an absolute monarch3^ It 
has no constitution, no ])ar- 
liaraent, no congress. 

12. The inhabitants con- 
sist of many races, but the 
majority are Sclavonic, 

though tlie Teutonic, the Finnish, and the Tiiiki.sli races 
are represented among them. 

Ethnography will teach you the early history, types, and laces of man- 
kind. From it, when you study Physical Geography, yon will learn that tlic 
Sclavonic race includes the Ku.ssians, the Poles, and tlie inhabitants of 
Croatia, Servia, Illyria. The Teutonic family includes the (Jernians, Eng- 
lisli, Dutcii, Flemings, Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians. French, Italians, 
Spaniards, and Portuguese make up the Latin race. 

13. Finland is a dependency of the Russian Empire, 
and is a Grand Duchy Its interior is a vast plateau. 
The Governor-General, representing the Emperor of 
Russia, resides at Helsingfors. 




LESSOjY lxv. 

Studies on the Map of Europe, (pp. 124, 125.) 


Between what parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude does 
Europe lie?— What natural boundaiy has it on the north?— On the east?— 
On the south?— On the west?— What, on the southeast?— What grand divi- 
sion on the east ?— What, on the south ?— How do the penmsulas of Europe 
generally project? 

Bound France.— Between what parallels of latitude does it lie ?— How is 
it separated from England ?— How, from Italy? -How, from Spain?— Bound 
''the Peninsula" (Spain and Portugal).— Bound Portugal.— Bound Italy— 
Oi-eecc.— Bound Switzerland.— Bound Norway— Lapland— The Empue of 
Austria. -Between what natural and political boundaries does Russia in 
Europe lie?-B()und Russia in Asia.— Bound Turkey-Italy-England- 
Belgium— Greece. 

Where is Holland ?-Denmark ?-Wales ?-Irelaud ?-Iceland ?-Hano- 
ver?— Saxony?— Bavaria ?— Bohemia V -Hungary ?— Roumania ?— Roume- 
lia ?— Servia ? 


What great range of mountains travei-ses a large part of Europe?— What 
mountains on the east?— Wliat mountains northwest of the Black Sea?— 
What mountains lie northeast of the Black Sea?— Point out the Balkan 
Mountains.— Where are the Apennines ?— The Pyrenees ?— What mountains 
are in " the Peninsula" of Spain and Portugal ?— Are there any mountains in 
Norway and Sweden ?— Give the general direction of the mountains of 
Europe.— Are the mountains of Italy on the east or west side of that penin- 
sula ?-Where are the Jura Mountains?- Carpathian ?-Where is Mount 
Etna?— Mount Vesuvius?— St. Bernard ?— Mont Blanc V— How high is Mont 
Blanc? (See bottom of Mercator's Map of the World.)— What country is on 
the top of the great watershed of Europe drained by tlie Rhine, Rlione, 
Danube, and Po?— Where are the Alps?— What is the higliesl mountain in 
Europe? (Refer to the Orographic View of Central Europe.) 



Name the rivers of France, and tell where they rise and where they cniiHy.— 
(The Loire (length, 645 miles), the longest river of France is about the length 
of the Cumberland River in the United States.) Wliat two rivers unite to 
form the Gironde ?— Is any part of France drained by the Rhine ? 

AVhat five rivers of Spain flow into the Atlantic Ocean ?— Describe llic 
Ell)e— The Rhine— The Weser.— Trace the Vistula— The Oder— The Dwina 
— Tlie Dneiper— Tlie Volga— The Don— The Dneister— The Po— The Rhone 
—The Seine. The Seine rum throiifjh the City of Pa?'w.— The course of the 
Danube.— Which waterslied is the largest, that whicli is drained into the 
Baltic, or that which is drained into the Nortli Sea '?— How far is the Rhine 
navigable ? Am. to ScbafTliausen, in the norlli of Switzerland. 

Note.— The Elbe and Rhine drain 143,000 square miles ; tlie Seine, Loire, 
and Garonne, 110,000 sq. m. ; the Douro, Tagus, Gaudiana, and Guadal- 
qnivcr, lir,,000 sq. m. ; the Tiiames, 6,500 stj. m. ; the Severn, 5,500 sq. m. ; 
tlie Neva, Vistula, Oder, Dwina, and Niomcn, .^05,000 sq. m. ; the El)ro, 
Rlione, and Po, 110,000 sq. m. ; the Danube, Dniester, Dnieper, and Don, 
791,000 sq. m. 

The Dnnuhe is, of all these, the largest, runninr/ 1000 miles in a direct line 
from its chief tryiirce. 

Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. 

Where is the Adriatic Sea ? — Ai-chipelago ? — The Black Sea ?— The Sea 
of Azov ?— The Sea of Marmora ?— The Caspian Sea ?— The White Sea ?— The 
Baltic?— The North Sea?— The Mediterranean? The Mediterranean is a 
warm, tideless sea. Tlie countries along its border enjoy an insular climate. 

Note.— The reason the temperature of the sea is not so changeable or 
easily affected as that of the land, is to be found in the fact that water has 
great capacity for heat; it can, with but slight change of temperature, hold 
much more heat than the air can. Thus the heat that a cubic foot of 
water loses in cooling 1° will warm 100° cubic feet of atmosphere 1°. 

Where is the Gulf of Lions?— Of Genoa?— Name all the Gulfs on the 
southern coast of Europe.— Where is the Gulf of Bothnia ?— Gulf of Fmland ? 
—Gulf of Riga ?— Where is the Bay of Biscay ? 

Straits and Lakes. 

Where is the Strait of Gibraltar ? The water of the Mediterranean is la/rgely 
absorbed by tlie sun, by tlie process of evaporation, and, to supply this loss, there is 
an indraught from the Atlantic Ocean, through tlie Strait of Gibraltar, forming 
sometimes a strong current which sailing) vessels can hardly stem. 

Where is the Strait of Messina ? In the Strait of Messina are the famous 
rocks of Scylla and the whirlpool of Charybdis, which were the dread of ancient 
manners.— ^hai-Q is the Bosporus ?— What does it connect? 

Note. — In the Strait of Messina the fishery of the sword-fish is of impor- 
tance. The men of Messina and Reggio join in with a great number of boats, 
carrying brilliant flambeaux, and use three-pronged harpoons. The sword- 
fish is from five to six feet long, is terribly armed, and often perforates the 
copper and hull of sliips with its weapon. A miserable little parasite, how- 
ever, sometimes burrows beneath the flesh of the sword-fish, and drives it 
mad witli pain, till it dies. 


Where is Lake Lucerne .-Lake Wener ?-Lake Ladoga ?-Onega J 

Islands and Capes. 

Where are the Lofoden Isles ?-The Balearic Islands ?-Where is Sar, 
dinia ?-Corsica ? - Sicily ?-Malta ?-Candia ?-Cyprus ?-Rhodes ?-What 
Islands are in the Baltic Sea ?— The Scilly Islands ? 

Where is Cape Matapan?-The Naze ?-Cape St. Vincent ?-Cape Finis- 
tpvre ?— North Cape?— What is the most southern cape of Europe?— What is 
the most eastern ?— What the most northern cape ? 

Meridiaa of Greanwich 

-, Ir (' 



Harbors and Cities. 

Name some of the harbors on the Mediterraneau, and point them out — 
Also, on the Atlantic — On the Baltic and its greai estuaries. — Name tlie 
Capital of every country in Europe, and state how it is situated with regard 
to the chief seaport of that country. — What are the chief towns of France ? — 
Of Prussia?— of Holland ?— of Belgium ?— of Switzerland ?— of Turkey?— of 
Austria ? — of Italy ? — of Spain ? — of Portugal ? — of Norway and Sweden ? — of 
Denmark? — Point out Paris — Nijni-Novgorod — St. Petersburg — Hammor- 
fest — Athens — Corinth — Vienna — Rome — Cronstadt — Sebastopol — Antwerp 
— Geneva — Amsterdam — Stockholm — Copenhagen — Berlin — Basle. 

Distances, Rentes of Travel, and. Trade. 

Wliat town in France is opposite Dover, in England ? — Distance between 
the two places? — How far is Paris from the sea? — How far and which way 
do you go from Toulouse to Calais? — To Marseille?— To Nice? — To Cher- 
bourg ? — From Calais to Marseille ? — From Havre to Brest ? — From Bor- 
deaux to Nantes ? — How would you go from Paris to Geneva ? — How far is 
it from Berlin to Vienna?— Tell the distance from the Hague, by water, 
to Schafifhauscn. — How would you go from Hamburg to St. Petersburg ? — 
From Venice to Florence ? — From Geneva to Rome ? — From Athens to Con- 
stantinople ? — To Sebastopol ? 

How far is it from Malta to Alexandria, Egypt ? — From Malta to Paris ? — 
From Bremen to Ilamnicrfest? — From Clierbourg to Copenhagen? — From 
St. Petersburg to Nijni-Novgorod?— From St. Petersbm-g to Constantinople ? 
— From Antwerp to Madrid? 


Can you find the Valdai Hills ? They lie between St. Petersburg and. 
Moscow. — The Sea of Azov ? — The Straits of Bonifacio ? 

The Alpine peak of the Matterhorn ? It is a boundary between Switzer- 
land and Italy. — By referring to the text, can you point out the Mont Cenis 
Tunnel ?— Where is the Island of Zante ?— Elba ? 

Can you locate the Puy de Dome ? (Puy means peak). The Puy de Dome 
is in the centre of the great volcanic region of Auvergne, near Viviers, in France. 
— (It was by the aid of this mountain that the two French philosophers, 
named Perier, first discovered that the air had weight. They found by actual 
experiment that the pressure of the atmosphere is greater at tfie foot than it 
is ill the top of this mountain, and thus the barometer was invented.) 

[The Barometer is the instrumejit employed to measure the 
height of a column of mercury supported by the pressure of the 
atmosphere. From this height the weight of the atmosphere is 
ascertained. The fundamental principle of the barometer cannot 
be better illustrated than by the following experiment. Take a 
glass tube, 33 inches in length, open at one end ; fill it with mer-' 
cury, and, closing the open end vrith the finger, invert it, and 
plunge the open end into a bowl also containing mercury. The 
column will fall in the tube to about 30 inches above the surface 
of the mercury in the bowl, if the experiment be made near the 
level of the sea. The fluid is upheld in the tube by the air outside 
of it pressing on the mercury in the bowl ; and since the one thus 
balances the other, it is evident that the mercurial column will 
serve as an accurate indicator of the varying pressure of air. 
The space in the tube above the mercury is one of the nearest 
approaches to a vacuum that can h". made. It is called the tubs, and 
Torricellian ■oacmt.m.'] 

Is Switzeriand nearest to the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, or the Atlantic 
Ocean ?— Where is the Peloponnesus ? (See Greece.) 

Where is the Hospice of St. Bernard ?— By reference to the text, point out 
the great grain country of Europe.— How do the Germans get to tlie sea ?— 
How does inland trade between St. Petersburg and Peking in China, go on ? 
Ans. It passes through Kiachta, t/ie centre of the tea trade between Jlussia in 
Europe and Ghina.~The mercluindise w transported on the backs of camels from 
Peking to Kiuchta all tlie way across tJie desert of Mongolia ; and thence it is 
carried to Russia by river transportation in summer, and in winter by sledges 
drawn by dogs or reindeer. 

Review Questions. 

Give some account of the political geography of Europe an9 its social 
features— Its population. — Which arc tlie maritime nations of Europe ?— De- 
scribe some of the natural peculiarities of Europe— Climates and productions 
—Nationalities.— Mention the chief points of interest about Paris. Lyons, 
Marseille, Bordeaux, Rheims, and Nantes. 

[Questions from Lesson LV. to LX. are found at end of each lesson.] 

Lesson LX. — 1. Give the general geography of Austria, Hungary, and 
European Turkej'. 2. To what races do the inhabitants of Austria belong ? 
— Describe the mines of Austria. — What is said of Bohemia? — Of the cities of 
Austria and Hungary, and their population ? — Tlie nobility ? :j. What is 
said of the Turkish empire and its divisions? — Of Constantinople? — Of 
Adrianople ? — Salonica ? 

[Note. — In mentioning large cities, give population.] 

Lesson LXl.—l. General geography of Greece and Italy, Spain and 
Portugal ?— Their aggregate population ? 2. Cities of the Spanish peninsula ? 

3. The AUiambra? 4. Gibraltar? 5. Alpine Passes? «, Mont Cenis 
Tunnel? 7. Staples? 8. What is said of Spain and Portugal? — Their 
cities ? .9. What is said of Italy ?— What does it contain ?— What is said of 
Rome and other Italian cities? — San Marino? 10. Describe Greece and 
its cities. 

Lesson LXII. — 1. General geography of Germany and the smaller 
States? 2. Hamburg and Bremen ? 3. Intellectual character of Germans ? 

4. What is said of Prussia? — Berlin? — What changes were wrought by the 
war of 1866 ?— German cities? 5. What is said of Saxony ? (i. Of Belgium 
and its cities ? 7. Of Holland, and its people and cities ? 

Lesson LXIII. — 1. What is said of Switzerland ? 2. Mont Blanc and 
its height ? — Other peaks and glaciers ? — Hospice of St. Bernard ? 3, Swiss 
exports? — Point out on the Orographic View of Central 'Ei\Tope,u)ithont the 
use of tlie numbers, the principal cities of Central Europe. 4. What 
is said of Sweden and Norway? — Culiivalion of soil ? — Sun at midnight? — 
Industries? — Religion? — Lapland? — What is said of Hammorfest? — Its lati- 
tude? — The cities of Sweden and Norway? — Capital? 5. What is said of 
Denmark ? — Its climates ? — Its cities ? 

Lesson LXIV. — 1. What are the limits of Russia ? 2. Chief industries? 
3. " Black Lands." — 4=. Great grain-country of Europe ? — Russian exports ? 
o. Populationof Russia and its chief cities? 6". Steppes of Russia? 7. Inland 
trade? — Fairs of Nijni-Novgorod ? 8, Russian minerals ? .9. Serfs? 10. 
Moscow and other Russian cities? 11. Goverament? 12. Races? 13. 
What is said of Finland ? — Helsingfors? — What is the title of the chief mag- 
istrate of Finland ? 





Asia. (Map, p. 138.) 

1. Asiatic Races. — We now pass from the States of 
Europe to the oldest nations of the earth — from yellow 
hair, blue eyes, and fair skins, to raven locks, black 
eyes, and all shades of complexion ; — from the tawny 
and yellow to brown and black ;— from Christians to 
the followers of Mahomet, or Buddha, or Brahma, or 
Zoroaster: these are the popular sects of Asia. 


2. I*opahiflon. — The most populous empires in the 
world are in Asia, but, though they have extensive sea- 
coasts, skirted with beautiful islands and embellished 
with deep bays and capacious harbors, there is not one 
that has risen to importance as a maritime or naval power. 

Men are respected according to their virtues, but a nation is regarded witli 
respect by her fellows and treated with consideration, according to her 
physical strength and the prowess of her sons. 

Without a navy, no nation can make her power felt, or spread her infln- 
encc across the sea. She may make bordering nations, and those that she 
can reach by land, feel and confess her martial energy ; but it is quite different 
■•vith those whom she has to pass the seas to reach. 

Hence China, with her majestic sea-front, 
and a population exceeding that of all the na- 
tions of Europe combined, has never been able 
to command the respect abroad that is accorded 
even to a third-class naval power. 

3. Political Geoff ra2>hy. — Part of the do- 
mains, both of Eussia and Turkey, are in Asia. 
Not counting these, there are in Asia but six 
States that are recognized as free, sovereign, 
and independent nations. 

These are Persia, Siam, Anam, Burmah, 
China, and Japan. They are absolute monar- 
chies. With their dependencies they embrace 
an area of 5,849,767 square miles, which is 
occupied by a population of 537,000,0(10. 

The rest of this continent embraces an area 



of 11,500,000 square miles, with a population of 268,600,- 
000, consisting partly of possessions that the maritime 
powers of Europe have acquired by conquest : as India, 
which belongs to England ; the Island of Java, and 
otlier islands, which belong to Holland ; the Philippine 
Islands, to Spain ; much of Cochin China, to France, 
etc., etc. 

Or it consists of districts, such as Arabia, Turkes- 
tan, Thibet, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, etc., etc.. that 
have no responsible government, and are divided into 
tribes, hordes, and other factions, which do not pretend 
to be clothed with the dignity of national sovereignty. 

4. llodes of Life and Civilization. — Most of 
these hordes and factions lead a sort of half-savage, 
half-civilized life — tending their flocks, robbing their 
neighbors, and plundering the helpless. 

Parts both of Asia and Africa were inhabited by civilized people long be- 
fore Europe and America were. Almost all the great events recorded in the 
Bible took place in Asia. 

5. Woman. — In these lands woman is degraded. In 
parts of India the practice of widow-burning is still con- 
tinued ; that is, when the husband dies, his \vives, for 
he often has many, are burned at his funeral. 

0. The Grand Plateau of Asia. — If you will study 
the Orographic View of Central Asia (p. 13.3), mark 
where the rivers rise, and note the direction in which 
they flow, you will see, by the natural drainage of the 
land, that there is an extensive inland region which has 
no sea-drainage and but few watercourses. 

This is the grand plateau where the Steppes of Asia 
are, and the great Desert of G-obi is on it. The highest 
land in the world is here. 

Among the peaks of the Himalaju, which form the southern rim of this 
great inland basin, stands the majestic Gaurisankar, also called Mount 
Everest, towering more than 29,000 feet above the level of the .sea. 


The Asiatic Powersr 


1. China is the oldest and the most densely 
populated empire in the world. "With an area, 
including adjoining dependencies, of 4,095,000 
square miles, it now contains, by my estimates, 
a population of 480.000,000. 

The land is filled to overflowing with peoj)le. 
Its civilization dates from time immemorial. The 
country is in a high state of cultivation and im- 

provement, to which Europe did not approximate, even 
at the beginning of the present century, and to which 
she has not yet attained. 

2. The most famous works in China are its canal, 700 
miles in length, constructed nearly one thousand years 
ago, and its celebrated wall, 1200 miles in length, from 15 
to 30 feet high, and so thick that six men on horseback 
can ride abreast upon it. 

It was designed as a work (\f defence against the Tartars, and was com- 
pleted upwards of two hundred years before the birth of Christ. 

3. The Chinese are an industrious, patient, economi- 
cal, and ingenious people. 

Of all the industrial pursuits, the cultivation of the soil is most honored by 
the Chinese ; and, to do it homage, the Emperor, with his nobles, and in the 
presence of his subjects, annually puts his hand to the ])lovv and runs a 

4. You ought now to know enough about climates 
and geograi)hy to tell, merely by looking at the map, 
that the sea-slopes of this country are well watered, and 
that therefore it has climates and soil adapted to the cul- 
tivation of all the great stai)les that are grown between 
the same parallels of latitude in America. 

5. Tea is the great agricultural staple in China. It 
will grow equally well in our Southern States, and it is 
not cultivated there, simply because labor is scarce and 
can be more profitably employed in other branqhes of 

Tea is produced by labor in China that costs only a cent or two a daj-, 
and none of the great agricultural staples of commerce require more labor 
than tea. The leaves not only require to be gathered by hand, and one by 
one, but each one has afterward to be rolled up separately, also by hand. 

They make great use of the bamboo. They build houses and bridges of 
it. They use it as food wlien it is young, and they make mats, furniture, and 
liousehold utensils of it when it is matured. 

The^- glow and manufacture silk, cotton, and calico. Every available foot 
of land in China is cultivated, and for the want of dwelling space, many 




thousands of people live in boats, arranged in streets on the water, as houses 
are in a city. 

The Chinese are extensively engaged in sea-fisheries, and their chief article 
of food is rice. 

The internal commerce of Cliina is immense, and is carried on by means 
of its water communication througli canals and navigable rivers. In the 
mountain districts donkeys are used, and in crossing the deserts, the camel. 

6. Their religion is Buddhism. The government is an absolute mon- 
archy, and the laws are severe. Their country is the " Celestial Empire," 
and their Emperor, according to them, is of such high descent as to be brother 
of tlie sun and moon. 

Tlie geographical information of the Chinese does not extend beyond 
their own countrj', which they maintain is the centre of the world, and they 
liave the greatest contempt for all foreigners, whom they call " outside bar- 

7. Their domestic animals are generally of the scavenger sort, such as 
swine, dogs, ducks, geese, and poultry. They are very poorly off for sheep, 
horses, and horned cattle. 

8. Their cities are compactly built and the streets are narrow. Their 
temples and pagodas are very grand, and enhance the beauty of many a 

Rebellion, revolution, and civil war have been raging in China for more 
than a quarter of a centuiy. 

We have a valuable commerce with China. 

Nanking, population 300,000, once an imperial city, is on the Yangtse- 
kiang river, or "Child of the Ocean." 

Shanghai has an immense commerce and a population of 300,000. 

Peking, the capital of the Empire, about 106 miles from the sea, with 
1,650,000 inhabitants, is in latitude 40° north. 

There are three cities in China on the Yangtse-kiang so connected with 
each other, that they may be said to form one city, under the name of Hoang- 
Chou, or Hankow, with a population of nearly 8,000,000, the largest known 
collection of human beings in so small a compass. 


Is a part of the Chinese Empire. It is an arid and chilly country, mostly 
desert. The Mongols are nomadic by necessity, for their soil is too poor to 
sustain their flocks with grass but for a short period of time. 



LEssoj\r Lxriii, 


1. The Enii)iro of Japan consists of four 
large islands, viz., Niphon, Yesso, Kiu- 
siu, and Sikolce, and 3,850 smaller islands. 
Its area is about one-fourth larger than 
that of the British islands. It is separated 
from Corea and the continent of Asia by 
the Corean Channel and the Sea of Japan : 
its coasts are generally bold and rocky : 
it has an inland sea of great beauty and 
abounds in convenient harbors. 

2. Both these nations have opened certain of their ports, 
called llie "treaty ports," to foreign trade and residents. 

These free ports in Japan are Nagasaki, Hakodadi, 
Simoda, Yedo, Osaka, Ilioga, Niigata, and Kanagawa. 

The honor of making the first negotiations which led to 
the opening of Japanese ports to the commerce, of the world, 
was reserved lor Com. Perry and the naval officers of the 
American expedition of 1853. The first anU)assadors ever 
sent from Japan were accredited to the United States in 
1860. A large trade and very friendly intercourse have 
already sprung up between the two countries. Not less 
than five hundred Japanese students have come (1872) to 
the United States to be educated. 

3. The Japanese trace their history by 
authentic records through a period of 2,539 
years, under 124 emperors, who have 
borne the title of Tenno or Mikado. 

For tiie last 000 years the Shiogoon or Tycoon has, as 
a subordinate, governed the empire ; but since the revolu- 
tion of 1867, the Mikado has assumed his ancient preroga- 
tives. The influence and revenues of the formerly numer- 
ous and powerful feudal lords called Daimios, have also 
been greatly modified and reduced. 

4. The Japanese resemble the Chinese in appearance, 
though they are a finer-looking nice of people. 

The Japanese have a literature, and writers of great 
antiquity and repute, and used the art of printing long 
before it was invented in Europe. 



5. They have severe laws and singular manners and customs. When a 
person of rank offends the government a sword is sent to him, and he is then 
in honor bound to commit suicide ; tliis is the Hara-wo-liiru. 

6. Their country is volcanic. In consequence of this fact their dwellings 
are generally of wood, and are all built according to one of three or four 
plans; so that, in furnishing a house, j'ou have only to go to the upholsterer 
and order carpets or mats for a house of one of these patterns. 

7. They have no chairs, sofas, or beds; but, using their clothes for cov- 
ering, thej^ sleep on the floor, npon the mats on which they sit and receive 
their company during the day. 

The married women pluck out their eyebrows, use pigments to turn their 
teeth black and their lips red, and powder themselves witli rice flour. 


The usual mode of travelling is, not in carriages drawn by horses, but in 
either iialanquins or norimons borne by two or four men. 

S. The cities of Japan are numerous. Yedo, or 
Tokio, the present capital, has 1,550,000 inhabitants. 

IMiako, long known as the western capital, was founded in a.d. 794, and has 
370,000 inhabitants. Osaka, tlie port for Aliako, is accounted by its inlialiit- 
ants the Paris of Jajian. Yokahama is the most in)i)()rtant port of the em- 
pire. Hakodadi is tlie principal port of Yesso. Nagasaki is the port wliere 
Europeans were first permitted to locate as merchants. 

f>. The islands of Japan lie lu'twcen the parallels of 30" and 4.^", and their 
climates rcsemlde those of our Atlantic seaboard, though somewhat milder, 
from their insular position. At Yedo, the summer temperature ranges fivm 
70° to 90° ; in winter the snow seldom lies long. 

In addition to the staples that are cultivated with us they have the lacquer- 
tree, from which they get the gum for their beautiful Japan-ware ; the wax- 
tree, from which they get the resin for their candles — the manufacture of 
which is an important branch of industry ; and the paper-mulberry, ft-om 
whicli they manufacture their paper. 

Of the food-plants, rice is most extensively cultivated — on the hill-sidea 
as well as in low, marshy regions, as in South Carolina and Georgia. 

10. Japan also, like China, is rich in mineral re- 
sources. Both the base and precious metals are found, 
and coal is obtained in large quantities. 

;| 3[ineral springs, both cold and hot, abound, and near the 
island of Kiusiu there is a^mall islet with solfalaras and a 
burning volcano, wliich answers capitally for the mariner all 
the inirposes of a first-class lighthouse. 

Foosiyama, tlie Parntissus of Japan, with its majestic c<me 
of snow, is in sight from the capital. It is an extinct volcano, 
14,177 feet above the sea, and is exceedingl}' granil and beau- 
tiful. It is an object of veneration with the lower orders. 

11' The Japanese are intelligent, indu.s- 
trious, and ingenious. Their porcelain and 
steel manufactures are equal to any iu the 
world ; their silk and other fabrics are of 
superior excellence and beauty ; and numei-- 
oiis varieties of paper are made by tbem, 
nan}' of which arc very bcautifid and perfect. 

In the conwnercial and manufacturing way, the Jap- 
anese hold the same relation to the neighboring continent, 
Asia, that tiie English once held to Europe. 

12. The opening of the ports of Jaj)an 
and China, and the establishment of lines of steam- 
ships between them and American ports on the Paci- 
fic, are rendering important service in developing a 
new civilization among these peoples. 

The Japanese Islands have a dense population, estimated at 35,000,000. 


The Empires of Anam and Birmah, and the Kingdom 

of Siam. 


1. Siam, Anam, and Bur- 
mah form part of a penin- 
sula. They lie between the 
parallels of 10° and 27° 
north. They occupy the 
same geographical position, 
and are similar in their re- 
ligious and social relations, 
and therefore we consider 
that their industrial pur- 
suits, except as Siam may 
be affected by the presence 



of the sea. and the existence of mineral resources, are 
the same. 

2. They are well watered, and, being mainly within the tropics, their soil 
is as rich, and the vegetation as rank, as light, lipat, and moisture can make it. 

3. In the forests here are found the taban, the tree which yields gutta- 
percha, and also the ti'ce which yields the pigment we call gamboge. Oil-trees, 
from a single trunk of which many gallons of oil may be extracted, abound 
in Burmah. Peti'oleum-springs are common, and seem inexhaustible. 

4. We now approach the countries where the elephant 
is used as a domestic animal. He is not used in China, 
because of the excessive population ; the ground re- 
quired to produce food for one elephant, would support 
several men. 

0. The inhabitants are chiefly Buddhists in religion; but in industry 
and intelligence, tliey arc very inferior to their neighbors, both on the right 
and kft, viz., the Cliinese on tlie one side and the Hindus on the otlier. 

Bankok is the cajjital of Siam ; Mandelay, on the Irrawaddy, of Burmah ; 
and Hue (hicay), of Anam. 

6. The Mahay peninsula, which stretches down still 
farther toward the Equator, is divided into a dozen 
petty States, thinly inhabited and badly governed. 
The Malays are a piratical people, dreaded by all un- 
armed sailing vessels. 

Singapore, an English town, is at the end of this long peninsula. It is a 
thriving city, witli a population of 90,000. The Strait of Malacca, on which 
it stands, is the great thoroughfare for the sea-steamers that ply between India 
and China; and it is a half-way house in navigation of much importance. 
W^liat Liverpool is to cotton, Singapore is to tin. 

7. These countries all lie within the celebrated tin region of Asia, which 
embraces an area of many thousand square miles, and extends from the 
mountains on the north to the islands on the south, some of which, Banca 
and Singkep, are famous. Their tin-mines supply the markets of Europe. 

5. Wliitc sandalwood, ebony, rosewood, ironwood, and the red dye-woods 
are all found on these two peninsulas of Siam and Malay ; and here the betel- 
palm produces its finest fruit; the bamboo flourishes; cinnamon-trees and 
aromatic plants perfume the air; also the sweet-scented eaglewood, which is 
burned as incense in the heathen temples, is among the treasures of the forest. 

Indigo, cotton, the sugar-cane, rice, tobacco, and the mulberry are exten- 
sively cultivated in these countries. 

.9. The elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, leopard, and the 
buffalo are all found wild in great numbers here. 

Tlie waters teem with alligators, and the forests are alive with monkeys. 
Witli llic natives, alligators are an article of food. 

During the prevalence of the Southwest monsoon, the sea is blown so 
violently that the shores of Indo-China are inundated. The forests are then 
navigated. There is also an immense fall of rain, causing an overflow of 
the rivers, which then make short cut-otFs and new channels. 

Burmah is especially rich in minerals. The celebrated ruby-mines are 
there ; they yield sapphires also. 

The Burmese and Siamese profess great veneration for white animals. 
The white elephant is one of the dignitaries of the State. He has his palace, 
his minister of State, and takes rank next after the royalty. 

Bankok has a population of 400,000 inhabitants, large numbers of whom 
live in bamboo huts afloat on rafts in the river. 



Hindostan, or India. 

1. India, with its departments, including Ceylon and 
other islands in the Indian Ocean, constitute the East 
India possessions of Great Britain. They embrace an 
area of 1.600,000 square miles, inhabited by 195,000,000 
human beings. 

About one hundred years ago, what is now called 
British India was the seat of an empire of vast wealth 
and splendor. 

At that time the English East India Company, having grown rich and 
powerful under its monopoly of trade, commenced in earnest the splendid 
conquest which gave to England her most valuable possessions. 

2. India is now divided into the Presidencies of Ben- 
gal, Madras, and Bombay, each ruled by a British 

The inhabitants, exclusive of the English, who, by comparison, are few 
in number, are generally known as Hindus, though there is great diversity of 
language, manners, customs, races, and religion among them. 

Though the country is still populous, it was yet more so under the native 
riders of by-gone days. Its deserted capitals and decayed cities, its won- 
derful antiquities and splendid ruins, tell, in language the most eloquent, 
of departed greatness, glory, and renown. The beautiful Mogul capital, 
Delhi, had, in its palmy days of native rule, a population of two millions ; 
it has now dwindled down to less than two hundred thousand. 

3. The commerce of India is very large. Its ex- 
ports are coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, flax, rice, tobacco, 

opium, indigo, hemp, 
gums, spices, drugs, 
medicines, gingelly, and 
almost every variety of 

The shawls of Cashmere, the 
muslins of Dacca, the brocades 
cf Benares, the embroidery of 
Delhi, and the jewels of Gol- 
ronda all figure largely in the 
commerce of India. 

The chief seaports are Cal- 
cutta, Madras, Bombay, and 

4. India lies between the 



parallels of 8° and 33' north. It is in the region of the Monsoons, so 
named from the Malay word for tlve season, which marks the duration of the 
Monsoon. For six montlis, including the winter, the winds come from the 
interior and are dri/ : these are the northeast monsoons. For the other 


si.K months, which are the summer, the winds come from the sea and are 
moist. They bring clouds and make the rainy season. These are the south- 
west monsoons. No part of the world receives so heav^- an annual rainfall 
as some of the hills, as Cherepungee, north of Calcutta, in India. 

so heats and rarities the air there, that it rises up as from a furnace, and the 
air from all sides and from the distance of more than a tliousand miles out 
to sea, rushes in to fill the vacuum. Tins m.\kes the monsoons. 

Thus, this great plateau, this inland basin, this vast and mountainous plat- 
form that lies on the roof of Asia, presents 
itself in a new light. It causes the winds to 
blow which bring the rains that water its 
slopes and fill its rivers. 

In the diagram, the arrows with half-barb 
show winds which blow for half the year. 

3. The cotton of India, owing" 
to the peculiarities of climate, is 
of a short staple, and therefore 
of quality much inferior to our 
"New Orleans middlings." 

6. Opium is made from the 
poppy, and the cultivation of this 
])lant is an important branch of 

The Chinese, Japanese, and 
the inhabitants generally of the 
East India Islands, arc much 
nddicted to opium-chewing and 
s Noking. 

The entire proceeds of the tea crop are 
said lo be insufficient to pay for the opium 
annually brought into China and consumed there. 

7. The chief cities of India are Calcutta, Murshed- 
abad, Patna, Benares, Cawnpoor, Delhi, Lucknow, 
Peshawur,Pondicherry, Bombay, and Madras. 

Calcutta, with a population of 1,000,000, is the residence of the Governor- 
general of Imlia. Its animal exports amount to nearly f 100,000,000. 

Bombay has a pojjulalion of 820,000, and is noted for its splendid harbor, 
from which it derives its name. 

Madras, the capital of the Presidency of Madras, as Bombay is of Bombay 
Presidency, has 450,000 inhabitants. It is most imforlunately situated for 
trade, being exposed to violent winds, which greatly endanger its shipping. 

During heavy gales on the coast of Madras, the surf breaks in nine fathoms 
of water, at the distance of four or five miles from the shore. The stoutest 
boat cannot live in it, and the largest vessels cut their cables and put to .sea. 
So awful is the gale, at times, that the waves are smoothed and levelled down 
by its force, and their crests are scattered in a shower of spray, called by 
sailore " spoon drift." 

Murshedabad manufactures silks, carpets, and embroidery. 

Patna is a city of mud huts, and is the emporium of the trade in opium, 
indigo, rice, sugar, and saltpetre. Colombo, with a population of 40,000, is 
the chief seaport and capital of Ceylon. 

Gaya, as the birthplace of the founder of Buddhism, and .Juggernaut, 
on account of its temple of Vishnu, are places of Hindu pilgrimage. 


[List of places marked on the Orographic View of Central A^ia, p. 13-a 
1. Lassa. 8. Hyderabad. 15. Peking. 

9. Samarcand. 

10. Bokhara. 

11. Tobolsk. 

12. Irkutsk. 

13. Yablonoi Mts. 
14 Lake Tengri-Nor 

2,2,2. Desert of Gobi 
3,3,8. Cashmere. 

4. Mt. Dhawalaghiri. 

5. Mt. Gaurisankar. 
G. Mt. Kunchinjinga. 
7. Multan. 

16. Kiachta. 

17. Canton. 

18. Shanghai. 
19, 19, 19. Nau-Shau Mis. 

20. Cabool. 

21. Cherapungee. 

The intense force with which. In summer, the sun strikes with his vertical 
rays upon the bare rocks and arid wastes of the great plateau of Central Asia, 

W, W, W, W. Great Wall of China. 
Note. — Let tl>e pupil diligently verity each of these places.] 




8. Benares, with 600,000 inhabitants, with its thousand Hindu temples 
and its 333 mosques, the splendid one of Auruugzebe among them, and its 
baths, is celebrated for its diamond-dealers and the wealth of its bankers, 
and is a" place of extensive industries and much trade. Allahabad (God's 
House) is another place of pilgrimage for this singular people. 

9. The Jumna and the Ganges are sacred rivers, and 
they meet at Allahabad, where pilgrims go to bathe. 

Cawupoor and Mirzapoor are near together, and are in a fine cotton, grain, 
indigo, tea, and tobacco country. 

Agra is noted for its mausoleum and pearl mosque. 

Delhi, the capital of the ancient Mogul sovereignty, is magnificent with 
its ruins. It has a large trade now in jewelry and cotton goods. 

Hurdwar, not far otf, in the gorge of the mountains through which the 
sacred river runs, is the place of pilgrimage and fairs. 

10. Lucknow, with its monuments and domes, its air}' 
palaces, and picturesque style of architecture, is a most 
fairy-like city, with 300,000 inhabitants. 

In quelling the Indian mutiny of 1857, the heroic Havelock made it famous 
in Anglo-Indian history. 

Cashmere is noted for its shawls and its goats, its flowei-s, roses, and 
floating gardens, Tliere are no roads in this valley nor any wheeled vehicles 

Hyderabad is renowned for the skill of its lapidaries. It is in the vicinity 
of the rock-temples and monolithic palaces of Ellora, all cut out of the solid 
rock as it lies iu the mountain. 


Arabia, Persia, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, and Turkestan. 

1, You observe, by a glance at the map and at the 

Orographic View, that _^-, -.^_.=^=--.,-^^ _ — ^^^__ ^-_ 

the watershed of Indin 

is separated from the j 

streams in these conn- ^: 

tries by the Hala Moun- ^ 

tains, and that all of 

country east, and the country west of the Hala Moun- 
tains. On the east you have the elephant, the tiger, 
and the monkey, the bamboo, and the banyan ; and on 
the west, the oak, the ash, the fig, the date, camels, 
dromedaries, horses, goats, cows, and sheep. 

Where there is so little rain the air is dry, and radiation of heat goes on 
much more rapidly tlirough a dry atmosphere than it does through a moist 
one ; for tliis reason the climates of the two sides of the Hala range, even in 
the same latitude, and at the same elevations, are very different. 

On the dry side the daj s are warm and the nights are cool, with the sum- 
mere much liottcr, and winters much colder than they are on the India side. 
Remember this i-ule ; it is an important one in Physical Geography. 


8. (Area 1,026,000 square miles, population 4,000,- 
000) is celebrated for its horses, its camels, and its coffee. 
It is divided into a number of petty States and Prov- 
inces under separate chieftains. 

Travelling in Arabia is both difhcult and dangerous. We know scarcely 
more about the interior of it tlian we do about the geography of the polar 
regions of tlic north. 

This part of Asia, as an inspection of any rain mui) 
will show, is as dry and sterile as the Great Desert of 

It is of interest to us now, chiefly on account of Bible 
associations. Mount Sinai is in Arabia. 


Asia west of that, and r 
south of 40°, including 
Turkestan, is poorly 

2. The people in these diy 
countries are all Mahommedan- 
War seems to be the normal stai 
except in Persia and Asiatic Tui 
key aq^I Russia. 

Many of them live in tents, 
and their chief wealth consists in 
their flocks and herds. A man 
there who has as many as 1000 
sheep is rich. 

The annual pilgrimage to the 
tomb of Mahomet in Mecca, is 
a time for trade and traffic, and a 
great fliir is held in the city at 
that time. 

3. There is a marked 
contrast between the 
physical aspects of the 





5. With an area of 165,828 square miles, and a pop- 
ulation of 2,000,000 inhabitants, is occupied by a num- 
ber of semi-barbarous tribes who have no common 
ruler. Kelat, with a population of 12,000, is the chief 


0. Has an area of 258,520 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 4,000,000, and is inhabited by a warlike, brave, 
and fine-looking race of people. 

They are the people who, in 1843, drove the English out of Cabool with 
such terrible disaster. They, too, are divided into factions or tribes, each 
with its separate chief, khan, or sheik. 

Cabool, with a population of 00,000 ; Kandahar, of 75,000; and Herat, of 
45,000, are its chief towns. 


7. Has an area of 640,436 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 7,870,000, and is, as you might infer from the 
map and Orographic View, for the most part a desert 
country. The inhabitants live now as they were said to 
liave lived more than one thousand years ago. "They 
exercise robbery and live by spoil." 

Bokhara — population 125,000 — "the Treasury of Science," within a mud 
wall 24 feet high and 8 miles round, has 103 colleges and 10,000 studeut.s. 
Nearly all of Turkestan is under Russian control. 


8. With 
an area of 

5 6 2,326 
miles, and 
a popula- 
tion of 5,- 
000,000. is 
a dry coun- 
try ; but 
there is 
'■ the scent 
of water" 
the little 
hills rejoice 
on evoiT 
s i d e, the 
are covered 
with flocks 

and herds, and the valleys are clothed with waving 
corn or with the most fragrant roses. 

This is one of the oldest monarchies in the world. It 
has the signs of decay and the marks of better days. 

The artisans of Persia are skilled in various branches 
of industry, especially in the manufacture of silks, 
shawls, carpets, and small arms. 

In all dry countries like these, the fruits and melons, 
such as grapes, pears, peaches, apricots, nectarines, 
cantelopes, watermelons, plums, cherries, damascenes, 
figs, pomegranates, etc., etc., are of unsurpassed beauty 
and flavor. 

Teheran, the capital, with a population of 100,000, is in a region which 
answers in latitude and geographical aspects more nearly to Albuquerque, in 
New Mexico, than to any other town in the United States. 

Ispahan, with a population of 180,000, with Casbiu, Astrabad, and Tabriz, 
population 150,000, arc among tlie chief towns. 

The King of Persia is called the Sheik, lie is a Maliomniedau. 


Asiatic Turkey and Asiatic Russia. 

Asiatic Turkey, 

Which is inhabited by 13,000,000 Mohammedans, 
3,000,000 Christians, and 1,000,000 Jews and Gypsies, 
is likewise a dry country. We have some commerce 
with it through Smj'rna, a city having a pop. of 1 GO. 000. 




^rl h 





2. Syria, one of the })roviiices of Turkey, contains 
the land of Palestine, famous in all time for the events 
recorded in Holy Scripture. 

Jernsalcm, the Valley of the Jovclan. and tlic Dead Sea, arc visited by all 
Oriental travellers. The " Holy Places" an; in Jerusalem. 

Sponge and coral fisheries on the coast of the Medi- 
terranean are important sources of Syrian commerce. 

Sponges are fonnd on the bottom of the sea. They are animal produc- 
tions, livinf; in water from five to twentj'-fivc fathoms deep, crowing on the 
rocks or on marine vegetables, and sometimes on sea shells and corals. 

Asiatic EugsiA 

3. Embraces a large portion of Asia. It includes Rus- 
sian Armenia, Shirvan, wliich extends along the south- 
western shores of the Caspian Sea, Georgia, and Siberia. 

Russian Armenia contains Mount Ararat, where the Russian, Persian, 
and Turkisii empires meet. 

4. Shirvan was the scene of a bold but ineffective campaign of Peter 
the Great. It is famous for its springs of naphtha, an inflammable fluid, 
which often ignites, and, flowing into the Caspian, sets its waters on fire. 
Near these springs is tlie celebrated Field of J''ire. A natural and inflam- 
mable gas issues constantly from holes in the ground, and the Guebres or 
Parsees, fire-worshippers, at Bakou, tiie chief town of Shirvan, have built their 
temples over the openings in the earth, and conduct the gas to chiumeys in 
the roof of the temple, where, night and daj', it burns with dazzling brilliancj-. 

5. Georgia, on the south side of the Caucasian Moun- 
tains, also belongs to Russia. 

It is celebrated for the beauty of its women, with whom the Grand Turk 
stocks his harems. Tiflis, having a population of 40,000, is the chief town. 

The Tartars are a race spread over all parts of Central Asia, 
chiefly in Caucasia and in the Crimea of Southern Russia. 

6*. Siberia occupies an area of 5,600,000 
square miles, one-third more than the entire sur- 
face of Europe, while its population does not equal 
that of Scotland. The climate is intensely cold, 
and the mercury is frozen for several months. 

The silver and other mines of Siberia are 
worked chiefly by exiles who have been ban- 
ished from the European domains of Russia, and 
who are sometimes sent in vast numbers to Si- 
beria. Poland has supplied many of these un- 
fortunate exiles. 

The Sanioiedes, a race similar to our Esqui- 
maux, live on the marshy shores of the Arctic 
Ocean. These lands are called Tundras. 

Tobolsk, on the Irtish river, has a popvdation of 32,000. 






What are the marine boundaries of the Japan Empire? — 
Where is the Kiighis Steppe ? — Kamtchatlia V — Bound 
Corea — Anam — Siam — Bound Syria — Tartary — Mongolia — Man- 

Moiantaiiis, Table-Lands, and Steppes. 

How do the Asiatic mountains generally run ? Arts. Not as 
the American mountains, from north to south, hut in an eastwardly 
and westwardly direction. — Begin at the Taurus Mountains, in 
Turkey, and trace the mountain system of Asia to the northwest 
of Siberia. — Describe the Altai — The Yablonoi — Tliian Shan 
— Peling and Meling — The BolorTagh — The Karakorum — 
The Hala-The Himalaya— The Eastern Ghauts— The West- 
em Ghauts— The 'lau.iis— Caucasus- HindooKoosh — The 
Suleiman Range — Kuen Lun — The Ural Mountains — The 
Nanling Mountains. — Trace the limits of tlie table-land of 
Thibet — That of the Deccan in India. (See Orographic View of 
Central A&ia.)— Where is Mount Everest? 


Irkutsk is the seat of government, with a population of 20,000. 

Yakutsk, 5,000 miles distant from St. Petersburg, is 
near the Asiatic Pole of greatest cold. It is surrounded 
by forests and marshes. 

Petropaulowski (the Port of Peter and Paul), on the east coast of Kamt- 
cliatka, is the Russian naval and military head-quarters in Kamtchatka. It 
is nestled in a pleasant nook, and has a fine harbor. 


Studios on tho Map of Asia. 

Between what parallels of latitude and meiidians of longitude docs the 
continent of Asia lie? — IIow many peninsular projections do you count in 
Asia ? — What are its natural boundaries ? — What are its political boundaries 
on tlje west ? — Name the great seas and bays tliat indent the contment. — 
Wliat sea makes the deepest and widest indentation ? 

Bound the Chinese empire, as far as possible, by its natural or physical 
boundaries. — What States are its political boundaries ? — What are the bound- 
aries of Tliibet? — Bound Russia in Asia, physically and politically. — Bound 
Ilindostan — Burmali — Siam — Anam — Persia — Afghanistan — Beloochistan 
— Arabia — Turkey in Asia. 

Riveiv*:, Lakes, and Inland Seas. 

Wliat rivers of Asia empty into tlie Indian Ocean ? — What, 
into the China Sea? — What, into the Yellow Sea and Sea of Ja. 
pan ? — What, into the Arctic Ocean ? — Wliat rivers have no sea. 
drainage, but are inland ? — Is tlfe Volga in Europe or Asia ? — 
The Ural river? — Tlie Amu ? The ancient name of this was Oxits. 
Wliat liver of Asia crosses the greatest number of degrees of 
latitude? — What river crosses the greatest number of degrees 
of longitude ?— Excepting the rivers emptying into the Arctic 
Ocean, which is the longest river of Asia? (See at bottom of 
Mercator's Map of the World.) 

Where is tlie Indus ?— The Songko?— The Nerbudda ?— Irra- 
waddy ?— The Brahmapootra ? — The Godavery ?— The Ganges ?— The Hoog- 
jy?- Tlie Canton?— The Cambodia ?— The Yang- tse-Kiang?— The Hoang 
Ho?_Tlie Amoor?— The Obi?— The Yenisei ?— The Lena?— The Irtish? 

Where is the Caspian Sea ? This inland sea has no outlet, and, though it 
receives the VoUja, the largest river of Europe, its level is falling, owing to thi 
great solar evaporation from its surface. — Where is the Aral Sea? This and 
tlie Caspian are both salt-water lakes. — Where is the Dead Sea? — Lake Balkash ? 
— Lake Baikal ? Lake Baikal is the largest fresh-water lake in Siberia. In win- 
er it is covered with ice four feet thick, and is then traversed by sledges laden 
with tea, from China. It receives 160 7-ivers and 'reams. 

Capes, Bays, Grulls, and ^*"i*aits. 

Where is Cape Ras-al-had ? — Cape Comorin ? — Cape Romania ? — Cape 
Lopatka ?— East Cape ?— Cape Engano ? 

Where is the Bay of Bengal ? 

Where is the Persian Gulf?— The Gulf of Oman?— The White Sea?— 
Gulf of Martaban ?— Gulf of Siam?— Gulf of Tonquin ?— Gulf of Cutch ?— 
Gulf of Anadir? 

Where is Amur Gulf ?— Strait of Malacca ?— Strait of Formosa ? On the 
east side of the island of Formosa tlie Black-stream of Japan sets very stronglg 
to tlie north ; on tlie west side of the island the cold counter-current from the 
Arctic seas sets strongly to tlie south. A branch of it enters the seas between 
Japan and China through tlie Qulf of Tarta/ry, the Straits of Perouse and San- 
gar, and tlve Corea Channel.— Where is Behring Strait? 







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Seas and Islands, and Deserts. 

Where is the Arabian Sea?— The Red Sea?— The Caspian Sea?— The 
Aral Sea ? — The China Sea ? This sea is often swept by the fearful storms knoicn 
as typhoons. — Where is the Yellow Sea ? — Sea of Okhotsk ? — Behring Sea ? 

How many Japanese islands are there? — Name four.— Where is the 
island of Socotra ?— Where are the Laccadive Islands ?— The Maldives ?— Cey- 
lon ?— Nicohar ?— Andaman Islands ?— Hainan ? — Hong-Kong Island ?— Sag- 
halien? — Staten Island? — Kurile Islands? 

Trace the limits of the Arabian Desert. — The Great Desert of Gobi, or 
Shame. Gobi means " naked desert," a term charactei-isttc of this desert, which 
is covered with loose sand, bare roc.h fhingly stones, and water-worn pebbles. 

Cities, Routes, and Distances. 

Where is Jerusalem? — Damascus? — Mecca? — Mocha? Our best coffee 
comes from 3/oe/u(.— Teheran ?— Ispahan ?— Bokhara ? — Cabool ?— Tobolsk ?— 
Yakutsk? This is near "the Asiatic pcle of Greatest Cold'' — Calcutta? — 
Bombay? — Singapore? — IIong-Kong ? — Canton ? — Shanghai ?— Peking? — 
Where is Osaka? — Nagasaki? — Yokohama? This is tlie jwt of Tedo. — 
Ilakodadi ?— Pctropaulowski ?— Point de Galle ?— Bankok ?— Yedo (Tokiol ? 

How would you go from Aden to Bombay? — From Bombay to Calcutta? 
— Point de Galle to Singapore? — Shanghai to Ilakodadi? — From Peking to 
St. Petersburg ? (See page 126, at the end of Map Studies on Europe.) 

How would you go from Yakutsk to St. Petereburg? — What is the dis- 
tance in a straight line from Peking to Yakutsk ? — From Canton to Hakodadi ? 
— By water from Hong-Kong to Singapore ? — From Calcutta to Cashmere ? — 
From Jerusalem to the mouth of the Indus ? 


Find Mount Sinai. — Where was ancient Babylon ? — Point out the Tigris 
and Euphrates rivers. — How far is Bombay from Calcutta ? — Find Lucknow — 
Delhi. — What is Thibet? Ans. A plateau. In Thibet and Tartai^y is found 
the strange Yak, or grunting ox, which loves to roam above the snow-line. 

Where is the great watershed of Asia? Ans. N . of the Knen-lun Mts. ; 
this watershed is called " the Roof of tlie TVc^/'W."— Measuring by the scale, 
what is the length and breadth of the Desert of Gobi ? Tliis is tlie cradle of 
the ')nonsoo7is of tlie Indian Ocean. Study here the Orographic View of Ce.ntral 

The southwesti:rn portions of Asia and the northeastern regions of Africa are 
subject to peculiar dust-whirlwinds, which bear, in minature, a resemblance to 
cyclones or revolving storms. In the nortliern liemisphere they revolve against 
the hands of a watch; in tfie southern, with titese Jiands. 



Where is the volcano of Foosiyama? — Where are the Bonin Islands? 
What are the Tundras'* Tliese are vast marshy plains on tJie Arctic Ocean. 
Where is the Dead Sea? It is 1300 feet lower t/uin tlie Mediterranean. 


Revie"w Questions. 

Lesson LXVI.— i. What do you know of tlie Asiatic races? 2. Of the 
population of Asia? .7. Political geography? 4. Its modes of life and 
civilization? 5. Woman in Asia? 6*. The grand plateau of Asia ? 

Lesson LXVIL— i. Describe China. 2. Its famous works. 3. What 
is said of the Chinese ? 4. For what productions are their soil and climates 
suited? 5. Name the great agricultural staples of China, and de- 
scribe their uses. 6'. What is said of tiie Chinese religion ? 7. 
Domestic animals? S. Name the cities, and give their popula- 
tion. — What is said of Mongolia ? 

Lesson LXVIII. — 1. Describe tlie Japanese. 2. What are tlieir 
free ports, and who opened them ? 3. Explain their government. 
4. Their literature. 5. Their laws. G. Tlie nature of tlieir coun- 
try. 7. Domestic furniture. S. What is said of the Japan Lsl- 
ands? .9. Their climates and products? 10. Minerals? 11. 
Japanese cliaracter? 12. Cities? 

Lesson LXIX. — /. Describe Siam, A nam, and Bunnah. 2. 
Soil. ,?. Forests. 4. Wlial is said of the elephant? .'>. Trade and 
religion? 6*. The Malay Peninsula ?— Singapore ? 7. Tin region 
of Asia? *. Products? .9. Animals?— The wliile elephant?— 
Bankok and its population? 

Lesson LXX— J. Extent, history, etc., of India? 2. Divi- 
sions? .?. Commerce? ^. Seaports?— Explain the Monsoons. r>. 
Cotton of India ? 6*. Opium? 7. Cities? «. Describe Benares. 
9. Describe other cities of India. 10. Lucknow— Vale of Cash- 
mere — Hyderabad. 

Lesson LXXI. — 1. Describe the countries of this chapter. 2, 
People. 3. Physical aspects.— Mention a nilc of physical gr-ogra- 
phy. 4. Describe Arabia. 5. Beloochistan. (i. Afghanistan. 
7. Turkestan. 8. Persia. 

Lesson LXXIL— i. Describe Asiatic Turkey. 2. Syria. 3. 
Asiatic Russia — Russian Armenia. 4. Shirvan. 5. Georgia, (i. 
Siberia — Pctropaulowski. 





Africa. (Map, p. IM.) 

J. General Geoqvaplnj. — Africa is to the geog- 
rapher an uukuowu laud. It is the abode of the negro 

and of the wild Arab. Out of its vast forests and impene- 
trable jungles come forth those strange animals, the 
gorilla and chimpanzee, that bear such a painful resem- 
blance to the human form. 

2. Political Geoffraphy. — Egypt and the Barbary 
States profess the Mahommedan religion, and own a 
certain degree of allegiance to Turkey. 

Algeria and St. Louis belong to France. The Cape 
of Good Hope, Natal, the Diamond District, and 
Sierra Leone, are English colonies. 

Our telescopes have made us better acquaiuted with the geography of the 
moon tliau exi)l<jrali<m has jet made us acquaiuted with the interior of 

3. Desei'ts.— The Libyan Desert, Nubia, and the Great Desert of 
Saliara are attracting great interest among j)liysical geographers. 

You observe that tliey are situated near the Tropic of Cancer where the 
noon-day sun is vertical in midsummer. The atmosphere there is singularly 
dry and clear, and the sun is said to beat down through it with terrilic force, 
so much so that a traveller there has called the sand " fire, and the air flame." 
Notwithstanding this heat by day (120° Fahr.), the nights were .so cold that 
he often found ths water in his canteen frozen in the morning. 

4. Itivers. — There arc streams of water here antl 
there, such as the Nile and the Niger, that flow through 
this country and spread fertility as far as their waters 
can be conveyed by artificial means. 

.5. Elevations. — The hot sun m the desert so rarefies the air that it 
draws Uie winds in from the sea; they come loaded with moisture, of which 
tiie mountains rob them as they pass. Thus the Nile is fed, and a large por- 
tion of the country made fruitful, which but for the mountains would l)c 
desert too. 

G. Seasons. — In the intertropical countries of Africa, 



as in those of Asia and America, the year is divided 
into the rainy season and the dry. 

In all intertropical countries of the Northern Heynisphere, 
the rainy season commences in the summer-time. 

From Cape Colony we get wines, and in Natal is found everything, 
except naval stores, that is grown in our Gulf States. Much wool is pro- 
duced in these colonies. Lai-ge diamonds are found there. 

10. TJie Clitnates,- 

The climates of Africa are di- 


Eemernber this ; it is a physical fact and a geogiaj)!!- 
ical law of great importance. 

7. The Kile and other Hirers.- -In the rainy season, the head- 
streams of the Nile are flooded. It is a long river, and it is autumn befon^ 
the floods get down to Egypt, 

It has been discovered that the sources of the Nile extend at least as far as 
Lake Victoria Nyanza, in latitude 3° south. 

This makes the Nile, when measured in a direct line from soui'ce to 
mouth, the longest river in the world. 

There are two streams which form this great river : the White Nile and 
the Blue Nile. 

The Zambesi drains the southern declivity of the same divide which sheds 
its waters ofi" to the north through the Nile. 

8, The exploration 
of Africa does not fur- 
nish material sufficient 
for the construction 
of an accurate map 
of its immense terri- 

0, JP rod net ions, 
— From the western 
coasts of Africa we 
get palm-oil, e 1 e- 
phants' tusks, which 
serve as ivory, dye 
and ornamental 
woods, and gold-dust. 

Fi'om the nv)rthern prov- 
inces, such as Eg3'pt and Mo- 
rocco, we get, besides cotton, 
dates, morocco leather, silken 
and other fabrics. 

Southern France and othei 
parts of Europe are supplied 
with early fruits and vegetables 
frv)iu Aliicria. 

On the nortli a chain of 
lofty mountains prevents the 
ingress of the cool north 
winds, while on the north- 
east the country is level, and 
freely admits the hot blasts 
from Arabia. 

The western coast is batiu'd 
by a cool current from Biscay 
Bay on the north side of the 
Equator, and on tlie south side 
by a current from the Antarc- 
tic Ocean, which sometimes 
drifts icebergs near the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

The eastern coast is wash- 
ed by the hot gulf stream, 
which issues from the Indian Ocean between Madagascar and the Mozam- 
bique coast, and consequently has a climate answering to that of Florida and 
Georgia, opposite to our own Gulf Stream. 


Countries of Africa. 

Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. 

These arc known as the Barbary States, and extend 
along the Mediterranean for 2,000 miles. 




This region of country was in ancient times a dependency of Rome ; it 
supplied the armies and navies of Carthage. Algeria and Morocco are 
travei-sed by the Atlas mountains. In the Beled-el-Jerid there are groves of 
the date-palm, which supply the natives with food and protect them from the 
sun. This country is 
visited by the hot 
winds from the Sahara. 
The lion, elephant, 
rhinoceros, camelopard, 
camel, and ape, a spe- 
cies of tailless monkey, 
are the chief animals. 

Mouocco is an in- 
dependent State. Mo- 
rocco, its capital, 
contains 100,000 inhab- 

Algeria is a colony 
of France, with a popu- 
lation of 3,000,000. Al- 
giers, the cajHtal, has 
60,000 inhabitants, and 
is a favorite resort for 
invalids in winter. 

Tnxis embraces in 
part the territory of 
ancient Carthage, and 
now has a population 
of 1,000,000. Its capi- 
tal, Tunis, is the largest 
city of the Barbary 
States, with 150,000 m- 

TiupoLi has only 
one-half the population 

of Algeria, and, having no mountains between it and the Sahara, is sterile, the 
sand of the desert being blown up to the very margin of the sea. Tripoli, 

the capital, is a starting-point 
for explorers of the Sahara. 

The palm is a tree of great 
value in this part of Africa. 

2. Liberia is an American 
settlement of emancipated ne- 
groes, established in 1823, un- 
der the auspices of the Ameri- 
can Colonization Society. It is 
a small but independent repub- 
lic, with 700,000 inhabitants. 

3. Senegambia, Upper 
AND Lower GniNEA, lie in 
the west coast region of Africa, 
and are famous for their pro- 
ducts of palm-oil, cotton, gin- 
ger, and gold-dust. Sierra 
Leone, in Senegambia, ia an 
English asylum for recaptured 

Nubia and Kordofan 

4. Are under the rule of the 
Pacha of Egypt. In these sec- 
tions of Egypt the bed of the 
Nile is much depressed, and 
water is obtained on the high 
banks by water-wheels. Khar- 
toum, near the confluence of 
the Blue and White Nile, is a 

PALM-TBKB. clty of 40,000 inhabitants. 


5. In olden times Egypt was the granary of the 
world. It is now governed by a Viceroy of the Sultan 


M. Lesseps, a Frenchman, has made the present 
Pacha's reign glorious by constructing a canal across 
the Isthmus of Suez. 

It has a depth of 26 feet, and was opened to commerce in the autumn of 
1869. It connects Suez on the Red Sea and Port Said on the Mediterra- 

Egypt is rich in ruins and monuments of former greatness. 

The Valley of the Nile, though of unrivalled fertility, lies in the rainless 
region. But, notwithstanding the fact that often for months not even a drop 
of rain falls in the Valley of the Nile, this great river rises annually and 
nlmoHt on tlie same day every year, ; its overflow enriches the soil. 

Alexandria, the principal seaport of Egypt, has a population of 165,000. 

Cairo, the capital, and the largest city of Africa, contains 260,000 in- 

Suez, connected with Cairo by rail, and with a population of 8,000, is at 
the head of the Red Sea. 


6. Consists of three States, under the government of an Emperor. High 
table-lands mark this part of Africa, and they form the watershed of the 
Blue Nile. 

Ankobar, the chief town in Abyssinia, with a population of 10,000, enjoys 
a most delightful climate. 

7. The Orange Republics. — In the rear of Natal lie the " Orange Re- 
publics," two small Dutch settlements ; and the Diamond Fields. 

8. Natal.— The climate of Natal, and the neighboring regions along the 
east coast of Africa, adapts this country to the cultivation of the staple pro- 
ductions of Georgia and South Carolina. 

.9. Madagascar is the largest island that anywhere curtains the shores 
of Africa. It is an independent kingdom. 

Meridiaa of Greenwich. 





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Studies on the Map of Africa. 

Boundaries, Capes, and Mountains. 

In what latitude is the most northerly point of Africa ? — The most south- 
erly point ? — Bound the Barbary States — Liberia — Abyssinia — Guinea — Sene- 
gambia. — Bound the Great Desert of Sahara. 

What is the most northerly cape of Africa? — the most easterly ? — The 
most westerly ?— The most southerly ?— Length and breadth of the Red Sea? 

Bays, Gulfs, Lakes, and Rivers. 

Where is Sofala Bay ?— Algoa Bay ?— Delagoa Bay ?— Gulf of Guinea ?— 
Gulf of Sidra ? — Gulf of Aden ? — Bight of Benin ? Bight is a bend in the mi- 
coast, making an open space like a bay. — Bight of Biafra? 

Where is Lake Tchad ? — Where is Lake Tanganyika? This lake was dis- 
covered in 1859 by Captains Burton and Hpeke, and partkdly explored in two canoes. 

Where is the Gaboon river? — The Zambesi? — The Limpopo? — Where is 
the Niger river ? — What separates its headwaters from the sea '! 

Describe the Orange river — The Congo — The Gambia — The Senegal — 
The Nile.— Point out the White Nile— The Blue Nile— Their Cataracts. 

Islands, African Cities, and Oases of Sahara. 

Where is Ascension Island ? — To wliom does it belong ? — Describe Mada- 
gascar. — What island lies east of it, and to whom does it belong ? — Where 
are the Cape de Verd I'ds? (see p. 21.)— The Madeira?— The Azores?— The 
Canaries ? — What celebrated peak in the Canaries ? Ans. The Peak of Tew- 
riffe, a vokano seen in ei'uption by Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, 
]2,\S2 feet high. The winds at the top and bottom of tlie peak often blow in con- 
trary directions. Tluese are the upper and lower currents of tlic trade-wind. 

Where is Cairo? — Alexandria? — Khartoum? — Ankobar? — Mozambique ? 
— Tananarivo ? — Petermaritzberg ? — Natal ? — Cape Town ?— Georgetown ? 


— Benin ? — Free Town ? — Monrovia ? — Timbuctoo ? — Fez ? — Algiers ?— 
Tunis ? — Tripoli ? — Find Timimoom, Murzuk, and Tegherry, in the Desert 
of Sahara. This Desert is a waste of sand, like the upheaved bottom of a great 


Where is the Mozambique Channel ? — What current sweeps through it ? 
— Capital of Madagascar ? — What is the capital of the Madeira Islands ?— 
Where is Santa Cruz ? — Angra ? — The Gallas country ? — What isthmus unites 
Asia and Africa?— Where is the Island of St. Helena? — Where are the Pyra- 
mids? Ans. Near Cairo. — The ruins of Thebes? Ans. On the Nile, in latitude 
25' 30'. 

Here is a scene off the Cape of Good Hope, there the waves run so 
high as to hide one vessel from another even wlien they are close by. Tliis 
Cape and Cape Horn are called the Storm Capes. 


A vessel on reaching the southern hemisphere, comes dearly in sight of the 
Magellanic clouds and the Southern Cross — the mastfainous obszcts in (he south- 
ern skies. At a certain time of the year the Cross stands erect at midnight. Tlie 
Indians in South America call out tlie time in mournful cadence,"' It is past 
midnight, the Southern Cross begins to decline." 

Where is Cape Palmas ? — Cape Blanco ? — Cape Lopez ? — Cape Corrieiites ? 
—Cape Verd ?— Cape Bon ?— Where is C. Frio ?— C. Guardafui ?— C. Spartel ? 

Name the principal range of mountains in the north of Africa — In the 
east — In the west. — Where are the Kong Mountains ? — The Cameroons ? — 
The Atlas Mts. ?— The Cape Mts. ?— Mts. of the Moon ?— Point out the 
mountains in Abyssinia. — Where is Mount Kilimandjaro ? — Mount Kenia? 
The.'ie are lofty peaks nearly under the Equator, perpetually clad in snow ; the 
former is 21,000/ee< high. 


RevicAV Questions. 

Lksson LXXIV. — 1. For what is Africa remarkable ? 2. Its political 
geography? 3. Describe its deserts. 4. Rivers. 5. Elevations. 6. Sea- 
sons. — What important geographical law is mentioned in this connection ? 
7. Describe the Nile. S. What can you say of African explorations ? ,9. 
Productions ? 10. Climates ?— What warm Stream washes the eastern coast 
of Africa ? 

Lesson LXXV. — 1. Name the Barbary States. — How far do they extend ? 
— What is said of this region in ancient times ? — Describe Morocco — Algeria 
— Tunis — Tripoli. 

2, Describe Liberia — Its population. 3. Senegambia, Upper and Lower 
Guinea. — Their productions. — Sierra Leone. 

■i. Under what authority are Nubia and Kordofan ? — How is water ob- 
tained on the Nile where the banks are high ? — Wiiat is said of Khartoum ? 
— Its population ? 

5. Describe Egypt. — The constructor of the Suez Canal. — Describe the 
work. — What points does it unite ? — Wliat is said of the Valley of the Nile ? 
— Time of the river's overflow ? — Alexandria ? — Cairo ? — Suez ? 

G. What is said of Abyssinia ?— The watershed of the Blue Nile ? 7. Tlie 
Orange Republics ? 8, What is said of the climates of Natal ? 9. Mada- 
gascar ? 




Australia. (Map, p. 148.) 

1. Area and Colonies. — This is the largest island 
in the world. It is owned exclusively by Great Britain. 
She has established in it five colo- 
nies, leaving room for a sixth. 
She has established colonies also 
in Tasmania and New Zealand. 

These seven colonies are New South Wales, 
West Australia, South Australia, Victoria, 
Queensland, Tasmania, New Zealand. 

2. Antipodal Relations. — Austialia 
is on the side of the world opposite to us, \\ itli 
opposite seasons. There the sun casts iis 
shadow to the south at noon, and there Christ- 
mas comes in midsummer. It is the very 
opposite in several other respects also. 

There the leaves of the trees are not green, 
hut dull brown, or leaden gray. The sun is 
so hot and the air so dry that the narrow 
leaves arrange themselves vertically instead of r, 
horizontally, and both sides are alike. There a 
forest is seldom found. The trees group them- 
selves in clumps ; they cast shadows, but they 
make not much more shade than Avould so 
many leafless branches. In autumn, some of 
the trees shed their bark instead of their leaves. 

3. Vegetation and Animals.— In Australia there are nettles with 
stalks nine feet in circumference and forty feet high ; and there are no abo- 
riginal quadrupeds or beasts of prey larger than the Dingo dog, a sort of wolf; 
there is also an opossum (tlie kangaroo) which lives on vegetables, and, with 
the assistance of its tail, runs on two legs with the speed of a race-horse. The 
ostrich of Australia (the emu) is six. feet high.' 

4. Climates. — Australia is for the most part a dry 
country, the reason for which you will un- 
derstand when you learn physical geogra- 

5. Natives. — The natives are a sort of negro without 
woolly heads, but with thick lips and flat noses. Tlieir 
complexion varies from chocolate-brown to sooty-black. 

6. Minerals. — These colonies are rich in other min- 
erals besides gold, especially in copper. 

7. Cities. — Brisbane, Sydney, and Mel- 
bourne, the capital of Australia, are im- 
portant marts. 

8. New Zealand and Tasmania.— l^ew Zea- 
land is also rich in gold. Considering its latitude, its cli- 
mates are mild, and it is a fine agricultural country. The 
Maoris, a fierce race, are the aboriginal inhabitants. 

These islands, being supplied with warmth and mois^ 
ure by the sea- winds, will produce anything that is grown 
in similar latitudes in other parts of the world. 

South of these islands, in the Antarctic Ocean, lies 
Victoria Land, discovered by Sir James Ross in 1841. 

9. The Tides.— It is in the ocean south and east of 
Tasmania that geographers locate the birth of the great 
tidal- wave which affects nearly every sea-coast on the 
globe. The tides are regular movements of the water of 
the sea, which ebb and flow twice every day. 

The prime cause of the tidal-wave is the attraction of the moon, or tlie 
attraction of the moon and sun in conjunction, upon the deep waters. 

When the moon stands over the deep sea it causes the water to bulge up 
and foi"m a wave a few inches high. This is the beginning of the tide-wave. 
As the earth is always turning on its axis, it presents all its meridians suc- 
cessively toward the moon, aud tluis the lide-wavc is kept at constant high- 
water on the side nearest to the moon. (See Diagram, next page.) 


The moon most strongly attracts that part oi the earth nearest to it, and it 
attracts the centre of the earth more strongly than the opposite side. The 
water on the opposite side, therefore, remains in ari-ear, and appiireiitJy 
recedes, forming a second protuberance on the surface of the sea. Thus we 
have two high tides, and half-way between them we have two low tides. The 
tide-waves move with a velocity of 1000 miles an hour. They are not, how- 
ever, currents like the Gulf Stream, but waves like " the waving grain." 






Oceania. (Map, p. 148.) 

1, Oceania lies chiefly 
in the Pacific Ocean, and 
south of the equator. 

Most of its islands are either of 
coral formation, or madreporic, or 
of volcanic oriijin. 

2. Tlie Coralline. — The cor- 
alline is a small creature not half 
the size of a mite in the cheese, yet 
it builds up from the bottoni of the 
sea vast islands, upon which sea- 
shells gather, birds light, seeds drift, 
and then plants grow, and after that, 
man comes to occupy and replenish. 

•i. Coral Iteef. — There is a 
coral reef that skirts the northeast 
coast of Australia for more than a 
thousand miles 

It, like all the other coral formations and sea-shells, is composed chiefly 
of the lime which the rains on shore dissolve, and which the rivers bring 
down to the sea. These little creatures, called corallines, have the power, 
like all sliell-fish, of separating this lime from the water, of reducing it to 
the solid state, and of converting it into structures of various kinds. 

These islands are not unfrequently surrounded by coral reefs at some dis- 
tance from the shore. The great barrier reef of Australia varies, in its distance 
from the shore, from a few yards to 40 miles, and in its breadth nearly as 
much. These reefs just reach the surface of the sea and serve as breakwaters. 
Between them and the shore, ships ride in deep and smooth water. 

4. Instincts of Corallines. — The little corallines leave gaps here 
and there in tlie reefs, so that the water may circulate freely and keep them 
supplied with " brick and mortar" for the vast structures that they build. 

5. Offices of Sea Currents.— Thus you see that the currents of the 
sea perform the office of " hod-carriers" for these little masons of the deep. 

The East Indies. (Maps, pp. 148 and 152.) 

6'. The islands of the Indies are, in eastern phrase- 
ology, " the gardens of the sun." Thej^ are intertropi- 
cal, and resemble in their climate and productions our 
own AVest Indies. The East Indies are rich in gums 
and spices. Pop. 28,000,000 ; area 800,000 sq. miles. 

New Guinea (area 274,500 square miles, population 1,000,000) is inhab- 
ited by uncivilized negroes. 

The bird of Paradise, whose beautiful plumage ladies often wear on their 
bonnets, is a native of this island. 

Sumatra, with an area of 174,170 square miles, and a population of 
2,000,000, is inhabited chiefly by Malays, by whom also all of these islands, 
except New Guinea, are inhabited. Many of these Malays are pirates. 

Java has an area of 52,000 square miles, and a population of 14,000,000. 
This island, though not the largest, is the most populous, wealthy, and influ- 
ential of the East India islands. It is the " pearl of the Indies." It belongs 
to the Dutch, and yields a revenue of $10,000,000 annually. It exports coffee, 
tobacco, sugar, and various other articles. 

The Islands of Banca and Billiton, famous for their tin-mines, also belong 
to the Dutch. 

The Celebes, another rich group, with an area of 50,000 square miles, 
and a population of 300,000, are inhabited by a number of independent tril)es, 
of whom " the Boogis" are the principal. 

The Moluccas (area 70,000 square miles, population 3,000,000), are also 
famous for their spices. They are controlled chiefly by the Dutch, who carry 
on an important trade through the little island of Amboyna. 

Borneo, with an area of 289,070 square miles, and 1,200,000 inhabitants, 
the largest of these, is for the most part still under the rule of its dusky sons, 
called Dyaks. They are very warlike. 

The Philippine Islands, with an area of 114,120 square miles, and with 


M population of 0,000,000 inhabitants, belong to Spain. Next to Java these 
are commercially the most important of the East Indies. We have a valu- 
able trade with tliem in rice, sugar, hemp, tobacco, nutmegs, and other spices. 
These, with the islets and groups adjacent to them, together with Ceylon, 
the Maldives, and the Laccadives, the Seychelles, the isles of Bourbon and 
Mauritius, constitute the chief islands and groups of the East Indies. 

7. Further to the east we have Polynesia, or the 7nam/ 
islands, which dot the Pacific Ocean through the space 
of many millions of square 

Examine the map and you will see 
how numerous they are, and how broad 
is the area over which they are sprin- 

Here we find, on shore, in their 
greatest perfection, the bread-fruit, the 
cocoanut, and the sweet-scented san- 
dalwood, which last is burned by the 
Chinese as incense in their pagodas. 

Madrepores are animal flowers of 
the great deep, distinct from the coral, and are remarkable for the calcareous 



L^ r - '• • - =j 







-—- *--c>— - 


^TrojncjrfCancer ^ 

Bird I ®^^Dlvrp 

Kauhal ~*^'iA' 
Nihaii°° OaTial. '^Q^ 


Lanai r.^^Maui 



Mauna Lua ( Vul ) ^ hawau I. 




» .. • 


•3 Marahalllds. 



I •• ^ 



"* Equator 

-^ KiogsmiU G 



, Ta»weTl Is. 


o» ElliceUs. 



De Peysters Or. _ 

' . tjBion Group 
EUicea Gr. * 



». Cral U. 



Vanikoro I. 

, Banks 19. ' 

■^^ L ":ejee 

•W HEBRIDES ^ *■°^•- 

^ Sandwich I. 

.Erromango T""^^. « 
levu. / 

Savaii => j^Upola 

^aima Levu • • . 

'■'■ ' '•: • Tonga ls.° 

^ ' " Sv 


illiser IB. '-P*, 

Cj ;• •■• « . Rcaolutioa I. 




& l^jyoiiy Is. 


• . 

Osnaljurgh I. ^ 

. Gambier Is. 

. l^ince or Walea 

Tropic of Capricorn 

.f iKaiin I. 







JToTth Cape 






I ^'^'°^») *°V\Eai 

• ____ /^"r-^M^iAhaOpen 
5?' ^^■^'UUUeC 



/j^fj-i^J NEW MUN3TEB 

Antipodes I. 

>2A«t from Greenwich. 


I^nKitnde 165 West from Gre«nwich. 






crust which always surrounds their tissue. Thousands of islands in the ocean 
are of madreporic formation. The illustration represents half the natural 
size of a madrepore. 



8. The Sandwich Islands are the only group in Poly- 
nesia that have attained to the dignity of nationality. 

We have a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation with the king 
of tlie Sandwich Islands, who is a highly accomplished gentleman. 

Honolulu, the capital, (popula- 
tion 14,000), is the most iniixntant 
island town in the wliole of Poly- 
nesia. It has an extensive trade 
with the-United States. 

Hawaii, the lai-gest island of the 
group, is volcanic. On it towers, 
at the height of 13,700 feet, Mauna 
Loa, with its seething cauldron of 
molten lava, 1500 feet deep and 
two miles in circumference. 

These islands are a famous place 
of rendezvous for our whalers. 

Lot's wife, a shaft of granite 
rising 300 feet out of mid-ocean, is 
one of the wonders of Polynesia. 

Formosa belongs to China. 
The French have occupied New 
Caledonia, the Society, and the 
LOT'S WIPE. Marquesas islands. 

Islands of the Atlantic Ockax. (^lap, p. 152.) 

9. All the islands in this ocean have, under the influ- 
ences and agencies of commerce, been brought within 
the pale of civilization. 

St. Helena, a rock, owned and fortified by Great Britain, is of note chiefly 
because it was there that Napoleon Bonaparte was imprisoned and died. 

The Cape deVerdes, Madeira, and Azores all belong to Portugal. They 
are volcanic, and are famous for ft'uits and wines. 

Tiiey produce also coffee, sugar, and tobacco. More than half the oranges 

imported into Great Britain are said to come from St. Michael's, one of the 
Azores. As many as 20,000 oranges have been known to be gathered from a 
single tree there iu one j'ear. 

The Canaries, also volcanic, belong to Spain ; they 
too are famous for their wines. 

To them we owe the sweet little singing-bird that bears their name. 

The Bermudas, said to consist of nearly 3,000 islets, 
belong to Great Britain. On them she has a naval station 
and an excellent dockyard.- 





Studies on the Map of Oceania and Australia. 

Botnidarics and Positions.— Between what parallels of latitude 
and meridians of longitude does Australia lie?— Bound New South Wales- 
Bound Victoria— North Australia— South Australia.- Bound West Australia. 
Wliere is Queen's-Land ?— Tasman Land ?— Wlure is TasuuiniaV— New 
Zealand?— What are llK'ir brarings from M<!l)ourii<?-\Vhal tropic crosses 
Australia ?— Where is Auckland I. ?— Name; the New Zealand Islands. 

Point out the Sandwich Islands— tlie Low Archipelago— Fejee Islands- 
Gilbert Islands— New Hebrides— Admiralty Islands— Timor Islands— The 
Moluccas— The Ladrones— The Caroline Islands— Formosa— Tlic Loo Choo 
Islands— Where arc (he Lousiadc Islands ?— New Caledonia ?— The Solo- 
mon Isles ?— Borneo ?— Smnatra ?— .Lava ?— Wliat groups form Micronesia ? 


Seas, Chdfs, and Bays.— Where is the China 
for the fierce Ujpltoom that visit it. — The Java Sea ? — 
Sea ?— Coral Sea ? 


TJiis is famous 
Sea?— Timor 



Where is the Gulf of Australia ?— Gulf of Carpentaria ?— Spencer's Gulf ?— 
Temple Bay?— Princess Charlotte's Bay ?— Shark Bay ?— Halifax Bay ?— Bot- 
any Bay ? — Geographe Bay? — Storm Bay? — Jervis Bay? — Bay of Plenty? 

Straits, Capes, Headlands, and Points. — Where is Sunda 
Strait ? — What does it separate ? — Tell where the following straits are, and 
what they separate : — Torres Strait — Dampier Strait — Malacca Strait — Strait 
of Macassar — Bank Strait — Bass Strait — Foveaux Strait. 

Where is Cape Leeuwin ?— Cape Naluraliste ? — West Cape ? — Cape Bou- 
gainville ?— Cape York?— Cape Coffin?— Cape Moreton ?— Cape Melville ? 

Where is Java Head ? — Macquarie Head ? — Point Danger ? — Rocky Point ? 

^fountains and Volcanoes, Rivers and Lakes. — Where are 
the Australian Alps ? — Where is Murchison Range ? 
— Mount Wilson ? — Mount Egerton ? — Mount Al- 
exander? — Mount Cook? 

Where is Mauna Loa? Some of the lava riverx 
ejected from Mauna Loa are twenty-six miles loni/. 
— Where is the Murray River ? — The River Dar- 
ling? — The Molyneux River? — Where is Lake 
Eyre ? — Lake Lefroy ? 

Cities ami Distances. — Where is Mel- 
bourne ? — Sidney ? — Brisbane ? — Adelaide ? — 
Hobart Town ? — Auckland ? — Batavia ?— Bor- 
neo ? — Manilla? From ManilUi we get Oranges. — 
Honolulu ? This is the chief entrepot between the 
opi-oKie sJuyres of tJie Noi-th Pacific. — When it is 12 o'clock M. at WasliingUKi, 
what is the hour at Peking? — At Sydney, Australia? — At San Francisco? 



The most Recent Geographical Events and Discoveries. 

The record of geographical discoveries within the last few years is one of 
great importance, and should be studiously pondered by the geographer. 

(1.) The completion of the Pacific Railroad, by whicli the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
were connected, was a geographical event which will always mark the year 1869.* 

(2.) Within the last two years a new and extensive gold-district has been discovered 
and examined in the vicinity of San Diego, California. 

(3.) The Rio Colorado, the stream which drains the western slopes of the Rocky Moun- 
tains in Colorado and discharges its waters into the Pacific, has been explored to its highest 
sources ; the exploration revealing the ruins of cities, aqueducts, and fortified places belong- 
ing to a people of whose remote history we are ignorant. 

(4.) The head-waters of the Missouri river have been traced into a region of great min- 
eral wealth in Montana, and within less than a mile of a small stream which, by a devious 
way, flows westward as a tributary ot the Columbia. 

(5.) The Physical Survey of several States o( the Union has been undertaken and prose- 
cuted with success. That conducted in Virginia has shown the great advantages to be de- 
rived from direct steam communication between her ports and European marts; her facili- 
ties for conveying, by canal and water-carriage, and consequently, at least expense (along 
the James and Kanawha rivers to the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the upper Missouri), the 
trade and emigration of the Old World, to the most distant parts of the West ; and has 
made known the physical geography and the unsurpassed mineral treasures of the State. 

(6.) Renewed surveys of the Isthmus of Darien are in progress with a view to the con- 
struction, at no remote period, of a ship-canal to unite the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. 

(7.) Observations made by ofBcers of the English Cunard steamships show that the cur- 
rent which flows over the Banks of Newfoundland, has a moan temperature of :ji)° 2' Fahr., 
during the three winter months falling to 32", .31°, and 30°, and rising in September to 52°. 

(8.) Deep-sea dredgings, by English geologists, in the Atlantic, reveal the astonishing 
fact that animals supposed to have been extinct for ages are found living at great depths of 
the ocean, and are busily engaged beneath the waters in the production of chalk, limestone, 
and other rocks, and this occurs at depths once believed to be destitute of life. 

(9.) About a year ago, an expedition, under Sir Samuel Baker, set out for the further ex- 
ploration of Lake Albert Nyanza, in Africa, discovered by him in 1864. 

(10.) In the fall of 181)9, a communication from Dr. Livingstone, the celebrated African 
traveller, announced the probable discovery of the long sought sources of the Nile on elevated 
lands southwest of Lake Tanganyika, in south latitude, between 10° and 12°, near the place 
indicated by Ptolemy more than sixteen centuries ago. Should this be confirmed, the length 
of the Nile, measured by a straight line from source to mouth, will be more than twice as 
great -as that of the Mississippi. 

(11.) Rich diamond-mines have been discovered in Africa 800 miles from the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

(12.) Recent researches in Australia have proved the. existence of extensive salt lakes, 
soda deposits, and trees of enormous size. Immense beds-of coal have been lound in New 
Zealand, which will go far toward shaping its industrial fnture. 

(13.) In 1864, a Swedish expedition was sent by the government into the Arctic basin to 
measure an are of the meridian. It visited the southern shores of Spitzbergen, and, while 
cruifing around that island, confirmed the existence of Gillis Land, first seen, in 1707, by a 
Dutch sea captain, whose name it bears. (See Gillis Land on Me'rcator's Map of -the World.) 
(14.) In 1868, a German expedition, fitted out at private expense, for the discovery of the 
Pole, sailed in the steamer Germaida, and reached the high point of 81° 5' N. lat. and 16° E. 
long. Froui the deck of the Gerinania the oflicers distinctly descried, with the telescope, 
the peaks of Gillis Land. They also found piles of drift-wood twenty feet high on the shores 
of Spitzbergen, cast up there by the currents of the ocean. 

(15.) In the same year, another Swedish expedition penetrated as far as 81° 42' N. lat., 
and brought back specimens of animal life at a depth of more than twenty-five hundred 
fathoms, taken northwest of Spitzbergen. This expedition found drift-wood and vegetable 
productions of the West Indies on the western and northwestern coasts of Spitzbergen. 

(16.) In 1869, Captain Hall of Cincinnati returned from an Arctic voyage, bringing relics 
and information of Sir John Franklin's long-lost and ill-fated expedition. Congress has made 
an appropriation to send him out again on an expedition for Polar discoveries. 

(17.) In the fall of 1870, an Hawaiian bark reached San Francisco, with a cargo of 11,500 
seal-skins, obtained on an uninhabited island in the waters adjacent to Alaska. 

(18.) On the 11th of September, 1870, the Arctic Expedition in the Gei-numia^ before 
alluded to. returned home. But they persevered, and in 1871 were rewarded willi a good 
view (il '■ Tiip; Open Ska in the .Art-tic Ocean." 

Note.— It is of the utmost importance to geographical science that further explorations 
be vigorously prosecuted for discoveries in the Antarctic circle. Within this circle is an area 
equal to one-sixth the entire land surface of our planet. It will be a reproach to the civilized 
world to permit such a portion of the earth's surface any longer to remain Terra Incognita. 


Oeogk,\phicai.— I. A telegram is sent west from Calcutta to St. Louis. It is dispatched at 
6 A. M. on the morning of January Ist, I87I, and passing over wires and cables is delivered in 1 hour and 6 
minates afterward in St. Louts : can you tell in what year and on what day and hour it reached St. Louis ? 
(ArtM. See Time Diagram.) 

11. Three friends part from each other in New York on the Ist day of January, 1870. A sails east to go 
round the world ; B journeys west, also to go round the world ; and remains in New York. On tlie 
evening of December 3Ist, 1870. they meet again in New York, A and B having just completed the circuit 
of the world. How many days has eacli seen in the year? Anii. A, .3fti ; B, 36t ; and C, 365 

* The idea of connecting the two great oceans was first suggested by the Rev. James 
Maury of Virginia, in a letter dated Louisa County, Jan. 10, 1756. In this letter he says : 

" When it is considered how far the eastern branches of the Mississippi extend eastward, 
and how near they come to the navigable rivers which empty themselves into the sea that 
washes our shores to the east, it seems highly probable that its western branches reach as 
far the other way, and make as near approaches to rivers emptying into the Pacific, across 
which a short and easy communication, opens itself to the navigator from that shore of the 
continent unto the Eastern Indies." 

The currents of the sea and the prevailing winds of the eartli have already 
been alluded to. Upon a knowledge of these phenomena depends in a large 
measure tlie prosperity of all commercial nations. (Sec diagrams, pp. 110, 132.) 

To avail himself of these winds and currents when fair, or to avoid them when 
adverse, is the effort of the master of every sailinf/ vessel. With your present geo- 
graphical information you can understand why the routes [jrojecied on the map 
are the routes usually chosen. 

Questions, — Why do not navigators always sail in a direct course ? What 
is the general, direction of the winds in the northern half of the Torrid Zone ? 
What in the southern half? What in the North Temperate Zone ? In the South 
Temperate Zone ? Is there any exception to this system ? Point out the Mon- 
soon regions of India. (See p. 132.) 

The constant and permanent currents of the sea run between places where 
t' ,e waters are warm and jilaces where the waters are cold, and for the reason 



that the waters of the sea are, because cold in some places, warm in others, in i 
constant state of unstable equilibrium. The warm Mozami)iquc, the Gulf Streainj 
and Japan Current, with the cold Humboldt and other Polar Currents, may be 
regarded as the unceasing eflFort of nature to restore the equilibrium which is iC 
constant disturbance by the unequal distribution of heat over the ocean. 

The left-hand edge, both of the Gulf Stream and Japan Current, is farthest tc 
the north iu autumn, farthest to the south in spriog. In what zone would you 
sail going from San Francisco to Hong Kong ? In what zone, going from Shangi 
hai to San Francisco ? 

The best route from New York t« Liverpool is with the Gulf Stream, which 
helps vessels along at the average rate of twenty or thirty miles a day. How! 
would the vessel make the quickest rctm-n jiassagc? Ans. By keeping out of th< 
(!ulf Stream, going north of it in the fall, when there are no icebergs, or south of 
it in spring. 


Tnicc tlie course of a vessel from New York to Aspinwall. From New York 
J San Francisco. Why do vessels bound from New York to San Francisco, after 
rossing the Equator in the Atlantic, stand in toward the coast of South America ? 
Vhy, after crossing the Ecpiator in tlie Pacific, do they steer so far west? Ans. 
ecausc tliey are forced by the northeast Trade-Winds. What winds bring them 
ito San Francisco ? Arui. The Counter-Trades. 

How would you go from San Francisco to tlie Sandwich Isles ? Wliat winds 
ouid assist you soon aft('r leaving jKirt? An». The northeast Trades. How 
ould you return from these Islands to San Francisco ? Wliy do you go nortii ? 
M. To escape the Trades that are now head-winds, -and to catch the Counter- 
mdcs. IIow do you go from New York to Melbourne ? Ana. By the Cape of 
cod Hope. Why would you remain on the eastern side of the Atlantic until 
>u cross the Tropic of Capricorn ? Arts. Because the southeast Trade- Winds 
)m|)<;l you. 

In returning from Melbourne to New York, would you go by way of the Cape 
of Good Hope or Cape Horn ? Why by Cape Horn ? Aiis. Because thus you 
have the Counter-Trades in your favor. Wiiy do vessels from England bound 
to India, Cliina, and Australia go by the Cape of Good Hope? Ans. Because the 
Counter-Trades assist tliem, and if they went by Cape Horn tlie Counter-Trades 
would be against them. 

Trace the course of a vessel going from Liverpool to India. Why does she 
run across the Atlantic so close to the shores of South America? Ans. Because 
the Equatorial Current and the Trade- Winds force her over. 

What is the shortest route from Liverpool to Bombay? Am. By the Suez 
CanaL Through what waters would you take this route ? How would you go 
from New York to San Francisco by rail ? Point out the chief Ocean Telegraphic 
Cables of the world. Point out the long-gought Northwest Passage. Oapt. 
McClure, of the British Navy, is the only explorer who has made this ixiesage. ^ 


In this Vocabulary the best and most recent authorities have been consulted for both spelling anil pronunciation, a. e. i, o, (I, are to l)e pronounced as in bate, mete, bite, note, 
tube : a, S, I, 6, ii, as in bat, bet, bit, not, but. The sound of a in far is indicated by ah ; a in fall, oy aw ; o in rfo, by oo ,• g in get, l)y qk. Tlie nasal sound occurrinj; in some Frencli 
words is indicated by N, as Toulon, (too-loN) ; this nasal sound is somewhat like that of ng sounded through the nose. Letters enclosed by ( ) indicate pronunciation. 

Aalborg (ol'borg). 
Aar (alir). 
Aarhuus (or'hoos). 
Abyssinia (al)-is-sin'i-a). 
Abomey (ab-o-mS')- 
Acapuico (ah-kah-pool'ko). 
Acerra (Italy) (ali-clier'rah). 
Aconcagua (ah-kon-kah'gwa). 
Adc^n (a'den or ah'den). 
Adige (ad'e-je ; It. ah'de-ja). 
Aegean (S-jS'an). 
Afghanistan (af-ghahn-is- 


Agulhas (a-gool'yas). 
Aix-la-Chapelle (aks-lah-shah- 

Ajaccio (ah-yaht'cho). 
Alabama (al-a-bah'ma). 
Aland (ah'land). 

Albans (awl'bans). 
Al ci'ra (Sp. ahl-th5'rah). 
Aleutian (al-oo'she-an). 

Albuquerque (alU-bu-ker'ka). 
Alen^on (ah-len'son). 
Algiers (al-j5rz'). 

Allaliabad (ahl-la-hah-bahd')- 
Almaden (ahl-mah-den'). 
ANace (ahl-sass';. 
Altai (ahl-tl'). 
Altamaha (al-ta-ma-hawO- 
Altona (al'to-na). ' • 

Altmuhl(ahlt'muhl).. . ' ■ 
Amarapui'a (ahm-ah-ra-p'u'ra). 
Am'boise (Fr. ahN'bwahz). 
Am'i-ens (Pr. pron. ah-me- 

A moo (ah-moo'). 
Anioor (ah-moor'). 
Anioy (ah'moy). 
Anadyr (an-a-der'). 
Anam (a-nam or a-nahm'). 
Anaphy (ah-nah'le). 
An'des (an'dez). 
Angara (an-gah'rah). 
An>;lesey (ang'gl-se). 
Ann Ar'bor. 
Antigua (ahn-te'gwah). 
An-til'les (or ahn-t51'). 
Araguay (ah-rah-gwi')- 
Archangel (ark-3u'jel). 
Archipelago (ark-i-pel'a-go). 

Ardennes (ar-d6n'). 
Arequipa (ah-ra-kee'pah). 
Argentine (ar'jen-t6n). 

Armagh (ar'mah or ar-mah'). 
Artois (ahr-twah'). 
Asia (a'shi-ah). 

As'gam (or ae-samO. 



Atacama (ah-tah-kah'mah). 

Atchafalaya (ach-af-a-ll'a). 



Augustine (au-gus-tenO . 




Auvergne (o-vairn'). 


Avignon (ah-vSn-yoN')- 

Ava (ah'vah). 



Balbec (bahl'bec). 
Baden (bah den or bad'en). 

Bahia Honda (bah-6'ah Ou'da). 
Bahrein (hah-rau')- 
Baikal (M'kahl). 
IJalize (bah-leez'). 
Balkan (Dald-kahn'). 
Biilmoial (l):ilil-mn'rahl). 
Baltic (bawl'tic). 
Balzac (bahl-zahk'). 
Balaklava (bah-hli-klah'vah). 
Baug-kok' or Ban-kok'. 
Barataria (bah-ra-tah'ri-a). 
Bar-ba'does (-doz). 
Barcelona (bar-se-lo'nah). 
Barnaul (har-nowl'). 

Baton Kouge (bat'un roozh). 

•Bayonne (bah-yon'). 
Bayou la Fourche (bi'oo lah 

Beaufort (bu'fort). 
Beirut (ba'-root). 
Beled-el-jerid (bel'ed-el-jer'- 

Bclem (be-lem' or ba-lcN'). 
Belleisle (bel-Ile'). 
Bel-oo-chis-tan' (-tahn). 
Benares (ben-ah'rez). 
Bengal (ben-gawl'). 
Benguela (ben-ga'lah). 
Benm (ben-6n'). 
Berne (bern). 
Behring (beer'ing). 

Besanfon (ba-sahn-8oN0. 
Biafra (bg-af'rah). 

Binghamton (bing'am-ton). 
Biscay (bis'ky). 
Blenheim (blen'im). 
Bogota (bo-go-lah'). 
Boise (bois). 
Bokhara (bo-kah'ra). 

Bonifacio (bon-e-fah'cho). 
Bonin (bo-nSn'). 
Bordeaux (bor-doO- 

Bourbon (boor'bon). 
Bosna Serai (boz'nah sei"-!'). 
Bonrges (boorzh). 
Brazil (brah-zil'). 
Brazos (hrah'zOs). 
Brem'en (in D. S. BrS'men). 

Brescia (bresh'e-ah). 
Brisbane (briz'bane). 

Britain (brit'tn). 

Bucharest (buck-a-rcsf). 


Buenos Ayres (bway'nos 

Bushire (boo-sheer'). 
Butte (bQt). 

Cabool (kah-bool'). 


C'a'en (or kahN). 



Cairo (ki'ro ; in U. S. ka'ro). 

Calais (kal'is ; Fr. i)ron, 

Calcasieu (kahl'ka-shoo). 
Caldora (kal-da'rah). 
Cal-i-lor iii-a. 
Call 111 (kabl-lah'O, or kahl- 


Can-ton' (in U. S. can'ton). 
Cape Bre'ton (or brit'tn). 
(;aracas (cah-rah'cas). 
Cassiquiare (cah-see-kee-ah'- 

Caxamarca (cah-hah-mar'- 

Cavenne (kl-en'). 
Celebes (set'e-bcK). 
Ceutu (>u'tah). 
Ceylon (sC'lon, or se-lon'). 
Cevennes (sa-ven'). 
Chagres (chah'g'res). 
Chartres (shartr). 
Cbauiplain (sham-piane'). 
Chary bdis (ka-rib'dis). 
Cha;idiere (sho-de-air'). 
Chelsea (chel'se). 
(Chenango (she-nang'go). 
Cherbourg (sher-boorg'j. 
Cheyenne (she-en'). • 
Cherapungee (cher-ah-poon- 

Chicago (she-caw'go). 
Chili (chilOe). 

Chimborazo (chim-bo-rah'zo). 

Chihuahua (che-wah'vvah). 
Chinese (clil-n5z'). 

Chnstiania (kris-te-ah'ne-ahV 
Chuquibamba (chu-ke-bahm'- 

Chuquisaca (chu-ke-sah'kah). 
Cienfuegos (se-en-fwa'gOs). 
Cincinnati (sin-sin-nah'ti). 

Cobija (ko-be'hah). 
Coahuila (kn-ah-w5'lah). 
Cologne (kn-lone'). 
Colorado (col-o-rah'do). 
Cojutepeque (ko-hu-ta-pa'ka). 
Comayagna (ko-ml-ah'gwa). 
Comorin (kom'o-rin). 

Connecticnt (con-net'i-cut). 
Concord (kong'kord) 
Constantine (kon'stahn-tfin). 
Copiapo (ko-pe-ah'po). 
Coquimbo (ko-kSm'bo). 


Corpus Christi (kris'tJ). 



Coseguina (kos-a-gwe'nah). 

Costa Kica (kos'tali re'kali). 

Cotopaxi (co-toi)ax'i). 

Cracow (krah'ko). 

Croustadt (krOn'staht). 

Covington (kuv'iug-ton). 



Ciievas de Vera (kwa'vah dii 

Ciimana (ku-niah-nah'j. 
Cuiacoa (ku-ra-so'a). 
Ciitch (kQtch). 
Cuzco (koos'ko). 
Cyclades (sik'la-dCz). 
Cy -clone'. 


Dafu (dah-too'). 

Dakota (dah-ko'tah). 

Dahomey ((iahho'ma). 

Dalton (iiaurtou). 

Damios (dah'mi-Oz). 




Darfur (dar-foor'). 


Dauphinc (dO-fe'na). 



Delhi (del'hl in U. S.; del'e in 


Des Moines (da moin'). 

Diamantina (deah-mahn-te'- 

Dieppe (de-5p'). 
Dijon (de-zhoN'). 
Dnieper (ne'i)er). 
Dniester (ne^'ter). 

Dominica (doni-e-ne'kah). 
Dona Ana (do'nah ah'nah). 
Dorpat (dor'paht). 
Douai (doo-a'). 
Douro (du'ro). 
Droutheim (dront'Im). 
Drave (drahv). 

Dubuque (du-book'). 
Dumfries (dum-fr5z'). 

Duncansby (dunk'auz-by). 
Dwina (dwe'nah). 


Ecuador (ek-wa-dOr'). 

Ed^ecumbe (ej'kum). 

Ed'in-burgh (or -burro). 



Elburz (el-boorz'). 

EI Dorado (do-rah'do). 

Rl Paso (pah'so). 

Elbe (elb). 

England (ing'gland). 

Erie (e're). 

Eseequibo (cs-se-ke'bo). 

Esquimaux (es'-ke-mo). 

Estacado (es-tah-kah'do). 


Etienne (a-te-6n'). 
Eure (Are). 

Eyre (air). 

Faenza (fah-en'zah). 

Falkland (fawk'land). 

Falmouth (fai'mnth). 

Fa 'roe. 

Fayal (O-awl'; Port, fl-ahl'). 


Felipe (lil-IG'pa). 

Fernandina (-de'nah). 

FiM-rara (I'er-rah'rah). 

Ferrol (fer-rfll'). 

Fez'zan . 

Fiesole (fe-es'o-lS). 

FiuL'al (flng-gawK). 

Finisterre (fln-is-tair'). 

Fiord (fe-ord'). 

Fiumc (fe-oo'mS). 





Foocboo (foo-choo'). 

Franche Comtfi (fraNsh koN- 

Freiburg (fri'boorg). 
Fucino (It. foo-che'no). 
Kiiegos (foo-a'gOs). 
Furneaux (foor-no'). 



Galatz (gab-lahtz'). 

Galicia (gal-ish'e-a). 

C.allas (gsdil'ahz). 

Gallinas (gal-lee'nas). 


GanL'es (gan'jCz). 

Garonne (gah-ron'). 

Gauley (gau'll). 





Geral (zha'rahl). 


Ghauts (gauts). 


Gila ( jG'la or hS'la). 

Gloucester (glos'ter). 


Gobi (gO'be). 

Godavcry (godah'ver-I). 


Gracias a DIos (grah'se-as ah 

Granada (gra-nah'dah). 
Greenwich (grgn'ij or grGn'- 

Greitz (gritz). 
Gricsbach (grGs'bak). 
Grisons (gre-zoN'). 
Gros Ventres (grO vaNtr'). 
Guadalaxara (gwah-dah-lah- 

Guaymas (gwi'mahs). 
Guadalquiver (gaw-dal-quiv'- 

Guadalupe (sraw-'da-lupe). 
Guadiana (L'avv-de-ah'na). 
Giianaxiiato (gwah-nah-hwair 

Gnardafui (gwar-dah-fwfl'). 
Gnatemalji (gwahta-mah'lah). 
(iiiavaquil (gwi-ah-keel'). 
Guelph (gwelf), 
Guiana (ge-an'ah). 
Guinea (<rhin'e). 
Guvandotie (ghlan-dof). 


Iladramaut (liahd-rah-mowt'). 

Hague (bag). 

Hainim dil-nan'). 

Ilartz, or Harz (harts). 

Hakodacli (hahko-dah'di). 






Harbor Grace (grabs). 


Havana (ha-van nah). 

Havr<' (hah'vre). 

Haverhill (ha'ver-il ; in Eng., 

Hawaii (hah-wah'e). 

Hayti (ha'tl). 

Heb'ri-des (-dCz). 



Helena (hel'ena. Ark.; he-lC 
na, for the island St. Hele- 




Hcrnbiit (hem'hoot). 

Himalaya (hitn-a-la'ya). 


Ilin-dostan'. or Hin-dii-stan'. 

Hoang-Ho (\\hang'-ho). 

Hoi (ho'e). 


llcilslein (hnl'stCn). 

llolyoke (hOl'ynk). 


Hong Kong'. 

Ilohdliihi (ho-no-Ioo'loo). 

lli>ii>^-n-t(m'ic (boos-). 

lloti-ion (hfl^'ton). 

Iliiallaga (hwal-yah'gah). 

HuaiHU'o (wahn'oo-ko). 

Hue (boo'a). 

Hni-lva (wel'vah). 




Hyderabad (hl-dcr-a-bahd'). 


iL'iiape (e-g\vah'pa). 
Illinuis (il-lin-oiz or -oi). 
Illimani (Cl'ye-mah'ne). 
Indies (in'diz), 

Innsbiuck (ins'prook). 
Interlacken (in'ter-lahk-en). 

Irkutsk (ir-kool8k'). 
Iscre (G-zair'). 
Iser (G'zer). 

Itapna (G-tah-j)oi)'ii'.iV 
Il(m (Fr. G-toN). 
Ivifa (C-ve'sahj. 
IztarcihuatI (J.-tahk-se- 



Jaen (hah-en'). 
Jalapa (liab-Iah'pab). 
Jalamnit'za (yal-). 
Jamaica (ja-ma'k«h>. 
Jan Mayen (yahn mi'en). 



1/.'^ V 





Jipura (hah-poo'rah). 

Jassy (yas'sl). 

Java (jah'vah). 

Jfb'el Sham'mer. 

Je'na (or ya'nah). 


Jiloco (he-lo'ko). 

Joannes (zho-ahn'nes). 


Jorallo (ho-rool'yo). 

Jn-an Fer-nan'dez. 

Ju'im de Fii'ca. 


Juniata (ja-nl-ah'tah). 

Jiin^'fran (yoong'frow). 

Jn'ra (Fr. zhu-rah')- 



Kafir (kah'fir). 

Kalahari (kah-lah-hah're). 



Kanawha (kan-aw'wah). 



Kan'sas (-zas). 





Kel-at' (or -aht). 




Kur^ruelcn (kerg'e-len). 



Khiva (kee'vah). 

Kiachta (ke-ahk'tah). 

Ki.^l (kel). 

Kii'v (ke-ev'). 

Kilimandjaro (kil-e-mahn- 

Kirirhiz (kir-ghSz'). 
Kiusiii (kee-oo'se-oo). 
Kukan (ko-kahn'). 
Konka (kon'kah). 
Kor do-fan', 
Kionstadt (krSn'staht). 
Kiien Lun (kweii loon). 
Kurdistan (koor-dis-tahn'). 
Kurile (koo-ril' or koo'ril). 
Kn'ro Si'wo (sS'wo). 

I.ialand (law'land, or Id'and). 


[.achen (lah'ken) 




[..a Granire (-arranj). 

La Oiiavra (lah cwi'rah). 

Lahore (lah-hrirO. 

Lahn Hah-hoo'). 

La M iiifh I (-mahn'chah). 

Lande:* (laNdzl. 

La Plat I (lah plah'tah). 


Laramie (lar'a-me). 


Lausanne (lo-zahn'). 



Lena (le'nah). 

Lewes (lu'es). 

Li-ydcn (16'den or H'den). 


Lichtenfels (lik'ten-fels). 

Liege rlej). 

I.ima (le'inah). 

Limoijes de-mrjzh'). 

Linyanti (lin-yahn'te). 

Lipari (lip'a-re). 



Llano E;staca<lu (lyah'no es- 

Loire (Iwahr). 

Los An«ele« (10s an'jel-es). 
Lon^'h flok) 
Louisville (loo'is-vil or lool- 

Louisiana (loo-'zt-ah'na), 

Luzon (loo-zOn' or -zon'). 


Maas Cmaha). 
Macao (ma-cah'o). 





Madeira (ma-de'ra). 



Maes tricht (mahs'trikt). 


Ma<;alhaens (mah-gahl-yah'- 

Magellan (ma-jel'lan or maj- 

Matjiriore (mahd-jo'ra). 
Maimaitchin (ml-ml-chin'). 

Mamore (mah-mo'r5). 
Mauil'la or Ma-nil'a. 
Marajo (mah-rah-zho'). 

Marifarita (mar-gah-re'tah). 

Marquesas (mar-ka'zas). 
Marseille (mar-sal'y"). 
Mat a-mo'ras. 

Mauch Chunk (mawk chungk) 

Mauritius (mau-rish'e-us). 
Mayenne (niah-ycn'). 
Mechlin (mek'lin). 
Medina (me-de'nah in Ar., me- 

dl'nah in U. S.) 
Mell)onrne (mel'burn). 
Menam (ma-nahm'J. 

Men'ho (or meu'yo). 
Metz (mets or mSce). 
Mcuse (raflz). 
Messina (mes-se'uah). 
Miami (ml-am'f). 
Michigan (mish'I-gan). 

Mikado (ml-kah'do). 
Mindanao (min-dah-nab'o). 
Mobile (mo-bcel'). 
.Mocha (mo'kah). 
Mont Cenis (cen'I). 
Monterey (mont-C-ril'). 
Montpelier (mont-pCl'yer). 
Montreal (mon-tre-awr;. 
Moscow (mos'kn). 
Mozambique (mo-zam-b5k'). 
Munich (mu'nik). 



Nagasaki (nah-gah-eah'ke). 

Namaqua (nah-mah'qua). 



Nantes (nants). 


Naples (na'plz). 







Navarino (nah-vah-re'no). 

Navarre (nah-vahr'). 



Nemours (ua-moor'). 




Nueces fnooa'ses). 

Neuchatel (nn-shah-tel'). 

Neuse (iifls). 

Nevada (ne-vah'dah). 

Newark (nu'ark). 

New-found'land (or nu'fund- 

New Granada (grah-nah'dah). 

New Or'le-ans. 

New Zea'land. 

Ngami (n'gah'me). 


Nicaraugua (nik-a-rah'gwah). 


Niemen (ne'men). 

Ni'ger (nl-jer). 



Nij'ni Nov'go-rod (nizh'ni). 

Nisraes (nem). 

Nor'wich (or nor'ich in U.S. ; 

nor'ij in Eng.) 
No'va Sco'ti-a. 
No'va Zem'bla. 
Nyanza (nl-alin'zah). 

Oahn (wah'hoo). 

Oaxaca (wah-hah'kah). 


Oceania (o-she-a'ni-ah). 

Ochotsk (i)'kolsk). 











Omaha (o-ma-haw'). 

Oneida (o-nl'dah). 

Onondaga (on-hu-dah'gah). 


Ontonagon (on-to-nagh'on). 


Opelousas (op-eloo'sas). 

Ovense (o-ven'sa). 

Orizaba (o-re-sah'bah). 







Osaka (o-sah'kah). 

Osceola (o8-e-o'la). 



Ottawa (ot'ta-wah). 








Palo Alto (pahio ahl'to). 



Pan-a-ma' (-mah). 

Papua (pap'ii-ah). 

Para (pah-rah'). 

Paraguay (pah-rah-gwa' or 

I'arana (pah-ruh-nah'). 
Parime (pah-re'mS). 

Pas-ca-goula (-goo-). 

Pecos (pa'kOs). 
Peling (pa-ling'). 
Pembina (pein'be-nah). 
Penine (pen'Gn). 
I Penn-syl-va'ni-a. 
Perouee (pe-roozO. 
Persia (pcr'shi-ah). 
Peru (pe-roo'). 
Pesth (pgst). 
Petropniilowski (pa-tro-pan- 

Pic Anethou (pEk ah-na-too') 
Pictou (ptk-too'). 
I'isa (pe'zah). 
Piura (pT-oi'Vah). 
Placeiitia (pla-sen'shl-ah). 
Plaquemine (plak-mGn'.) 
Plateau (plah-to') 
Poitiers (poi-l5rz'). 
Popayan (popah-yahn'). 
Port an Prince (port o prins). 

Porto Rico (port'o re'ko). 
Portsmouth (ports'muth). 

Potosi (po-to-se'or po-to'se). 
Poughkeepsie (po-kip'se). 

Prague (prSg). 

Prairie du Chien (pra're du 

Presidio (pra-ze'de-o). 
Provence (pro-vahNs'). 
Prussia (prush'i-ah). 
Pruth (prooth). 
Puebia (pweb'lah). 
Puntii (poon'tah). 
Purus (poo'roos). 
Puerto Principe (pwer'to 

Pulaski (pu-las'ke). 


Quebec (kwe-bek'). 
Quentin (kwen'lin). 
(Juereiaru (ka-ra'tah-ro). 
Quiloa (ke'lo-ah). 
Quincy (kwin'cy). 
Quito (ke'to). 

Racine (ra-85n'). 


Raleigh (raw'le). 





Reading (red'ing). 

Reims or Rheims (rSraz). 

Reikiavik (rl'kl-a-vik). 

Reuss (rQs). 

Richelieu (re'she-loo or rSsh'- 

Rideau (re-do') 
Rio Pecos (re'o pa'kOs). 
Riviere du Loup (re-ve-air' 

du loo). 
Rhine (rln). 

Rhode Island (rOd i'laud). 
Rhone (rOu). 
Riga (re'gah). 
Rio de la Plata (re'o dil lah 

Rio Grande (rl'o grand in 

Texas ; rC'o grahn'da in S. 

America) . 
Rio Janeiro (rl'o ja-nS'ro or 

rS'o jah-na'ro). 
Rio Negro U'G'o na'gro). 
Rochclle (ro-shel'). 
Roque (rOk). 

]{ouen (roo-en' or roo-oN'). 
Kiiniihuasi (roo-me-hwah't-e). 
Russia (rush'i-ah). • 
Rustschuk (rooB-chook'). 

Sabine (sah-bSn'). . 


Saco (saw'ko). 


Sadowa (sah-do'ah). 

Saghalien (sag-hal'i-en or sag- 

Saguenay (sahg-e-nS'). 
Sahara (sah-hah'rah). 
Salado (sah-lah'do). 
Salimoes (sah-le'mOz). 
^aline (sah-lCn'). 
Salonica (sah-lon-e'kah). 
Samana (sah-mah'nah or eah- 

Samoiedes (sam-oi-edz'). 
Han Diego (de-a'go). 
San Joaquin (sahn wah- 

San Jose (sahn ho-sS'). 
San Marino (raah-re'no). 
Saone (son). 
Sedan (seh-dahn'). 
Solferino (sol-fa-re'no). 
Sligo (sle'go). 

St. Augustine (au-gus-t6n'). 
St. Clair (klair). 
St. Do-min'go. 
St E-li'as. 
St. Ile-le'na. 
St. Law'rence. 
St, Louis (loo'is or loo'e). 
St, Paul de Lo-an'do. 
Si. Pe'ters-burg. 
St. Pierre (saint p5r or saN 

San Pran-cis'co. 
San 'gar. 
San Bias (blah). 
San Lu'cas. 
San Sal'va-dor. 
San'ta Fe' (H). 

Santiago (sahn-tl-ah'go). 
Sarawak (sah-rah-wahk'). 




Sault St. Marie (soo s6nt ma'- 

Save (sahv or silv). 
Savoy (sav'oy or eah-voy'). 
Scheldt (skelt). 
Schuylkill (skool'kil). 
Schoharie (sko-hiSr'e). 
Scio (si'o). 
Scioto (si-o'to). 
Scutari (skoo'tah-re or ekoo- 

Seine (sSn). 
Senegal (sen'e-gawl or sen-e- 


Shanghai (shang'hl). 
Sierra Leone (se-er'rah le-o'- 

Sierra Madre (se-er'rah mah'- 

Sierra Morena (se-er'rah mo- 


Simoda (sl-mo'dah). 

Solimoes (so-le'mOz). 

Soongaria (soon-gah'ri-a). 
South Car-o-li'na. 
Sorata (so-rah'tah). 
Stanovoi (stahn-no-voi'). 
Staunton (stSn'ton in Va. ; 

stSn'ton or stahn'ton in 


Suleiman (soo-lii-mahn'). 
Sungari (sun-gah're). 
Sural (soo-raf). 
Surinam (soo-ri-nam'). 
Suwanee (su-wah'ne). 

Sumatra (soo-mah'trah 

Syracuse (sir'a-kasX 

Tabago (tah-bah'go). 


Tahiti (tah-he'te). 




'i'allulah (tal-u'la), 

Tampi'co (tam-pe'ko). 

Taiiaiiarivoo (tah-nah-nah-re- 

Tanaro (tah-uah'ro). 
Tanganyika (tahn-gahn-ye'- 

Tanjier (tahn-j5r'). 
Tapajos (tah-pah'zhos). 
Tarifa (tah-re'fah). 
Taunton (tahn'ton). 
Tchad (chad). 
Teheran (te-he-rahn'). 
Tehuantepec (ta-whan'ta- 

Tchukchees (tchook'chSz). 

Tengre Nor (teu'gre nor). 
Terre Haute (ter'e hot). 

Thames (temz). 
ThianShan (te-ahn' shahn). 
Thibet (tih'et). 
Thome (to'ma), 
Tient-sing (te-ent-sCng'), 
Tierra del Fuego (tcer'ra del 

Tif 'lis (or tif-Igs'). 
Tivoli (tiv'o-le). 

Tim-buc-too'(or tim-buc'too). 
Timor (ti-mOr'). 
Titicaca (te-te-kah'kah). 

Tocantins (to-kahn-t5nz). 
Tom-big' bee. 



Toulon (too-loN'). 

Toulouse (too-loozO. 

Tours (toor). 


Traf-al-gar' (or tra-fal'gar), 

Travancore (trav-ahn-kOr'). 

Trieste (trC-esf). 



Troyes (trwah). 

Truxillo (tru-hel'yo). 

Tucson (took'son). 

Tundras (toon'drahz). 


Tu'rin (or tu-rin'). 

Turkestan (toor-kes-tahn'). 




Tuxtla (tooxt'lah). 




Ucayle (oo-kI-ah'15). 

Uist (wist). 

Ulm (Ger. pron. oolm). 



U-ni'ted States. 

Upernavik (oo-per'na-vik). 

Upsala (up-sah'la). 

U'ral or Ou'ral. 

Uruguay (u'ra-gway or -gwi). 


Utrecht (yoo'treckt). 

Valdai (valil'dl). 

Valladolid (val-ah-do-lid'). 

Valparaiso (val-pa-rl'-so). 

Vancouver (van-koo'ver). 

Varinas (vah-re'nahs), 

Vaud (vO). 

Vendome (voNdOm'). 

Venezuela (ven-e-zwe'la). 


Vera Cruz (ver'ali krooz). 

Vermejo (ver-inS'ho). 


Versailles (ver-sSlz'). 


Viatka (ve-ahl'kah). 

Vich (vik). 



Vienna (ve-en'nah). 

N'iudhya (vind'yah). 




Vosges (vOzh). 


Wabash (wah'bash;. 

Wachusett (waw-chn'set). 

Wahsatch (wah-sach'). 

Wallachia (wal-la'ki-ah). 



Washita (wash'e-tavv). 



West Indies (in'diz). 



Wicleczka (we-litch'kah). 


Winnipiscogee (win-e-pe 

Worcester (woos'ter). 
Wyandot (wl-an-dOf). 

Xarayes (hah-rl'es). 
Xeres (hay-res'). 
Xingu (shin-goo'). 

Yakatsk (yah-kootsk'). 
Yang-tse-Kiang (yahng'tso 

Yapura (yah-pu'rah). 
Yazoo (yah-zoo'). 

Yenisei (yen-I-sa'i). 
Yokohama (yo-ko-hah'mah), 


Zacatecas (zak-a-tS'kas). 
Zambezi (zam-bS'ze). 
Zealand (ze'land). 
Zurich (zu'rik). 
Zuvder Zee (zi'der zee). 


)^h r2r) J4f>7 ^ — - 

Many of the statistics usually given at tEe close of works of tliis order have been carefully inteiwoven in the text itself. The subjoined Tables arc compiled from the best anthoritiee 
and the most recent data. For many of these the Author is indebted especially to the Census of the United States, 1870, to the Census of Great Britain aud of the Dominion, 1871 (the 
latter, with their valuable information, kindly furnished by Mr. Alplieus Todd, Parliamentary Librarian), and to Behms' Ueographisches Jahrbuch. 

%^" The Class should be exercised on these Tables by such questions as these : What is the area of the earth ? Uovv much laud ? How much water ? Population ? What Nation 
owns most land ? Which rules most people ? What is the population of the United States ? Railroads, length of Rivers, heights of Mountains, &c., &c. 


Polar Diameter 

Equatorial Diameter 

Equatorial Circumference . 
Superficial Area 

7,89yj miles. 
7.925+ " 
24,899i " 
.196,8(il,750 square miles 

(Pupil will find these statistics i:i the table at bottom ot 
pp. 20 and 21.) 


(Pupil will find these at bottom of pp. 20 iind 21. He will 
also refer for additional inlbnnatiuu to the appropriate place 
in the text.) 


(See p. 12.) 


Europe, with islands 3,846,038 
Asia, " " 17,.361,971 
Africa, " " 11.5.511.293 
North America, '• 9,021.15:1 
South America, " 6,9.57,271 
Australasia and Pol- 
ynesia 3,425,302 

Total land surface. 52,168,028 

Square Miles. 
Unexplored Polar 


Arctic Ocean 

Atliintic Ocean 
Pacilic Ocean. . . 
Indian Ocean . . . 


Total earth's sur- 
face 196,681,750 


Lake Superior. 
Green Bay — 
Lake Michigan 

" Huron... 

" St. Clair. 

" Erie 

" Ontario. . 



Deplh ill 

.iliove sea 
ill Feet. 














: 80 




. 18 




• 38 







Ar ft ill 
Sq. Miles. 


The lakes contain 11,.300 cubic miles of water, or more than 
one-half of all the fresh water on the globe. 


Square Mile.s. 

Lake Nicaragua 4,000 

Luke Wener. 2,12i) 

Great Salt Lake 1.900 

Great Bear Lake 10,0(10 

Lake Geneva 82 


■ Squ 

ue Miles. 

Caspian Sea. 


Sea of Aral 

. 31.100 

Lake Baikal 

. 15,000 

Great Slave Lake. . . 

. 12.000 

Lake Winnipeg. . .. 

. 7,000 

Lake Titicaca 

. 4,000 

Population. Square Miles. 







New Guinea 









New Zealand 






The United States owns no islands except the Aleutian 
Islands, and those that are near our own shores, called 
lUtmal islands. Neither does China, nor Turkey, nor Russia, 
nor Brazil, own any except their littoral islands. The 
United States has possessions only on the American Con- 
tinent. Great Britain, on the contrary, has possessions in 
the four quarters of the globe— her iftncUlesl possessions being 
in Europe; these are now as follows : 


Square Mil'-' 

In Europe 

In Africa 

31 .629.000 





500 000 


In Australia and Polynesia.. . 







Square Miles. 


Great Britain 


:19 00.1.0 10 


United States 





843 00;),000 


(By Census op 1870.) 



N. Hampshire 






Rhode Wand. 


C'onneciicut.. . 


Nkw Enul'nd 

States, agg. 


New York.. 

New Jersey . . 




District of Co- 

Mm. States, 
aggregate. . . . 


N'rth Carolina 
So. Carolina. 







Arkansas.: . . 
Tunnesseo. . . 
Indian Teiri- 

Ifiry (est) . 
Ntw Mexico. 

States, agg 

West Virginia 

















States, agg. 

California* . . . 



A rizona 



Alaska (est). . , 
States, agg 

Total Aggre 


















,328.4 1 C 





















3,455,013: 31,705 




712 089 
521. .381 






























1.051. .351 

1.61 13. 141 

1 1K'<.20'; 

4:38 2.57 

ai6 :i77 










9, .581 






























































* California has 43,310 Chinese. 

+ Exclusive of Navy, Mariners at Sea, and Wild Indians, 
estimated at 367,227. 


1775. . 

1790. . 

. 2.803 000 Colonies, 13 

3,929,827 Slates. 



.12,866,020 States. 
. 17,069,4.53 " . 
.2:3.191,876 " . 
31,719,765 " . 
. :38,576,;371 " . 



Greenland (osiiraated) 


Laf/radoi- (estimated) 

Prince Edward's Island. . . 

The Dominion 



Aora Scotia 

A't w III It m wick 


Biitish Colum/jia (est) 

Northwest Teiritoiies (est) 


Cent. America (p. 87), est 

West Indies (est) .. 

Viilxi, ■■ 

Infiind San Domingo (est). 
South .America (est). ... 


The Guuanas 


I'niled Slates of Colombia . 





Argentine Confederation.. 








ropulatiou. Sq. Mile . 













9.116 082 




710. (K)0 
































3,2,30.9 (1 

197, SI5 


3.57. IIIH 












Sq. Miles. 


1871 . . 




" .. 




" . . 

1,721, 7:10 



" ., 




" . . 



France (est) 

" .. 



New Gerhan Empire — 





" .. 




'* ., 




" . . 








" .. 







Ilan/ioi y 


10,684, :i">4 


Turkey in Europe 



1867 . 



Ionian Republic 

1865. . 



Sun Marino " 




Switzerland " 




Andorra " (est) 

1871 . . 



Ilalv (estimated) 








Portugal *.. 









1866. . 















Russia in Europe 










The Caucasus 







Sq. Miles. 

British India . 

1.. 576.6 11 





F.MiTHER India.. 
















French Cochin China 




East India Islands (est)... 

1871 . . 

27.678 804 


Japan (est) 

" . . 





ASIA.— Continued. 

Chinese Empire (esti... 
Riis;<ia in Asia {Sibe7ia). 

Afffhanistan (est ) 

Befoochistan (est) 

Arabia (est) 

Persi I (est) 

Turkey (est) 

1871 . . 







Sq. Mile: 




firypt 1871 . 

TriiKiti I '• . 

Tunis ' " . 

Algeria 1867. 

Morocco (i-st) 1871 . 

Abyssinia 18ti8. 

Liberia 1867 . 

Cape Colony l!<<i5. 

Natal I '• . 

Diamond Fields and the I i,„,, 

two Kepublics (eft) )' /''"• 

Madagascar 1865. 











5,000, 00 

Sq. Miles. 


9 567 




-AcsTBALiAN Colonies 

Sew South Wales 


Smit/i A uglralia 


West A mlralia 


New Zealand 




Sq. Miles. 





(Census op 1870.) 

Albany N. Y.. . . 

Alexandria Va 

Alleghany Pa 

Atlanta Ga 

A uburn N. Y . . . 

Au!<usta Ga 

Austin Tex 

Baltimore Md .. . . 

Bangor Me 

Boston Mass.. . 

Bridgeport Conn... 

Brooklyn N. Y . . . 

Buffalo N.Y... 

Burlington Iowa... 

Burlington Vt 

Cambridge Mass.. . 

Camdtn N. J. .. . 

Charleston S. C... 

Charli^stown Mass.. . 

Charlotte N. C 

Chattanooga Tenn. .. 

Chicn^'O El 























Cincinnati 2I(i 

Cleveland O. . 

Columbia S. C. . 

Columbus Ga. .. . 

Columbus O 

Concord N. II.. 

Covington Ky 

Davenport Iowa. . 

Day Ion O 

Des .Moines Iowa. 

Detroit Mich.. 

Dubuque Iowa.. 

Elizabeth N. J... 

Elmira N.Y . 

Erie Pa.... 

Evansville Ind . .. 

Fall River Mass. . 

Fort W'ayn? Ind. .. 

Galveston Tex. .. 

Grand [{ftpids Mich.. 

Hannibal Mo . .. 

llaiTisburg Pa . . . 

Hartford Conn.. 

Hobokeii N.J... 

llou-ton Tex... 

lliintsvillc Ala .. . 

Indianapolis Ind. . . 

.lai kson Miss. . 

.Jack-'imvillc Fla 

.Jersey City N. J. . . 

Kan-a" City Mo 

Knoxville Tenn.. 

LiMcaster Pa 

Lawrence Mass.. 

Leavenworth Kan.. . 

Lexington Ky . 

Little Rock. .. Ark. . 

l.ouisville Ky ... 

Lowell Mass. . 

Lynn Mass.. 

Lynchborg Va. . . . 

Macon (3a. . . . 









Manchester N. E 

Memphis Tenn 

Milwaukee Wis 

Minneapolis Minn 

Mobile Ala 

Montgomery AJa 

Nashville Tenn 

Natchez Miss 

New .\lbany Ind 

New Bedford Mass . . . . 

Newark N. J 

Newburyport Mass. . . . 

New Brunswick N.J 

New Haven Conn 

New Orleans La 

Newport Ky 

New York N.Y 

Norfolk Va 

Norwich Conn 

Omaha Neb 

Oswego N. Y 

Paterson N.J 

Peoria Ill 

Petersburg Va 

Philadelphia Pa 

Pittsburg Pa 

Portland Me 

I'ortland Or 

Portsmouth Va 

I'oughkcepsic N.Y 

Providence R. I 

(Juincy Ill 

Raleigh N. C 

Read! ng Pa 

Richmond Va 

Rochester N. Y... 

Sacramento Cal 

Salt Lake City Utah.... 

St. Joseph Mo 

St. Louis Mo 

SI. Paul Minn.... 

Salem Mass. .. 

San Antonio Tex 

San Francisco Cal 

Savannah Ga 

Scranton Pa 

Selma Ala 

Springfield Ill 

Springfield Mass 

Stockton Cal 

Syracuse N. Y 

Taunton Mass 

Terre Haute Ind 

Toledo O 

Trenton N. J 

Troy ..N.Y 

Utica N.Y 

Vi( ksburg Miss . 

Washington D. C... 

Wheeling W. V. . 

Williamsport Pa.. .. 

Wilmington Del. .. 

Wilmington N. C . 

Worcester Mass.. 













[For chief Cities and Towns of the United States, see 
above.] . 
.Montreal Dom. of Canada 107,000 

(Quebec . 

'loionto " 

Ottawa " 

London " 

Halifax " 

.Mexico Mexico . 

Havana Cuba 



Bogota U. S. of Colombia. 4.5,000 

( 'aniccas Venezuela 40,000 

(iiiito Ecuador 80,000 

Lima Peru 120,000 

La Paz Bolivia 75,000 

S,aniiago Chili 115,000 

Valparaiso '• 80,000 

Rio de Janeiro Brazil 420,000 

Bahia " 150.000 

I'ernambuco " 120,000 

Buenos Ayres Argentine Confed 200,000 

Montevideo Uruguay 100,000 


London England 

Livcr])ool " 

Manchester " 

Birmingham " 

Leeds.. " 

Sheffield " 

Bristol " 

Mcrthyr Tydvil Wales 

Glasgow Scotland 

Edinburg " ... 

Dublin Ireland 

Belfast " 

Cork " 

Paris France 

Lyons '" 

Marseilles " 

Bordeaux " 

Lille " 

Nantes " 

Toulouse " 

Roue«i " 

Havre " 





Berlin German Empire 1,000,000 

Hamburg. " " .305,000 

Munich " " .170,0(J0 

Breslau " " 170.000 

Dresden " " 160,000 

Cologne " " 126,000 

Konigsberg " " 100,000 

Leipsic " " 95,0(X) 

Bremen " " 75,000 

Vienna Austria 607,000 

Prague " 1,57,000 

Trieste " 105,000 

Lemberg " 70,000 

Pesth Hungary 157,000 

Naples Italy 420,000 

Milan " 250,000 

Rome " 220,000 

Turin " 204,000 

Palermo " 180,000 

Genoa " 130,000 

Florence . , " 120.000 

Venice " 120,000 

Madrid Spain 476,000 

Barcelona " 252,000 

Seville " 152,000 

Valencia " 145,000 

Malaga " 11.3,000 

Granada " 100,000 

Cadiz " 75,000 

Lisbon Portugal 225,000 

Oporto '• 90.000 

Brussels Belgium 190,000 

Ghent •' 12.5.000 

Antwerp " 125,000 

Amsterdam Holland 265,(i00 

Rotterdam " 120.1)110 

Copenhagen Denmark 160,000 

Stockholm Sweden 140,000 

Christiana Norway 40,000 

St. Petersburg Russia 5.50,000 

Moscow " 360,000 

Warsaw... " 245,000 

Odessa •' 120.000 

Riga " 100,000 

Astrachan " 45,000 

Archangel " 20,000 

Geneva Switzerland 40,000 

Berne '• 30,000 

Athens Greece 40,000 

Constantinople Turkey 1,075,000 

Adrianople " 150,000 

Salonica " 90,000 

Bucharest " 125,000 


Smyrna Turkey 160,000 

Damascus " 150,000 

Aleppo " 100,000 

Bagdad " 65,000 

Muscat Arabia 60.000 

Aden " 50.000 

Mecca "' ' 40.000 

Teheran Persia. 100,000 

Tabiiz " ■ . : 150,000 

Bokhara Turkestan 125,000 

Calcutta India 1,000,000 

Bombiiy '• 820,000 

Madras " .'. 450,000 

Benares '■ 600,000 

Lucknow " 300,000 

Delhi •.. " ....- 160,000 

Bankok Siam 400,000 

Singapore .-. ; •. ■ 90,000 

Pekin- China 1,650,000 

<;anl,on " 1,200,000 

Shiinghai " 300,000 

Nanking " 300,000 

Amoy, " 250,000 

Yedo Japan 1,560,000 

Miako " 370,000 

Osaka " 700.000 

Yokahama " 300,000 


Manilla .-. . Philipiiine Islands .... 160,000 

Batavja Java 100.000 

Melbourne Australia 130.000 

Sydney '■ 100,000 

Honolulu Sandwich Islands 14,000 


Cairo Egypt 260,000 

Alexandria " 275.000 

Tunis Tunis 1.50,000 

Morocco Morocco 100.000 

Fez " 75,000 

Algiers Algeria 60,000 


America 90,000.000 I Australia, Poly- 
Europe 295,000,000 I nesia and other 

Asia 800,000.000 islands 

Africa 190.000,000 | 

Total 1,380.000,000 



America .56.01 lO miles. 

(United States.. 51.000 ") 

Europe 64,000 " 

(Great Britain... 16,000 ") 
Asia 5,000 " 

Africa 1,500 miles. 

Australia 1,000 

Total, World, 127,500 miles. 

f\ h: 

1 58 




How to teach map-drawing is a pei-plexing question with many teachers. 
But systematic efforts, aided by a few simple rules, will soon make it a favorite 
(jxercise of the class-room. 

Map Tracing. — Lay a transparent sheet (tracing paper) smoothly over the 
original. Secure it so that it may not slip, and then trace with pen or pencil 
what you wish to copy. 

Map Sketching. — The object of this is to practice the eye and hand, as well 
as to impress upon the mind the geographical features of the countrj'. It is 
one of the most useful exercises in the study of geography. 

It is not expected that the pupil can, at first, draw from memorj' a map 
that will look just like the oiiginal in the book, but let each one draw some- 
thing as much like it as lie can. The best way is to begin with the original 
before him. Let us take an easy one, as North Carolina, and begin by 
examining its outhnes. 

Well, now look along the northera boundary, that is a straight line. Fol- 
low down the western boundary, which slants to tlie west. The southern 
line is broken ; follow it carefully ; and now measure with your pencil the 
width of the State along the coast. Now measure the width in the westein 
part. Now measure the length, and see how much longer the State is tlian 
it is wide. Close your books. I shall give you just fve minutes to draw this 
map ; so you must work rapidly. James, Jolin, Matthew, Henry, Charles, 
Robert, go to the blackboards, and the rest of you fcike your slates. Are you 
ready? Begin. Draw the coast-line first,— sketch lightli/ and rapidlg, -—thm 
draw the northern boundary; next the western ; and then the southeni. In 
five minutes the signal is given. The work ceases. All are seated. Books 
are opened, and each map on the board is good-naturedly criticized. Now, 
scholars, I will draw the northern line of this map for you. I think it looks 
better, after you have traced it lightly, to take the blunt end of your chalk- 
crayon and go over it witli short Iieavy strokes, thus : ^^™ 

^ ? 

The next day. — Well, have you forgotten how North Carolina looks? No 
sir. Look at your geographies again. Can you draw llic northern part of it 
for the length of an inch? Yes, sir. Can j^ou then draw «//<>//«'/• inch ? Yes, 
sir. Very well; so you cati draw the whole of it inch by inch. Meas- 
ure again the width of it with your pencil in the eastern part; now in 
the western part, and remember the diflFerence. Now measure the length, 
and see how many times the width it measures. Now notice the moun- 

Next notice the beginning of the Neuse River, the directions from which 
and in which it flows, and where it empties. 

Again, six boys at the blackboards and the rest with slates, have five 
minutes given to sketch the map. The boundaries are retraced according 
to yesterday's instruction. — Now, scholars, you may draw the rivers. Make 

a wavy or vibratory motion with your crayons, thus : 

Can you do this? A few MrauTEs are silently spent in prac- 

Now, scholars, to-morrow North Carolina will be a special lesson, and I 
wish you to study the map, the rivers, location of the towns, etc., and impress 
upon your minds the features of the State, as you would those of a man you 
wished to remember for life. 

[Let pupils here refer to General Hints for Map-Drawing, p. 160.] 


The next day spend about ten minutes in drawing maps of Nortli 
Carolina. Let the pupils represent 
mountains in the following manner, 
and after tracing lightly the coast-line, 
go over it witli the blunt end of the 
crayon, making a broad, heavy stroke. 

Now, scholars, to-morrow morning I want you all to bring ia a map of 
North Carolina, drawn either with pen or pencil ; but I prefer tliat drawnwilh 
a pencil. 

Always require maps to ke drawn as large as the slate or 
BLACKBOARD WILL ALLOW ; a better effect is produced and more freedom of 
the hand acquired ; the pupils' attention for the present being called particu- 
larly to the coinparddce, lather than to the absolute measurements. Let 
pu[)ils use the book until they become experts, then require them to sketch 
from memory. They may indicate by a small cross the extreme N., S., E., 
W., N.E., N.W., S.E., and S.W. limits, measuring with their pencils, and 
comparing distances, and then connecting the various points with sliglit 
dotted lines, following as nearly as possible the contour of the map, afterward 
retracing with heavy lines. Rapidity rather than accuracy should be re- 
quired at first; for time is precious. Accuracy will come with practice. 

Pupils must execute at home every map drawn in the class-room, 
but only after repeated drawings. 

The knowledt;e of ceoOTapliy thus acquired, will have been attained through a procous 
which trains the eye and tnc hand— ^ivinj; judgment and skill— developinK the perceptive 
faculties, and creating tastes of incalculable value to the individual. 

MaI'-I)RAWIN() on I'AI'KR SIIOII.D advance. J^O)t /;a^*?/, WITH OrP-HANI) MAP-DRAWINO 

ON TiiK BLACKBOARD AND sLATK. .\fler a map has been drawn and redrawn, and discussed 
in all its physical features before the class, it should be given as the special lesson of the 
next day, and every pupil be required to execute a map. The comparison of these maps 
will awaken a high degree of interest in the pupils, (iradually, as the work becomes fa- 
miliar, details may be insisted upon. Kequire the paper to be of a certain size and form. 
Bristol-board is best ; and instruct the pupil to leave one and one-half inches of while mar- 
gin, and to make marginal lines resembling those in their buoks. 


After some proficiency has been attained 
instruction may bo given in msiking the 
wavy lines representing water lines along 
the coast, heavy at first, and becoming 
lighter and wider apart until they fade into 
indistinctness, thus. 

For coasting, 
the crayon may 
be notched and 
used as wo liave 

Many pupils will acquire such skill in 
map-drawing that they will imitate, and 
even surpass, in artistic effect, the printed 
map ; nor are such pupils e> ceptional 
Let any teacher persistently and systemat- 
ically pursue this method, and the results 
will astonish himself and charm his pupils. 





1 59 


Having for some months diligently put in practice the former method of 
map-diawing, you are now ready to apply a more exact system. 

You will fiud no royal road to map-drawing by the use of mathematical 
ficrures. Each and every continent, island, and state must be known as the 
painter knows the face he portrays. 

Advantages 0/ using ParalUls and Meridians rather than Geometrical Figures.— The use 
of any line?, except those actually impressed on the face of nature, may be objected to as 
arbitrary; hut it is found that the earth's natural marks and boundaries are not sufficient 
helps in laying off a map. From time immemorial all geographers have agreed to represent 
the earth as a globe, on which certain parallels and meridians are drawn. Those lines are in 
universal and daily use by the statesman, the merchant, the seaman, and the explorer. They 
recur at regular, convenient, and known intervals, aud afford all the aid needed in map- 
drawing. Their points of intersection are as fixed and familiar as the junctions of our great 
railways ; and. ulthoiiijh they were ori.;inally artificial, they have become next to natural, are 
conceived of as actual furrows in the earth's crust, and are respected as if they were the most 
ancient landmarks. 

I. To draw a Map after Mercator's Projection is now the first thing to be 
done. (See " Mercator's Projection" in Map-Making, p. 1(50.) In a Mercator's 
map tlic meridians of longitude arc all parallel. Of course this enlarges the 
countries, toward the poles in their longitude. To preserve the bearing of 
places on this map, there must be a proportional increase of the degrees of 
latitude as, you go from the equator toward either pole. 

Suppose it is desired to draw, at first, an easy map, as that of the Stale 
of Kansas. Having first learned tJie latitude and longitude of a few places 
in Kamds, as Fort Dmhje, Toptka, etc., the scholar is sent to the blackboard, 
and is directed to proceed according to the following 

Form of Recitation. 

Outline. — I am to draw the map of Kansas. This State lies between 
the 37tii and 40th parallels of north latitude and the 94th and 102d meridians 
of west longitude. 

As Kansas extends through eight degrees of longitude, draw a line for its 
northern boundary, aud divide it into eight equal parts. The table below 
shows that one degree of longitude on this boundary (40°) is 46 miles long, 
aiainst 60 miles for one degree of latitude. Therefore laj' off the western 
IxHindary of Kansas (which extends thiough three degrees of latitude) in 
three parts or degrees, each one being made '"As or V3 (nearlj') as long as one 
of the degrees of longitude. Thus I construct the following skeleton for 
Kansas, approximately accurate. 


There are mountain chains a little west of Kansas, and the surface of the 
State is high on the west, and slopes toward the east. The rivers of Kansas, 
therefore, flow eastward. Smoky Hill Fork comes in on the 39th parallel, 
and the Arkansas on the 38th, and Red Fork on the 37th parallel. Smoky 
ti'Al soon becomes the Kansas, and the Arkansas, on reaching long. 97" 20', 
flows south. The Missouri cuts off one corner of Kansas. The cities and 
towns of the State are mostly on its rivers. The railroad generally follows 
the courses of the rivers. 

Directions for applying this Method in Practice. 
(\.) In drawing a map of an irregular country, first lay down parali.kls and merid- 
ians supficiENT TO roNTAiN IT. Mcmorize the latitude and longitude of four or five of the 
salient points or chief corners of your country, and locate them on the scheme of parallels 
and meridians. Then draw the outline of the map by connecting these points. 

(2.) In drawing Mercator's Map of the World, it may be well for the pnpil to refer to the 
last two paragraphs of Lesson XIV., p. 22. Having learned the bearings of the Atlantic 
coast of North America and South .\merica, the pupil can sketch the opposite shores of the 
Atlantic by observing how the two great shores of this ocean might fit into each other. 

Qi.) It will be well, at first, to draw States of easy construction, aud afterward the pupil 
can take more difficult subjects, as Europe. 

(4.) Towns should be marked with a round stamp and capitals with a star, thus: © ■^ . 

„ ., , , , K ■ 1- . 1 ., l limiNllli ll llll'iimffltfftttttfi Railroad. 

Railroads and cauals may be indicated thus : 


(5.) In drawing, either on blackboard, slate, or paper, the geographical lines should be 
drawn %Atfy— afterward they may be made heavier, or may be removed, as required. 

n. To prepare, with approximate accuracy, a skeleton of converging me- 
ridians and curved parallels appropriate for such countries as the United 
States, North America, Europe, and Asia, all lying wholly one side of the 
equator, will now be easy of execution. 

Take Europe for an 
illustration. Our unit) 


(1.) I!y inspecting llie| 
map. we find that Europe 
mostly lies between the 
40th and the 70th paralkls 
of N. latitude, and the 
meridian of Greenwich 
and the 00th meridian of 
E. longitude. Ittherefon- 
extends through 30° of lat- 
itude aud 60° of longitude. 

(2.) Draw a perpendicu- 
lar line, P (very light), cut- 
ting the space to be occu- 
pied by your map into two 
equal parts. This is your 
Central Meridian. 

(3.) As Europe extends 
through .30 degrees of lati- 
tude, lay off on the Cen- 
tral Meridian three equal 
spaces, each representing 
10 degrees of latitude. 

Select those parallels 

that most nearly divide the latitude embraced by Europe, into three equal parts: these 
parallels are, in Europe, the 50th and the 60th. 

At the 60th parallel (see Table), 1° of longitude is in the ratio of ;30 to 60, or 1/2. of a degree 
of latitude: the desired 60° of longitude are, therefore, equal to '/s of 60° of latitude, or 
equal to the .30° of latitude already marked off on the Central Meridian. Of this length, lay 
off at the 60lh parallel a dotted line 1—2, perpendicular to the Central Meridian and divided 
by it into two equal parts. 

At the 50th parallel (see Table), 1° of longitude is .38, instead of 30 miles ; therefore, lay off 
at the 50th parallel the dotted line 3^1 'V30. o'" about V3 of that laid off at the 60th parallel. 

,S K E L K T O N 












































(4.) This done, draw straight lines through 3 and 1 and 4 and 2, intersecting each other in 
the C. M. Take the point of their intersection, C, as a centre from which to describe the 
arcs, or parallels of latitude through the points already marked in the C. M. On the lower 
parallel divide the distance between the converging lines into six equal parts (10°), and con- 
nect these several points with C by straight lines ; these lines will represent the meridians. 

(5.) To make meridians outside of Europe, you have only to mark, on the 70th parallel, 
points 10° of longitude apart; and from C draw straight lines through these points to 
the margin of the map. Parallels outside of Europe may be made as the others, using C as 
a centre for describing them. You now have your scheme of parallels and meridians for the 
map of Europe, after drawing marginal lines to enclose the appropriate space. 

(6.) You can now locate the principal capes and indentations on the outline, a.-aAfillin the 
whole skeleton as before. 

III. To prepare a sketch of parallels and meridians for South America, 



Africa, or Australia and the East Indies, lying on both sides^vpf the equator, 
the parallels are best represented as straight lines and the meridians arc 
traced in Curved lines drawn according to the law of the successive decrease 
in the length of the degrees of longitude. 

Draw first the requisite number of parallels and the Central Meridiak, perpendicular 
to them. Mark off on the equator to the right and left of the C. M. spaces equal to those 
separating the parallels. In like manner, mark ou each parallel corresponding spaces having 
the same proportion to those on the equator, as a degree of longitude on each respective 
parallel has to a degree of longitude at the equator, by the table. Curved lines drawn 
through those successive series of points on each side of the C. M. will represent the 
meridians. The larger the country, the more inaccurate are methods IT. and III. 

(IV.) To Draw Curved Lines and Parallels. This may be done with a flexible ruler, 
The ruler should be made of hickory or ash, '/a x '/g in. 

To use it, set off a few of the points or places through which the meridian or parallel 
you wish to draw must pass. Then pressing the ends of the flexible ruler against two pins 
or tacks securely fixed in the drawing-board, bend the ruler with one hand, and draw the 
curve with the other, as by the following figure. 



(V.) The Scale op Miles may be made by dividing a degree of latitude into six parts. 
One part would equal 10 geographical miles ; five parts, 50 miles ; and ten, 100 miles, etc. 

General Hints for Map-Dr.\wing. 

(1.) No pupil knows a map until he can draw it from memory. 

(2.) The order for drawing the Continents is, (1.) South America, 
the least difficult; -(2.) Africa; (3.) North America; (4.) Asia; (5.) Europe. 

(8.) It is desirable to give the class a special drill in drawing cities, moun- 
tain ranges, hills, peaks, coast-lines, and deserts. 

Peaks may be indicated thus : ^. 

Deserts are represented by dotted spaces thus : 

(4.) It is often found well, to quicken the attention of the 
class, to send one pupil to the blackboard with instructions 

to name and describe, in a clear lively tone, every part of the "* 

map as he draws it. But concert recitation should be hab- 
itual and always with rapid sketching. 

(5.) Copying on slate or blackboard may be done at first willi advan- 
tage, where the class is composed of beginners. Always, then, begin with 
small, easij^'-drawn States, as Colorado, Kansas, Alabama, etc. 

(fi.) The Materials necessary for drawing on paper, and coloring, are a lead pencil 
(No. 2), Bristol-board, a piece of india rubber, pen, cake of india-ink. and gamboge, a i)late 
in which to rub the paints, and one or two camel-hair brushes, and a flat brush for coloring. 

(7.) Maps drawn in lead pencil should be finished before j'ou commence coloring. 

All lines should first be drawn lightly, and afterward corrected. In drawing rivers, be- 
gin at the sources, and gradually increase the breadth of your lines as you descend the 
stream. Draw the backbone of mountains before the spurs. 

(8.) Cdoring. — Begin by makins the boundaries in narrow bright lines, using the camel- 
hair brush. Do not pass the brush more than once over any part of the map; the brush 
should be quite full of the tint. To produce a shaded line, take your flat brush and fill one 
side with water and the other with the tint. Blue is the color for the water. 

• (9.) India-ink Maps should be firet finished in pencil and colored com- 
pletely ; afterward the mountains, rivers, cities, and shores may be put in 
with india-ink. 

(10.) A Pine Board for Drawing.—The use of a plain soft pine board on which to lay your 
paper in drawing will be found an important aid. 

[iVrte.— Hitherto your exercises in map-drawing have been practiced with an aim only 
to approximate accuracy, in impressing the bolder features ani general outlines of conntries 
on your mind, and in tutoring the eye and hand to sketch them for the aid of the memory. 
You may now begin the higher and more satisfactory study of map-making, which is a 
distinct art in itself.] 


The fii-st step in map-making is to decide as to the projection. For maps 
that contain more than 120° of longitude Mercator's is the best. For .smaller 
areas, especially when they are made up chiefly of land, the Rectangular 
Tangential projection is to be preferred. 

I. A Mercator's map is the development of the earth's surface on a cyl- 
inder, supposed to revolve, tangentially at the equator, upon its own axis once 

while you are rolling it on the equator once round tlie earth. By tliis 
development the meridians of longitude are all straight lines, and parallel 
witli each other, and so are the parallels of latitude, but tlic distance between 
the latter, as marked ou the cylinder, increases as you approacli tlie poles. 
The advantage of this method is that the course and distance between any 
two places on the map are straiglit lines. It is for this reason tluit all charts 
used for navigation by every nation are Mercator's. 

Sui)pose we wish to construct a Mercator tsay of Kansas) on a scale of one-third of an inch 
to 60 miles (1°) at the equator. You will then assume GO meridional parts = 1° = '/a inclL 
Now draw your meridians one-third of an inch apart to represent degrees of longitude. 
Kansas lies between the paralles of 37° anjl 40°. There are more meridional parts, as you see 
by the table, to a degree of latitude between 3T° and 40° than there are to a degree near the 
equator, cons"qnently you must increase the distances between the parallels of Kansas pro- 
portionally. Between .37° and 38° lat., there are seventy-five meridional parts = Oln. .41fi; 
between :J8° and 39° lat., seventy seven meridional parts = 0>" .427; between 39° and 40° lat. 
there Sire seventy-eight meridional parts = O'". .4.33. Mark these distances on the margin of 
your map sheet; draw In ink your parallels through them, and you have the skeleton of 
your Mercator. (See map of Kansas, p. 159.) 

Now draw on the map from which you are copying parellels and meridians also for every 
degree. Thus you have both the original and the copy divided oflinto sections of 1° square, 
and you can transfer by the eye and in pencil from one square to the other, first putting in 
the roads and rivers, as per diagram. This done, fill up with details, then ink, letter, rub out 
pencil marks, and the map is done. Where great accuracy is required the squares both on 
the original and the copy should bo smaller, so as to contain areas of 30. 20, 10, 5 miles or 1 
mile square. A little practice will soon accustom the eye to great accuracy. 

The advantage of this plan of working by squares, is that any error that may be made is 
not carried from one square to another, but is confined within the square to which it belongs. 
Please look at the Mercator's map, jip. 20, 21, and you will see how the distance behveen the 
several parallels of latitude increases as you recede from the equator, and you will moreover 
see that on maps of this projection alone the north is always at the loj), and the east to the 
right-hand, as you have been taught. This rule holds good for no other projection when the 
map includes a large extent of the earth's surface. For instance, look at the hemispheres, 
pp. 10 and 11. Ou the Western Hemisphere the North Pole is to the left of Iceland and to 
the right on the Eastern. On account of this confusion of bearings of places, especially near 
the edges of the map, the Mercator projection is generally preferred by physical geograjjliers 
as well as by navigators for their guidance at sea, and their researches and illnstratious. 



Meridional Parts. 


Meridional Parts. 


Meridional Parts. 




































II. The Rectangular Tangential Projection is developed by laying 
together on a flat surface a large number of small planes, nearly rectangular, 
supposed to liave been tangentially placed on a globe and to have received 
an impressitm of the country to be mapped. This method is preferred chiefly 
for the land, as Mercator's is for tlie sea. 

The smaller the country, the more accurate the mtip ; for on this i)rojection 
greater accuracy may be developed on a nitip of America thtui upon a map 
(if Asia, and greater still upou a map of Europe, which is smaller than either, 
while on maps of smaller portions of the earth's surface, the room for accu- 
racy is all that can be desired. 

This projection has been introduced into chartography by Col. Sir Henry 
James, of the English Ordnance Survey, who is in charge oF the most cele- 
brated map establishment in the world. 

The principles of it are very simple, though the mathematical demonstra- 
tion of them here would be ou'- of place. But after a proper explanation of 
them and a little thought, you will be able to form a very good idea of them. 
Imagine, as Sir Henry did, a terrestrial globe of sixty-seven feet, with all 
places laid down upon it in their true position. Now take a set of plane 
surfaces, each just large enough to cover a space on tliis globe 4° x 5° in 
extent. Lay them tangentially on the globe, and side by side over tlie coun- 
try to be mapped. 

Now suppose, for the sake of illustration, each of these little planes to be 
transparent, and so prepared as to receive a correct impression of all the 
geographical features within the 4° x 5° covered by it— somewhat after the 
manner of the image in the camera of the photographer. Further suppose, 
that all these little transparent planes, after having received the impression, 
are taken off the globe and laid side by side on the drawing-board. The 
liicory of the Rectangular Tangential projection may be understood from 
this illusn-aiion. The practical application of it maybe learned elsewhere. 





,'*''♦ ? .V > :,XT TSr 1 »- 35 K S i T Y S E 14 1 E S 



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